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Welcome to the ESL Preservice Introduction


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Title: Welcome to the ESL Preservice Introduction

Welcome to the ESL Preservice Introduction
  • Tacoma Community House is an organization that
    began in Tacoma in 1910 as a settlement house to
    welcome newcomers to Tacoma.
  • TCH offers
  • Adult education
  • Employment assistance
  • Immigration services
  • Trainings (like this one through Literacy NOW)

Literacy NOW is a division of Tacoma Community
  • The workshops are funded by
  • Office of Refugee and Immigrant Assistance
  • Fees to individual programs
  • Tacoma Community House
  • Literacy NOW provides a variety of workshops
  • For ESL Tutors
  • For Literacy Tutors
  • Intercultural Communication for the Workplace or

What will you get from this training?
  • The purpose of this training is to
  • Give you information about immigrants and
  • Give you an introduction to needs of English
    language learners
  • Provide background information and strategies to
    aid in communication with your learners

  • This information is divided into three sections.
    At the end of each section, there will be brief
    quiz for you to complete.

  • Washington State is home to a variety of people
    who come from all over the world.

History of Immigration in WA
  • Most influxes of immigration have occurred during
    times when immigrants have felt the push away
    from their home countries due to wars, famines,
    and poor economic situations or the pull of
    America in terms of providing opportunity.

  • 1770s
  • First Asian Immigrants came in large numbers from
  • 1840-1880
  • Europes First Wave Migrations to WA
  • From Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, the
    Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark,
    and Iceland
  • 1860s and 70s
  • Japanese and Chinese recruited for industrial

  • 1880-WWI
  • Europes Second Wave Migrations to WA
  • Westward expansion encouraged the East Coast
    (Italy, Greece, the Balkan States, Poland, Russia
    and Austro-Hungary) to head West.
  • 1903
  • Korean immigrants recruited for labor from Hawaii
  • About 1,000 came, forming a core Korean community
    in WA

  • 1940s
  • Middle Eastern Communities Emerged in WA
  • Immigrants were from Arabic speaking countries
  • Large numbers of Mexican Americans immigrated
    from southern states
  • This is credited as beginning the migrant
    agricultural workforce in WA and came in response
    to the labor drain at the beginning of WWII

  • Post WWII
  • Smaller Third Wave of European Immigrants
  • Settled among core groups of immigrants from
    their home countries
  • 1960s and 70s
  • Influx of non-Mexican Latino immigrants
  • Were granted refugee status by the US government
    in response to the multiple military coups that
    occurred during this period across South America

  • 1970s
  • WA sponsors the first groups of Vietnamese
    refugees from the Vietnam War
  • This created an enclave of Vietnamese immigrants
    that form the base of a strong Vietnamese
    community still in WA today
  • Post 1970s
  • Since the 1970s, immigrants have come from the
    following areas
  • Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos)
  • Poland (Russian Jews)
  • Former USSR
  • Somalia/Sudan

When you hear the word immigrant what do you
think of?
According to the US government, foreign born
individuals are separated into groups
  • US Citizens
  • Immigrants
  • Legal Immigrants
  • Illegal or undocumented immigrants
  • Refugees/Asylees

  • Legal Immigrants apply to live in the US through
    work or family connections
  • Illegal or undocumented immigrants do not have
    permission to reside in the US

Legal Immigrants
  • Are sponsored they have a connection here
    whether by work or by family
  • Are on their own timeline to learn English and
    get a job
  • Allowed to apply for citizenship after 5 years
    residence in the US
  • Cannot (typically) access social services

According to US law refugees are
  • People unable to live in their own country due to
    reasonable fear of persecution for reasons of
    race, religion, nationality, political opinion,
    or social grouping

  • Are on a timeline in terms of getting a job
  • Have access to social services and employment
    assistance (Temporary Assistant to Needy Families
    -- TANF)
  • BUT must be in class or work at least 32 hours
  • Can receive TANF benefits for 5 years
  • Allowed to apply for citizenship after 5 years of
    residence in the US
  • May have a highly traumatic background and

Refugee Resettlement Three Government
  • Priority 1 Compelling Protection cases
  • Refugees for whom no other durable solution
  • Priority 2 Groups of special humanitarian
    concern, subject to change every year
  • Burmese in Thailand
  • Iranian religious minorities in Austria
  • Meshketian Turks
  • In-country processing Former Soviet Union, Cuba,
    and Vietnam
  • Priority 3 Family Reunification
  • Spouses, unmarried children under 21 or parents
    of persons admitted to the U.S. as refugees

According to US law
  • Foreign born citizens have the same rights,
    responsibilities, and expectations as native born
    citizens EXCEPT that they cannot become
  • Whether an immigrant or refugee upon arrival, all
    foreign born individuals can apply for
    citizenship after 5 years residence in the US.

