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Food Biotechnology Ethics

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Food Biotechnology Ethics Clark Ford, Ph.D. Food Science and Human Nutrition Iowa State University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Food Biotechnology Ethics


1
Food Biotechnology Ethics
  • Clark Ford, Ph.D.
  • Food Science and Human Nutrition
  • Iowa State University

2
What is Food Biotechnology?
  • Food technology based on biology
  • Ancient food biotechnology
  • Fermentation by microbes
  • Cheese
  • Beer
  • Wine
  • Bread
  • Modern food biotechnology
  • Tissue culture
  • Genetic engineering
  • Different from plant and animal breeding

http//www.sciencedaily.com/images/2006/10/0610170
91752.jpg
3
Milestones in Food Biotechnology
  • 1953 Structure of DNA discovered
  • 1973 First gene cloned
  • in microbes
  • 1977 Asilomar Conference in USA
  • Recombinant DNA safety
  • Regulation
  • Risk assessment
  • Containment

http//img.photobucket.com/albums/v235/milenaid/Bl
og20Support/TheDoubleHelix.jpg
4
Who Regulates Food Biotechnology?
  • FDA
  • Food and Drug Administration
  • Determines safety for human consumption
  • USDA
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Determines safety of GMO agriculture
  • EPA
  • Environmental Protection Agency
  • Determines environmental safety
  • NIH
  • National Institutes of Health
  • Sets guidelines for Recombinant DNA experiments

http//healthcare.zdnet.com/images/fda-logo.jpg
5
Milestones in Food Biotechnology
  • 1990 Recombinant Chymosin Approved by FDA
  • First biotech product for human consumption
  • Enzyme for cheese making
  • Originally from calf stomach
  • Bovine gene expressed in GRAS microbes
  • Generally Recognized As Safe
  • In 80 of U.S. cheese

http//homepages.ius.edu/SRICKARD/cheese2.jpg
6
Other Products from Genetically Engineered
Microbes
  • Food enzymes
  • Bread
  • HFCS Sweeteners
  • Amino acids
  • Peptides
  • Nutrasweet
  • Flavors
  • Organic acids
  • Polysaccharides
  • Vitamins

7
Milestones in Food Biotechnology
  • 1994 FDA approves
  • Flavr Savr Tomato
  • Prolonged shelf life
  • Improved quality
  • Voluntarily labeled

http//www.lhup.edu/smarvel/Seminar/FALL_2003/Mala
wskey/tomaten.jpg
8
Other Genetically Engineered Plants
  • Agronomic traits
  • BT Corn
  • Roundup Ready Soy
  • Disease Resistance
  • Food quality
  • Nutrition
  • Metabolic products
  • Vaccines

http//whyfiles.org/241GM_2/images/soybean_field.j
pg
9
GMO crops in the USA
HT Herbicide Tolerant Bt Bt insecticide
10
Bt Corn
  • Natural insecticide protein from Bacillus
    thuringiensis
  • Non-toxic to humans
  • Target insect
  • Corn borer, root worm, ear worm
  • Boll worm
  • reduces insecticide use
  • reduces mycotoxins in corn
  • 80 U.S. Corn crop Bt (2014)
  • 84 U.S. Cotton crop (2014)

http//pfisterhybrid.com/images/sections/5.jpg
11
Bt Concerns
  • Bt pollen harms non-target species?
  • Bt crops select for resistant insects
  • Bt pollen can drift to organic fields
  • Food system failed to keep BT Starlink corn out
    of human food products

Monarch butterfly endangered?
http//members.tripod.com/c_rader0/greg040.gif
12
Herbicide Resistance
  • Roundup Ready soy, corn, canola, cotton
  • Allows post-emergence herbicide spraying
  • Increases yield
  • Facilitates no-till farming
  • 94 U.S. Soy (2014)
  • 91 U.S. Cotton (2014)
  • 89 U.S. Corn (2014)

http//cropwatch.unl.edu/photos/cwphoto/soy_harves
t2002_2b.jpg
13
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14
Herbicide Resistance Concerns
  • Encourages herbicide use
  • Groundwater contamination
  • Kills beneficial soil microbes
  • Cross-pollinates weeds
  • Fosters dependence on Agrochemcial companies

15
Disease Resistance
  • Canola
  • Cantaloupes
  • Cucumbers
  • Corn
  • Rice
  • Papaya
  • Potatoes
  • Soybeans
  • Squash
  • Tomatoes
  • Wheat

Genetically engineered papaya resistant papaya
ringspot virus
http//www.sciencedaily.com/images/2008/04/0804231
31624.jpg
16
Health and Nutrition
  • Golden Rice
  • Vitamin A and Iron enhanced
  • Seeds given to the poor for free
  • Improved Amino Acid Balance
  • Soy (needs Methionine)
  • Maize (needs Lysine)
  • Banana Vaccines

http//wwwdata.forestry.oregonstate.edu/orb/images
/Marketing/TIME.jpg
17
Metabolic Products
  • Idea use crops to produce inexpensive
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • AIDS vaccine in corn
  • Metabolic products
  • Problems
  • Containment
  • Cross pollination
  • Accidental mixing into food supply

http//foodhazard.com/genetically-modified-foods/
18
Genetically Engineered Animals - not approved for
food -
  • Transgenic Fish
  • Salmon
  • Grows 4-6 times faster
  • Environmental concerns
  • May escape, outcompete natural species
  • Transgenic Mammals
  • Cows, Sheep, Goats
  • Pharmaceutical production in milk

http//www.gatewayva.com/biz/virginiabusiness/maga
zine/yr1997/aug97/cover.html
19
Milestones in Food Biotechnology
  • 1999 GM corn and soybean products are present
    in 80 of processed foods in USA
  • Corn
  • starch, high fructose corn syrup, oil
  • Soy
  • oil, Lecithin, protein

http//nadav.harel.org.il/cola/image/CokeClassic.j
pg
20
Milestones in Food Biotechnology
  • 1999 European Union requires GM labels
  • blocks import of GM corn, beans
  • Ban lifted 2004
  • but no change in anti-GM sentiment in Europe
  • Affects African export crops
  • Paternalism

