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Drugs

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Title: Slide 1 Author: TOS Last modified by: Mary Markowski Created Date: 11/16/2009 1:11:16 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Drugs


1
Drugs Their Effects
  • Ms Markowski

2
Drug Effects Delivery Methods
  • Therapeutic Intended effects GOOD
  • Non-therapeutic Unintended effects Side
    Effects
  • 3. snorting
  • 1.
  • 2. IV 4. (eating)

3
FYI Scheduling of Drugs
  • Schedule I
  • - high potential for abuse - most dangerous
    cocaine, street marijuana,
    ecstasy
  • - no accepted medical use in US
    heroin, GHB, LSD,
  • Schedule II
  • High potential for abuse
  • Has current accepted medical use in US with
    severe restrictions cocaine, morphine,
    ritalin
  • Abuse may lead to severe dependence
    codeine, oxycontin, adderall
  • Schedule III
  • Less abuse potential than schedules I and II
    anabolic steroids,
  • Has accepted medical use in US
    testosterone, marinol,
  • Abuse many lead to moderate dependence
  • Schedule IV
  • Low potential for abuse ,
    anti-anxiety drugs like

4
Remember your Liver
  • our detox organ
  • Processes all drugs alcohol consumed
  • (half 1 oz. per hour)
  • It does get damaged over time

5
Key Point Remember How Drugs Work
  • 1. Drugs overwhelm (flood) the brain with
    neurotransmitters (NTs), usually by increasing
    how much and how long NTs can stimulate
    receptors.
  • Overtime, body will reduce amount of NTs produced
    in the future (homeostasis)
  • This reduces normal feelings of pleasure
  • 2. Drug overstimulation/flooding of NTs also
    reduces (kills) of receptors
  • similar to hearing loss with loud music
  • Now you will need more drug to have the same
    pleasure effect Tolerance
  • These 2 brain changes are known as
  • BRAIN DAMAGE and addiction typically starts

6
6 Classes of Drugs
  1. Stimulants
  2. Depressants
  3. Hallucinogens
  4. Narcotics/Opiates/Prescription Pain drugs
  5. Club Drugs
  6. Inhalants

7
1. Stimulants speed/uppers
  • INCREASE Central Nervous system (4 Bs)
  • Heart rate Breathing
  • Blood pressure body temp
  • Increase anxiety movement
  • feel energetic and awake
  • Examples
  • Methamphetamines meth
  • Bath Salts/MDPV
  • Cocaine/crack
  • Rx AD/HD Amphetamines - Adderal/Ritalin
  • Nicotine
  • Caffeine (coffee, soda, tea)

8
More about Cocaine
  • Schedule II used medically as a numbing agent
    blood vessel restrictor for surgeries but highly
    addictive
  • Effects Short high(15-30 minutes then crash)
  • increased heart rate/blood pressure -
    constricts blood vessels
  • increased energy/very alert high - decreased
    appetite
  • Concerns
  • Stimulating effect dangerous to heart
  • Changes experience of pleasure
  • Expensive and VERY physically addictive
  • Lacing Issues
  • History 1885 US pharmacies sold it as a
    stimulant and as an anesthetic. Coca leaves were
    included in Coca-Cola until the early 1900s.
    1970 it became illegal to use cocaine except as
    anesthesia for specific surgeries

9
More about Methamphetamines
  • Produced in labs, often in homes
  • Made of household chemicals and poisons
  • Effects/Problems Strongest intense high up to
    200xs dopamine
  • Invincible feelings - Dental problems -
    weight loss - violent behavior -
    psychosis - intense paranoia delusions
    - meth bugs
  • Extremely addictive, very toxic to body due to
    ingredients
  • Serious withdrawals up to 7 days after last use
  • History created in 1919 in Japan to be stronger
    than amphetamines to keep soldiers awake. 1950s
    it was used as diet and antidepressant drugs.
    Became illegal in 1970 because of addiction and
    no medical benefits
  • faces of meth users

10
More about Amphetamines or AD/HD drugs or Speed
  • Adderall - Vyvanse - Ritalin - Focalin -
    Methylphenadate
  • Medical Uses AD/HD and Narcolepsy to help
    stimulate prefrontal cortex to keep people
    focuses and alert
  • Recreational Uses stay awake longer,
    concentrate
  • Concerns/Effects
  • Sudden Heart attack, weight loss, sleeplessness,
  • depression, suicidal thoughts, addiction
  • Cause a down/depressed feeling after use WANT
    MORE Tolerance
  • 76 more likely to have Parkinsons disorder
    later in life (dopamine disorder)
  • AMPHETAMINE PSYCHOSIS
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?index18featurePlay
    Listv1XIdSvv6eEAlistPLED44D7A51F65D394
  • History medical use for alertness for truck
    drivers and military personnel but tolerance and
    addiction made it schedule II (Rx only)