What percent of WA State is Foreign Born?
  • Between 1990 and 2000 alone, the foreign born
    population increased by 90.
  • Year Total Number of
  • 1990 322,144 6.6
  • 1999 434,957
  • 2000 614,457
  • 2005 763,059

Where do US Immigrants come from?
Nationally, the vast majority come from Mexico.
Top Ten Countries Represented by Immigrants in
the US
  • WA State has a higher percentage of immigrants
    from Russia and the Ukraine than the US average.
  • WA State also has a higher percentage of
    immigrants from East Asian countries like Laos
    and Taiwan.

In Washington, immigrants come from
Top Ten Countries Represented by Immigrants in WA
  • The refugee population is very different from the
    immigrant population.
  • Because refugees only come from government
    approved countries, the countries they come from
    can change every year.

Where do US Refugees come from?
  • About 80,000 refugees come to the United States
    each year
  • The number of refugees accepted from each country
    changes each year.
  • In 2009, the biggest numbers of refugees are
    coming from
  • Iraq (16,695)
  • Burma (16,000)
  • Bhutan (11,992)

In Washington State, refugees come from
  • Top 3 Refugee Countries
  • Somalia17.8
  • Ukraine16.6
  • Russia10.3

Quiz (click for Answers)
  • What are the three groups into which the US
    government separates foreign born individuals?
  • Answer US Citizens, Immigrants (legal and
    illegal) and Refugees/Asylees.
  • True or False Refugees are sponsored by a family
    member or workplace.
  • Answer False, legal immigrants are sponsored by
    a family member or workplace.
  • True or False The countries which refugees are
    from can change every year.
  • Answer True.
  • True or False One major difference between the
    United States and Washington State is that WA
    State has more immigrants from Southeast Asia.
  • Answer True, Vietnam and Laos are among the Top
    Ten Countries Represented in Washington State.

  • Whatever the immigrant status refugee, asylee,
    legal immigrant, undocumented or illegal
    immigrant, all will struggle with differences
    between their home country culture and US

There are three levels of culture to understand
A Model to Understand Culture
The Sensory Level When we think about culture,
these are the areas that we can easily see and
predict might be different from culture to
  • Examples
  • Language
  • Architecture
  • Food
  • Money
  • Vegetation
  • Density of Population
  • Modes of Transportation
  • Clothing

Conscious Rules These are the things we teach our
children. Although we can name these behaviors,
the meaning of the behaviors is obscured because
they are automatic and we do not have to think
about them.
  • Examples
  • Greetings
  • Eating
  • Punctuality
  • Eye Contact
  • Space

Unconscious Rules Our beliefs, values and
behaviors which are so automatic and natural
that we hardly stop to think that someone else
might see the world differently.
  • Examples
  • Importance of work
  • Attitudes about mens/womens roles
  • Communication Styles
  • What makes a good parent, spouse, boss

  • Culture shock happens when a person experiences
    the confusion and discomfort of having everything
    culturally familiar replaced by unfamiliar
    cultural norms.

  • People living in a different culture adjust
    through a process of integrating their native
    culture with the new culture in a form of
  • There are five stages of
  • Cultural Adjustment

Stage 1
  • This person is in Stage 1
  • I come to the US and I go to the grocery store
    and there is so much food! Also, there are cars
    everywhere everyone has a car! America is so

Stage 2
  • This person is in Stage 2
  • I was a college instructor in Afghanistan and I
    had many things, and I still dont have those
    things here like I had there. And I wont be able
    to have those things here the standard of
    living. I dont even have a backyard here so that
    my children can play, and in Afghanistan I had
    over 1,000 acres of farmland, fruit gardens, and

Stage 3
This person is in Stage 3 I changed my values
and attitudes in this country. In my country I
didnt talk to my children very much, but in this
country I try to play with them. I try to change
to that relationship where we can share
everything. I love them.
Stage 4
  • This person is in Stage 4
  • I'll never get used to how Americans say hi,
    but dont really stop to talk. I miss how in my
    country we say hi to everyone and stop to talk
    with friends or neighbors we meet. But, I am safe
    and my children have opportunities to build a
    future here.