21
Milestones in Food Biotechnology
  • 1999 Gerber and Heinz baby foods GM-free
  • 2000 Mc Donalds and Frito-Lay products GM-free

http//www.corrupt.org/articles/big_mac/bigmac.jpg
22
Milestones in Food Biotechnology
  • 2000 USDA Organic Foods Standards
  • Must be GM-free

http//www.taquitos.net/im/sn/NaturalPlanet-Yellow
Corn.jpg
23
Milestones in Food Biotechnology
  • 2002 Zambia refuses GM maize as food aid
  • To help 2.5 million in food shortage
  • Calls GM food poison
  • Heavily influenced by European attitudes about GM

Zambian President Mwanawasa
http//news.bbc.co.uk/media/images/38232000/jpg/_3
8232577_levy150.jpg
24
Milestones in Food Biotechnology
Adoption of GMOs Worldwide
  • 174 Million hectares acres GM (2013)
  • Soy (79 of global soy)
  • Corn (32 of global corn)
  • Cotton (70 of global cotton)
  • India, China
  • Canola (24 of global canola)
  • 18 million farmers
  • 90 are small farmers in developing countries
  • Growing cotton in India, China

http//www.feedstuffs.com/Media/PublicationsArticl
e/biotech_map_0.jpg
25
GMO-Free Zones in Europe
  • GMOs Banned
  • 8 Countries
  • Many Regions,
  • Municipalities

26
Milestones in Food Biotechnology
  • 2008 Cloned Animals approved by FDA
  • For human consumption
  • Goal quality meat, milk
  • Best animals cloned
  • Not transgenic
  • Is that next?
  • Label not required
  • Considered same as normal meat, milk
  • Not in stores yet
  • Not certified organic (USDA)

http//www.scq.ubc.ca/the-new-macdonald-pharm/
27
Controversy over Biotech Foods
  • Debate pits consumer and ecology groups
  • against Multinational Corporations
  • Many farmers, scientists, government agencies
  • caught in the middle

28
Arguments for Genetically Engineered Food
  • Potential to
  • Increase productivity
  • Increase purity
  • Increase safety
  • Improve nutrition
  • Improve food quality
  • Improve sustainability
  • Benefit ecosystem
  • Process not inherently harmful
  • Similar to traditional Plant and Animal breeding
  • Unless misused, outcome expected to be beneficial
  • Is a powerful technology that could help humanity
  • Bad ideas weeded out by the market, regulation,
    lawsuit

--Paul Thompson
http//www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/images/thompson_paul.jp
g
29
Arguments against Genetically Engineered Foods
  • Food safety risk?
  • unintended consequences
  • Safety risk for environment
  • could spread
  • Genetically Engineered label
  • not required in U.S.A.
  • Playing God
  • not natural
  • Benefits multinational corporations
  • not consumers
  • not developing nations

GMO vs normal Salmon of same age
http//www.primidi.com/images/aquabounty_salmon.jp
g
30
Frankenstein Foods Unintended Consequences?
  • Potential GMO food safety problems
  • Random gene insertion
  • Unknown toxins?
  • New gene products?
  • Unknown allergies?
  • No evidence of GMO food safety problems

http//www.gasdetection.com/news2/bioengineered_fo
od.jpg
31
Food Allergies
  • 90 of Food allergies
  • Eggs
  • Fish
  • Shellfish
  • Milk
  • Peanuts
  • Soybeans
  • tree nuts
  • wheat
  • GM foods avoid genes from these sources

Peanut proteins can cause severe food allergies!
http//www.beginnertriathlete.com/cms/articleimage
s/332/home.jpg
32
Arguments for Labeling
  • Not equivalent to non-GM
  • Must use Precautionary principle
  • Is uncertainty in risk assessment
  • Labeling indicates process used
  • Consumer right to know and choose
  • Countrys right to know and choose

33
Arguments against labeling
  • Suggests non-existent hazard
  • Expensive to segregate crops and change labels
  • FDA labels required if change in
  • Allergenicity
  • Nutrition
  • Food Quality

34
Will GM crops feed the world?
  • Yes
  • GM crops are size neutral
  • Small growers can benefit
  • Dont need large combine
  • Reduced inputs
  • Herbicides, pesticides
  • Lower costs
  • Increased yields
  • Disease resistance
  • Reduced weeds
  • Increased profits

Insect resistant maize, Kenya
http//img.radio.cz/pictures/networkeurope/080215-
bt-corn-africa.jpg
35
Will GM crops feed the world?
  • No
  • Biotech from companies targets the wealthy
  • Intellectual property expensive
  • Public research in developing countries
  • must develop GMOs for the poor
  • Poor that cannot compete driven from land
  • undernutrtion
  • Poor really need
  • Land
  • Water
  • Roads
  • Education
  • Credit
  • Green revolution agriculture unsustainable
  • Monoculture
  • Erosion
  • Fertilizer and pesticide runoff pollution
  • Neocaloric (requires fossile fuels)

GMOs for developing countries
International Center for Genetic Engineering and
Biotechnology, India
http//www.parasitologyindia.org/images/icgeb.jpg
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