11
Bath Salts (MDVP) methylenedioxypyrovalerone
  • man made powerful Stimulants with hallucinogenic
    effects, cheaper stronger than cocaine and
    amphetamines or speed
  • Bath salts just a nickname like weed for
    marijuana or acid for LSD
  • Concerns 10x more powerful than cocaine or speed
    and can last for days sometimes hospitalization
    needed
  • Panic Attacks / Fits / Delusions -suicidal and
    homicidal
  • Sweating / Fever - Seizures - Nosebleeds
  • Severe Paranoia / Psychosis

12
2. Depressants downers
  • SLOW DOWN 4 Bs / CNS
  • Heart rate Breathing
  • Blood pressure body temp
  • Feel relaxed sleepy
  • Examples
  • Alcohol
  • GHB/Rohypnol Date rape drugs
  • Rx Anxiety drugs/ Benzodiazpenes
  • Valium, Xanax, Klonipin, Ativan
  • Sedatives/Barbiturates
  • Haldol and sleeping pills

13
Rohypnol GHB Date Rape Drugs
  • Medical Uses Sleeping Medicine in Europe , NOT
    U.S.
  • Why is it used as a Date Rape Drug?
  • Causes extreme Drowsiness amnesia and sometimes
    an unconscious state
  • Colorless, odorless, tasteless....just like
    water!
  • Prevention Tactics -----------------------?
  • Watch your drink / never leave it on a table
  • Dont drink something another person gives you!
  • New nail polish !!!
  • History created to treat withdrawal symptoms in
    recovering alcoholics and
  • people addicted to narcotics in 1990s but
    quickly taken off market because of
  • amnesia and blackouts and overdose/death.
    Illegal in 2000.

14
Alcohol 3 reasons why it is so harmful to
growing teen brains
  • Brain is still growing in general
  • So alcohol will stunt that brain growth
  • Amygdala (pleasure center) is swollen
  • Alcohol feels better and is more addictive to
    teens
  • Prefrontal cortex (PFC) is still developing
  • Alcohol interferes directly with the PFC, leading
    to poorer decision making risky behaviors

15
3. Hallucinogens
  • Make you SEE, HEAR, FEEL things that are not real
  • Flashbacks years later
  • paranoia / anxiety possible
  • Examples
  • Marijuana
  • Hashish / salvia
  • Mushrooms (shrooms)
  • LSD PCP
  • Mescaline (peyote cactus)

16
All About Marijuana
  • Cannabis sativa plant
  • THC (tetra-hydracannabinol) makes you high and
    concentrations of it vary
  • Within 15-30 minutes of smoking marijuana
  • rapid heart rate increased breathing rate
  • - low blood pressure
  • red eyes dry mouth (blood expansion due to low
    b.p.)
  • increased appetite, "munchies
  • slowed reaction time/decrease in coordination
  • distorted sense of time, vision, taste (the
    hallucination!!)
  • Euphoria or Paranoia
  • short-term memory loss
  • Some people experience panic attacks and loss of
    control
  • Stays in body for 30 days as it is stored in
    fatty tissues

17
  • Overtime, smoking marijuana can lead to
  • Increasing short-term Memory loss
  • Learning disabilities/Poor academic achievement
  • Distraction and loss of attention span
  • Anxiety and panic attacks
  • Lowered immune function
  • Respiratory problems/Lung infections/Cancers
  • Damage to testes and ovaries (cancer)
  • Decreased sperm count and quality
  • Lower sex drive
  • Impotence
  • Menstrual cycle changes
  • AND NOW....it CAN LEAD TO ADDICTION, too thanks
    genetic engineering increasing the content of THC
    (see next slides) and earlier age of use (before
    16 years old)

18
Marijuanas Potency 200-800 Higher than in 1970s
19
Why is marjiuana today stronger than in was 20-30
years ago?
  • Genetic engineering has increased the
    concentration of THC in different marijuana seeds
  • 175 stronger than pot in 80s

20
Medical Marijuana
  • 3 general benefits
  • Decrease nausea/vomiting
  • Increase appetite
  • Reduces blood pressure in eyes
  • Can lessen perception of pain
  • All states laws are different

Diseases - Cancer - AIDS -Glaucoma -Multiple
Sclerosis -Severe anorexia
21
Marijuana 101
  • Schizophrenia vs. Drug Induced Psychosis Study
  • IQ declines
  • Is it addictive? Read about it here Notre Dame
  • 17 of teens who try it become addicted
  • 40 of daily users become addicted
  • - 17 of all rehab admissions
  • Withdrawal Symptoms1-3 weeks after last use
  • Irritability - sleeplessness - aggression
  • Anxiety - depression - cravings

22
Cough Syrup Abuse (with DXM)
  • Hallucinogenic Drug when ABUSED
  • Laws Some states limit access to age 18, and/or
    limit quantities a person can purchase
  • Effects Dizzy/Light Headed/Hallucinations
  • Other Common Effects/Concerns/Issues
  • Nauseous/Vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • Flashbacks
  • Insomnia
  • Permanent Damage to Thinking Skills
  • Permanent Liver Brain Damage
  • Seizures
  • Death

