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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 13e CHAPTER 15: Air Pollution, Climate Change, and Ozone Depletion – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE


1
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
13e
CHAPTER 15 Air Pollution, Climate Change, and
Ozone Depletion
2
Core Case Study South Asias Massive Brown Cloud
(1)
  • Asian Brown Cloud
  • India to Bangladesh to Chinas Pacific coast
  • Pollutants from fires, cars, industry
  • Skies permanently gray or brown

3
Core Case Study South Asias Massive Brown Cloud
(2)
  • Changing weather patterns
  • 700,000 premature deaths per year
  • Has traveled to the west coast of the U.S.
  • Made worse by global warming

4
15-1 What is the Nature of the Atmosphere?
  • Concept 15-1 The two innermost layers of the
    atmosphere are the troposphere, which supports
    life, and the stratosphere, which contains the
    protective ozone layer.

5
Earths Atmosphere
  • Troposphere
  • 5-11 miles above earths surface
  • 7580 earths air mass
  • 78 N2, 21 O2
  • Weather and climate
  • Stratosphere
  • Ozone layer

6
15-2 What Are the Major Air Pollution Problems?
(1)
  • Concept 15-2A Three major outdoor air pollution
    problems are industrial smog from burning coal,
    photochemical smog from motor vehicle and
    industrial emissions, and acid deposition from
    coal burning and motor vehicle exhaust.

7
15-2 What Are the Major Air Pollution Problems?
(2)
  • Concept 15-2B The most threatening indoor air
    pollutants are smoke and soot from wood and coal
    fires (mostly in developing countries) and
    chemicals used in building materials and products.

8
Outdoor Air Pollution
  • What is air pollution?
  • Stationary and mobile sources
  • Primary pollutants
  • Secondary pollutants

9
Types of Major Air Pollutants
  • Carbon oxides (CO, CO2)
  • Nitrogen oxides and nitric acid
  • (NO, NO2, HNO3)
  • Sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid
  • (SO2, H2SO4)
  • Particulates (SPM)
  • Ozone (O3)
  • Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

10
Industrial Smog
  • Burning coal
  • Sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, suspended
    particles
  • Developed versus developing countries
  • Air pollution control in the U.S. and Europe
  • China, India, Ukraine

11
Photochemical Smog
  • Photochemical reactions
  • Photochemical smog
  • Brown-air smog
  • Sources
  • Health effects
  • Urban areas

12
Natural Factors That Reduce Air Pollution
  • Particles heavier than air
  • Rain and snow
  • Salty sea spray from oceans
  • Winds
  • Chemical reactions

13
Natural Factors That Increase Air Pollution
  • Urban buildings
  • Hills and mountains
  • High temperatures
  • VOC emissions from certain trees and plants
  • Grasshopper effect
  • Temperature inversions

14
Acid Deposition
  • Sulfur dioxides and nitrogen oxides
  • Wet and dry deposition
  • Acid rain
  • Regional air pollution
  • Midwest coal-burning power plants
  • Prevailing winds

15
Harmful Effects of Acid Deposition
  • Structural damage
  • Respiratory diseases in humans
  • Toxic metal leaching
  • Kills fish and other aquatic organisms
  • Leaches plant nutrients from soil
  • Acid clouds and fog at mountaintops

16
Indoor Air Pollution
  • Developing countries
  • Indoor cooking and heating
  • Often higher concentration in buildings and cars
  • Most time is spent indoors or in cars
  • EPA top cancer risk

17
Major Indoor Air Pollutants
  • Tobacco smoke
  • Formaldehyde
  • Radioactive radon-222 gas
  • Very small particles

18
Air Pollution and the Human Respiratory System
  • Natural protective system
  • Lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, emphysema,
    asthma
  • Premature deaths
  • Air pollution kills 2.4 million people
    prematurely every year

19
15-3 How Should We Deal with Air Pollution?
  • Concept 15-3 Legal, economic, and technological
    tools can help clean up air pollution, but the
    best solution is to prevent it.

20
U.S. Outdoor Air Pollution Control Laws
  • Clean Air Acts
  • Air-quality standards for 6 major pollutants
  • Levels of these 6 pollutants have fallen
    dramatically between 1980 and 2008

21
Improving Air Pollution Laws (1)
  • Emphasize pollution prevention
  • Increase fuel economy standards
  • Regulate emissions from two-cycle engines
  • Regulate ultra-fine particles

22
Improving Air Pollution Laws (2)
  • Increase regulations at airports
  • Decrease urban ozone
  • Increase regulations for indoor air pollution
  • Better enforcement of Clean Air Act

23
Using the Marketplace to Reduce Air Pollution
  • Emissions trading (cap and trade) program
  • Proponents cheaper and more efficient
  • Critics companies buy their way out
  • Success depends on cap being gradually lowered

24
15-4 How Might the Earths Climate Change in the
Future?
  • Concept 15-4 Considerable scientific evidence
    indicates that emissions of greenhouse gases into
    the earths atmosphere from human activities will
    lead to significant climate change during this
    century.