Stage 5
  • This person is in Stage 5
  • I have lots of friends in America. I feel like
    this is my home. I miss my country, but not like
    I used to. Im very happy here.

Helping immigrants adjust
  • Learn about your students culture
  • Look for books or movies about that culture
  • Recognize the process of acculturation
  • Compare and contrast the students culture with
    US Culture and include examples of different
    cultures in your teaching
  • Deepen your awareness of your own culture
  • Pay close attention to Unconscious Rules
  • Be open to differences in perception, your
    Rules may be different

Quiz(click for Answers)
  • What are the three levels of culture?
  • Answer Sensory, Conscious Rules and
    Unconscious Rules.
  • What is culture shock?
  • Answer The intense confusion and discomfort
    produced when adjusting to life in an unfamiliar
  • What are some different ways you can help
    students experiencing culture shock adjust?
  • Answer Learn about your students culture,
    recognize the process of acculturation, deepen
    your awareness of you own culture and be open to
    differences in perception.

What skills and support do immigrants and
refugees need?
  • English skills
  • Work or job skills
  • Help learning English
  • Help finding or applying for a job
  • Help finding housing

Where do they get their skills/support?
  • Work
  • Interacting in the community
  • Going to school
  • Working with a tutor
  • Sponsors

  • Roles of Learners
  • Adults play a number of roles they are family
    members, community members, workers or job

Family Member Role
  • Your students might be home-bound parents with
    little contact with the English speaking

Worker Role
  • Your students might have jobs and this may be the
    most important area where they need support in

Community Member Role
  • Your students may be concerned about becoming US
    Citizens or interacting with the English speaking

We need tutors because
  • There are many people in our community who want
    to improve their English skills for work,
    community, or family reasons.

Why Learn English?
  • 4 main reasons
  • Voice
  • To express ideas and opinions with the confidence
    to be heard and understood
  • Access to information
  • To access information in order to orient self in
    the world
  • Independent action
  • To solve problems and make decisions
  • Bridge to the future
  • To reflect on past learning experiences and apply
    insights to the world as it changes

The Tutors Role
  • To set up a welcoming learning environment
  • To set the tone for learning
  • To create timely learning experiences connected
    to what the learner is ready to learn
  • To identify and use relevant and purposeful
  • To encourage
  • To monitor the learners development

As a tutor, you can expect
  • To receive support your agency will train you
    and provide resources through your volunteer
  • To experience a Getting to Know You period
    where you and your learner develop rapport
  • To gain a new perspective
  • To be an important part of someone elses success

  • By the time you are matched with your learner,
    they will have had their Literacy Level

Levels of Literacy
  • Pre-Literate
  • Oral tradition, first language not written
  • Holding a pen or opening a book are new exercises
  • Teaching focus on oral skills, then transition
    into reading and writing
  • Non-Literate
  • Written language in home country but the student
    has little or no exposure to literacy in their
    first or second language
  • Teaching emphasize the connection between spoken
    and written language
  • Semi-Literate
  • Limited schooling in their own language
  • Teaching help students become confident in their
    literacy skills
  • Non-Roman Alphabet Literate
  • Speak and are literate in a language that is
    written with a different script.
  • Can transfer skills from one language to another
    even if the script is completely different.
  • Fully Literate
  • Read and write with ease in English and their own

What does your students level mean?
  • You students level will indicate their skills
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Listening

How are their skills measured?
  • Through observation
  • Through assessment
  • Washington programs use CASAS (Comprehensive
    Adult Student Assessment Systems)

The CASAS Test
  • The CASAS Test breaks learners skills into
  • Beginning Literacy/Pre-Beginning ESL Level 1
    Communicates through gestures with a few isolated
  • Low Beginning ESL Level 2
  • Asks and responds to basic learn phrases spoken
    slowly and repeated often
  • High Beginning ESL Level 3
  • Simple oral communication abilities using basic
    learned phrases and sentences

  • Low Intermediate ESL Level 4
  • Understands simple learned phrases easily and
    some new simple phrases containing familiar
    vocabulary spoken slowly with frequent repetition
  • High Intermediate ESL Level 5
  • Understands learned phrases easily and new
    phrases containing familiar vocabulary, Some
    limited telephone conversation abilities
  • Advanced ESL Level 6
  • Can participate in conversations on a variety of
    topics. Has ability to communicate on telephone
    on familiar topics.