23
K2/Spice Synthetic Marijuana
  • Marketed as Herbal Incense Hallucinogen
  • More dangerous than marijuana
  • couch lock one effect an inability to move
    despite being conscious. 
  • loss of consciousness, paranoia, and
    occasionally, psychotic episodes,
  • Synthetic cannabis is a psychoactive designer
    drug derived of natural herbs sprayed with
    synthetic chemicals
  • 5 of the common chemicals used to make synthetic
    marijuana became schedule I in march of 2011 but
    they come up with new drugs (like bath salts) to
    use
  • Maine has banned many of the chemicals, but not
    all of them

24
4. Narcotics/Opiates/Rx Pain Drugs
  • Highly addictive
  • Relief from SEVERE pain
  • Nausea drowsiness common side effects
  • Examples
  • Heroin
  • Example Rx drugs
  • Morphine
  • Oxycontin
  • Percocet
  • Vicodin (hydrocodone)
  • Methadone/suboxone

25
More about Rx Pain Drugs
  • Oxycontin, Percocet, Vicodin, Dilaudid, etc
  • ALL Rx Pain Drugs are Habit Forming!!
  • Effects Euphoric, relaxed, drowsy, nausea,
    vomiting, itching
  • -easily addictive---withdrawals same as heroin,
    blocks CNS ability to sense current pain signals
  • Controlled Release Drugs are coated to
    provide pain relief over time (12 hrs.) so you
    cant crush and snort it
  • Recreational Use
  • Concern for respiratory depression - Decreased
    brain function
  • Mood changes - Confusion - Numbness in
    arms/legs
  • Vomiting/Nausea - Slurred Speech - Coma/Death
  • Will cause withdrawals and Tolerance
  • Issue in Maine? Pharm Parties

26
Methadone/Suboxone
  • Treatment for Heroin Opiate addiction
  • Given Orally(by pill or liquid) in methadone
    clinics
  • Binds to same NT receptors as opiates but you can
    function and start to work at recovery and rehab
  • Heroin and Rx Pain drugs will make you high while
    on Methadone/Suboxone
  • Downside this medicine is addictive too

27
More about Heroin
  • Schedule I no medical use, very addictive,
    CHEAPER than and easier to buy than Rx pain drugs
    with similar effect
  • Initial Effects Euphoric Rush---feel warm,
    heavy, cloudy, drowsy
  • Chronic Use Tolerance develops quickly,
    significant withdrawal symptoms when not high
    keep the sick off
  • Withdrawals severe pain, vomiting, diarrhea,
    cold flashes, muscle spasms, insomnia usually
    persist
  • for one week after last use
  • History created in 1874 in England to help wean
    people
  • off morphine. Since it was so addictive and
    withdrawal to
  • heroin was worse than morphine, it became illegal
    in early
  • 1905 (opium) 1924 (heroin)

28
  • Narcan
  • Rx drug to prevent death from Heroin overdose

29
5. Club Drugs
  • Combinations of hallucinogens stimulants
  • Effects
  • Sweating, increases in hb, bp
  • Increased energy seizures
  • Delusions psychosis
  • Teeth grinding nosebleeds
  • Heart attack and death
  • Examples
  • Ecstasy/Molly hallucinogen stimulant
  • Ketamine (cat tranquilizer) hallucinogen
    stimulant
  • History created in Germany in 1900s to help make
    other drugs. 1985 banned for addiction potential
    and no useful medical benefit

30
6. Inhalants
  • Not drugs, they are POISON!
  • Household products that produce a high by
    breathing them in
  • Trick brain into thinking it is Oxygen when it is
    really poison but ANY perceived high is really
    the brain shutting down (hypoxia)
  • Hypoxia Decrease in the oxygen supply in the
    bloodstream
  • Effects death, dizziness, blackout, trouble with
    vision and hearing, nausea, headache, memory
    problems
  • 39 of inhalant deaths are 1st time users
  • Sudden Sniffing Death Syndrome
  • In The News VIDEO Video 2

31
  • Anabolic STEROIDS
  • Examples
  • Testosterone androgens
  • HGH
  • Effects
  • Increase muscle mass or fat if you dont workout
  • Develop secondary sex characteristics (puberty)
    of the opposite gender
  • acne, infertility, liver cancer, sexual
    dysfunction
  • Roid rage

32
Drug Exam Review
  • 3 parts of the brain impacted by drugs
    functions limbic system, prefrontal cortex
    brain stem
  • Define Tolerance Addiction
  • ALL about alcohol 3 reasons its so bad for
    teens
  • Effects of the 6 categories of drugs
  • Why marijuana today is stronger than it was 20
    years ago
  • Brief description effects of all the specific
    drugs we talked about (see back of Drug Practice
    Quiz 1)
  • Explain how drugs change the brain in 2 ways
    (neurotransmitters and receptors, leading to
    tolerance)
  • Drug delivery methods (fastest to slowest)
  • 2 reasons why GHB/Rohypnol is used as date rape
    drug
  • ½ ounce/hour rule for alcohol and .02 BAC/hour
    rule (know the math)
  • Healthy decision making process

33
FYI A Drug Lab
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