25
Past Climate Changes
  • Glacial and interglacial periods
  • Global cooling and global warming
  • Measurement of past temperature changes
  • Rocks and fossils
  • Ice cores from glaciers
  • Tree rings
  • Historical measurements since 1861

26
The Greenhouse Effect
  • Earths natural greenhouse effect
  • Natural greenhouse gases
  • Water vapor (H2O)
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • Methane (CH4)
  • Nitrous Oxide (N2O)

27
Evidence to Support Global Warming (1)
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • 2007 IPCC report
  • Rise in average global surface temperature
  • 10 warmest years on record since 1970

28
Evidence to Support Global Warming (2)
  • Annual greenhouse gas emissions up 70 between
    1970 and 2008
  • Changes in glaciers, rainfall patterns,
    hurricanes
  • Sea level rise in this century 48 inches

29
CO2 Is the Major Culprit
  • 1850 285 ppm
  • 2009 388 ppm
  • Over 450 ppm is tipping point
  • 350 ppm as intermediate goal

30
Science Focus Scientific Consensus about Future
Global Temperature Changes?
  • Temperature as a function of greenhouse gases
  • Mathematical models
  • Model data and assumptions
  • Predictions and model reliability
  • Recent warming due to human activities

31
What Role for Oceans in Climate Change?
  • Absorb CO2
  • CO2 solubility decreases with increasing
    temperature
  • Upper ocean getting warmer

32
15-5 What Are Some Possible Effects of a
Projected Climate Change?
  • Concept 15-5 The projected change in the earths
    climate during this century could have severe and
    long-lasting consequences, including increased
    drought and flooding, rising sea levels, and
    shifts in locations of agriculture and wildlife
    habitats.

33
Potential Severe Consequences
  • Rapid projected temperature increase
  • 2 Cº inevitable
  • 4 Cº possible
  • Effects will last for at least 1,000 years

34
Harmful Effects of Global Warming (1)
  • Excessive heat
  • Drought
  • Ice and snow melt
  • Rising sea levels
  • Extreme weather

35
Harmful Effects of Global Warming (2)
  • Threat to biodiversity
  • Food production may decline
  • Change location of agricultural crops
  • Threats to human health

36
15-6 What Can We Do to Slow Projected Climate
Change?
  • Concept 15-6 To slow the rate of projected
    climate change, we can increase energy
    efficiency, sharply reduce greenhouse gas
    emissions, rely more on renewable energy
    resources, and slow population growth.

37
Options to Deal with Climate Change
  • Two approaches
  • Drastically reduce greenhouse gas emissions
  • Develop strategies to reduce its harmful effects
  • Mix both approaches
  • Governments beginning to act

38
Reducing the Threat of Climate Change (1)
  • Improve energy efficiency to reduce fossil fuel
    use
  • Shift from coal to natural gas
  • Improve energy efficiency
  • Shift to renewable energy sources

39
Reducing the Threat of Climate Change (2)
  • Transfer appropriate technology to developing
    countries
  • Reduce deforestation
  • Sustainable agriculture and forestry
  • Reduce poverty
  • Slow population growth

40
Reducing the Threat of Climate Change (3)
  • Decrease CO2 emissions
  • Sequester CO2
  • Plant trees
  • Agriculture
  • Underground
  • Deep ocean
  • Repair leaking natural gas lines
  • Reduce methane emissions from animals

41
Science Focus Is Capturing and Storing CO2 the
Answer? (1)
  • Global tree planting
  • Restore wetlands
  • Plant fast-growing perennials

42
Science Focus Is Capturing and Storing CO2 the
Answer? (2)
  • Preserve natural forests
  • Seed oceans with iron to promote growth of
    phytoplankton
  • Sequester carbon dioxide underground and under
    the ocean floor

43
Government Roles in Reducing the Threat of
Climate Change (1)
  • Regulate carbon dioxide and methane as pollutants
  • Carbon taxes
  • Cap total CO2 emissions
  • Subsidize energy-efficient technologies
  • Technology transfers

44
Government Roles in Reducing the Threat of
Climate Change (2)
  • International climate negotiations
  • Kyoto Protocol
  • Act locally
  • Costa Rica
  • U.S. states
  • Large corporations
  • Colleges and universities

45
15-7 How Have We Depleted Ozone in the
Stratosphere and What Can We Do about It?
  • Concept 15-7A Widespread use of certain
    chemicals has reduced ozone levels in the
    stratosphere and allowed more harmful ultraviolet
    radiation to reach the earths surface.
  • Concept 15-7B To reverse ozone depletion, we
    need to stop producing ozone-depleting chemicals
    and adhere to the international treaties that ban
    such chemicals.

46
Human Impact on the Ozone Layer
  • Location and purpose of the ozone layer
  • Blocks UV-A and UV-B
  • Seasonal and long-term depletion of ozone
  • Threat to humans, animals, plants
  • Causes chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

47
Individuals Matter Banning of Chlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs)
  • Chemists Rowland and Molina
  • Nobel Prize in 1995
  • Called for ban
  • Remain in atmosphere
  • Rise into stratosphere
  • Break down into atoms that accelerate ozone
    depletion
  • Stay in stratosphere for long periods
  • Defended research against big industry

48
Former Uses of CFCs
  • Coolants in air conditioners and refrigerators
  • Propellants in aerosol cans
  • Cleaning solutions for electronic parts
  • Fumigants
  • Bubbles in plastic packing foam

49
Reversing Ozone Depletion
  • Stop producing ozone-depleting chemicals
  • Slow recovery
  • Montreal Protocol
  • Copenhagen Protocol
  • International cooperation

50
Three Big Ideas from This Chapter - 1
  • All countries need to step up efforts to control
    and prevent outdoor and indoor air pollution.

51
Three Big Ideas from This Chapter - 2
  • Reducing the possible harmful effects of
    projected rapid climate change during this
    century requires emergency action to cut energy
    waste, sharply reduce greenhouse gas emissions,
    rely more on renewable energy resources, and slow
    population growth.

52
Three Big Ideas from This Chapter - 3
  • We need to continue phasing out the use of
    chemicals that have reduced ozone levels in the
    stratosphere and allowed more harmful ultraviolet
    radiation to reach the earths surface.
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