Quiz(click for Answers)
  • What are the three different roles learners play
    outside of the classroom?
  • Answer Family, Worker and Community Member.
  • True or False Part of a tutors role is to
    create a welcoming learning environment.
  • Answer True.
  • True or False The difference between a
    preliterate and non-literate is that a
    preliterate has no written language in their
    first language and a non-literate has no exposure
    to written language in their first language.
  • Answer True.

So, why are levels so important?
  • Depending on your learners literacy level you
    can expect different levels of understanding and
    communication, fluency and accuracy, and the
    students level can inform your choice of
    materials and activities.

Heres an example of different communication
Is this the mother?
Is the father sitting or standing?
In your house, who does the cooking?
Is the mother eating?
Where was the mother before?
What do you eat for breakfast?
Are they in the kitchen or in the living room?
Where do you like to eat?
What is on the table?
Who likes orange juice?
Is there food on the table?
This picture generates a range of questions
How does the father feel?
Is there a spoon on the table?
Who is cooking, the mom or the dad?
How many people are in your family?
What is on the table?
Is this the mother?
Is the father sitting or standing?
In your house, who does the cooking?
Is the mother eating?
Where was the mother before?
What do you eat for breakfast?
Are they in the kitchen or in the living room?
Where do you like to eat?
What is on the table?
Who likes orange juice?
Is there food on the table?
Which Questions are the easiest to answer?
How does the father feel?
Is there a spoon on the table?
Who is cooking, the mom or the dad?
How many people are in your family?
What is on the table?
Yes/No Questions The easiest to answer
  • Is this the mother?
  • Is the juice on the table?
  • Is there a glass on the table?
  • Is it morning?

  • Often, English Language Learners understand more
    language than they can produce.
  • So, the easiest questions are those that require
    the least language response.

  • The Question Hierarchy can guide your choices
    when working with adults learning English.

  • Weve already seen examples of yes/no questions
    from the visual, now lets look at other levels.

Either/or or Choice Questions
  • Are they in the kitchen or in the bedroom?
  • Who is cooking, the mother or the father?
  • Does the mother have long or short hair?
  • Is the father sitting or standing?

Wh-Questions- for getting factual information
  • What is on the table?
  • Who is drinking orange juice?
  • How many people are in the kitchen?

Personal Questions
  • How many people are in your family?
  • In your house, who does the cooking?
  • Who works in your family?
  • Where do you study?

Open-ended, interpretative questions the most
difficult to answer
  • Where was the mother before?
  • How does the mother feel?
  • What is going to happen next?

  • Not only is the Question Hierarchy useful in
    structuring conversation, its also a useful tool
    that can be used in many different ways in
  • You will learn more about the Question Hierarchy
    in your next Literacy NOW training.

In your next Literacy NOW training, you will
  • Receive information about ESL teaching theory
  • Practice using a variety of teaching methods
  • Gain confidence to use your newly acquired skills
    in your tutoring sessions

  • Your experience in the next workshop will model
    the learning process that we recommend for your
    students who will come to you with real needs and
    specific purposes for using new language skills
    in their lives.
  • Well see you at the next training!

  • Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems.
    Skill Level Descriptors. 21 August 2009.
  • Cultural Orientation Resource Center. US Refugee
    Program Current Fiscal Year Admission
    Statistics. 11 September 2009. http//www.cal.org/
  • Ellis, Mark. Immigrants in WA State. 18 August
    2009. Available online http//faculty.washington.
  • Literacy Network of Washington. Teaching English
    Language Learners A Handbook for Volunteers.
    Washington, 2008.
  • Malloy, Jennifer. Personal Interview. 31 July
  • United States. Census Bureau. 2000 Census. 18
    August 2009.
  • Washington State. Refugee and Immigrant
    Assistance Program. ESA Program Briefing Book
    2008. 2008.
  • White, Sid and S.E. Solberg, eds. Peoples of
    Washington Perspectives on Cultural Diversity.
    Pullman, WA Washington State University Press,
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