BY ALEX COLEMAN - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation
Title:

BY ALEX COLEMAN

Description:

aphg review book in a nutshell by alex coleman – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:301
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 101
Provided by: cacolemans1
Category:
Tags: alex | coleman | nepal

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: BY ALEX COLEMAN


1
APHG REVIEW BOOK IN A NUTSHELL
  • BY ALEX COLEMAN

2
CENTRAL PLACE THEORY
  • Developed by Walter Christaller
  • Saw the economic world as a spatial model
  • City location and the level of economic exchange
    could be analyzed using central places within
    hexagons which overlapped

3
ARITHMETIC DENSITY
  • Number of things per square unit of distance.

4
AGRICULTURAL DENSITY
  • Number of people per square unit of land actively
    under cultivation.

5
DIFFUSION PATTERNS
  • Expansion
  • Originates in a central places and expands
    outward.
  • Hierarchal
  • Originates in a first-order location then moves
    down to second-order locations and then locally.
  • Relocation
  • Begins at a point of origin then crosses physical
    barrier.
  • Contagious
  • Begins at point of origin then moves outward to
    nearby locations
  • Stimulus
  • Underlying principle diffuses

6
MAP TYPES
  • Topographic
  • Contour lines of elevation
  • Thematic
  • Expresses particular subject with no land forms
  • Chloropleth
  • Uses color to show different geography
  • Isoline
  • Calculate data values between two points
  • Dot Density
  • Uses dots to show volume and density
  • Flow Line
  • Uses lines of different thickness to show
    movement
  • Cartograms
  • Uses simple geometric shapes to represent places

7
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL
  • Theory of how population changes over time (has
    predictive capability)
  • Stage 1
  • Subsistence farming, migration for food,
    livestock
  • High BR and DR
  • Sierra Leone, Liberia, Botswana
  • Stage 2
  • Agricultural base for trade
  • RNI goes up significantly
  • BR high DR down
  • Ghana and Nepal

8
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL (CNTD)
  • Stage 2 ½
  • New industrial country
  • Manufacturing begins
  • BR down DR down
  • Mexico and Malaysia
  • Stage 3
  • Transition to full manufacturing
  • Most First World Countries
  • BR down DR down because of services
  • China and Brazil
  • Stage 4
  • Service based
  • BR and DR as low as possible
  • Zero population growth
  • Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States

9
MALTHUSIAN THEORY
  • Global population would exceed food production
  • Didnt happen because of agricultural revolutions
  • Neo- Malthusians
  • Sustainability may be problems keeping up in the
    long-run
  • Increasing per capita demand the amount of food
    per person has gone of greatly
  • Natural resource depletion nonrenewables will
    run out like wood, minerals, and energy

10
POPULATION PYRAMIDS
  • Population structures based on ages
  • Shapes
  • Triangle
  • Fast growing
  • Extended Triangle
  • Moderate growth
  • Column
  • Slow growth
  • Reduced pentagon
  • Shrinking
  • Gaps
  • War
  • Older on top

11
VON THUNENS MODEL OF THE ISOLATED STATE
12
LAND RENT CURVE
13
CENTRAL PLACE THEORY
14
CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL
15
SECTOR MODEL
16
MULTIPLE-NUCLEI MODEL
17
GALATIC CITY MODEL
18
LATIN AMERICAN CITY MODEL
19
GRAVITY MODEL
  • Mathematical model that is used in a number of
    different types of spatial analysis.
  • Used to calculate transportation flow between two
    points.
  • Determine the area of influence of a citys
    business
  • Estimate the flow of migrants to a particular
    place
  • Location1 Population x Location 2
    Population/Distance²

20
GIS, GPS, AND REMOTE SENSING
  • GIS
  • Data layers that show different geographic
    features
  • GPS
  • Uses satellites to show your position on Earth
  • Remote Sensing
  • Arial photography used for GIS.

21
BIRTH RATE
  • Total number of infants born living counted in a
    year
  • Live births/ (Population/1000)
  • Higher birth rates in LDCs
  • Lower birth rates in MDCs

22
DEATH RATE
  • The number of deaths per year divided by 1000.
  • Deaths/(Population/1000)
  • High death rates in LDCs
  • Low death rates in MDCs
  • Advances in technology have increased life
    expectancy

23
RATE OF NATURAL INCREASE (RNI)
  • Difference in the amount of population change
  • BR-DR/10
  • Possible to be negative

24
DOUBLING TIME
  • How long it would take for a country to double in
    size
  • 70/RNI

25
NET MIGRATION RATE
  • Total migration
  • (Number of Immigrants/(Population/1000))-(Number
    of Emigrants/(Population/1000))
  • Can be negative

26
THE DEMOGRAPHIC EQUATION
  • ((BR-DR)NMR)/10 Percentage Rate

27
TOTAL FERTILITY RATE
  • Average number of children born to each woman age
    15 to 45
  • Number of children/Number of women

28
CENTROID
  • Geographic center of a country

29
MIGRATION
  • Inter-regional or internal
  • One region of a country to another
  • Transnational
  • One country to another
  • Step migration
  • People move up in hierarchy of location for work
    or other reasons
  • Chain migration
  • Pioneers establish a new place which is a
    foothold for more migration
  • Periodic movement
  • Annual or seasonal movement
  • Push factors
  • War
  • Environmental hazards
  • High cost of land
  • Pull factors
  • Employment
  • Services

30
LANGUAGE
  • Linguistic region
  • A place where a language is spoken
  • Can have different dialects within the region
  • Lingua franca
  • Bridge language like English or French

31
ANATOLIAN VS. KURGAN THEORY
  • Anatolian
  • Group of Indians migrated from India to Turkey
    and brought their language and then to Europe
  • Kurgan
  • Group of Indians went from India to Central Asia
    then across the Eurasian steppe to Western Europe.

32
RELIGION
  • Universalizing religions accept
  • Accept followers from everywhere
  • Ethnic religions
  • Only from specific ethnic groups
  • Animist
  • Voodoo, Native American
  • Worship nature
  • Migration
  • Hindu-Buddhist
  • Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism
  • Reincarnation
  • Hindus caste system, Buddhists oppose the caste
  • Abrahamic
  • Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
  • Believe in God to a certain degree
  • Common ancestors of Abraham
  • Jesus Christ was a figurehead
  • Islam Five Pillars got them to Heaven

33
NATION AND ETHNICITY
  • Nation
  • Population represented by a single characteristic
  • Culture group is another name
  • Ethnicity
  • Genetic heritage and political allegiance
  • Race
  • Genetic heritage and physical characteristics

34
ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM
  • Friedrich Ratzel
  • The physical geography shapes the culture

35
POSSIBILISM
  • Carl Saur
  • Cultures were partially shaped by the environment

36
INTERNAL VS. EXTERNAL INDENTITY
  • Internal
  • Expressing cultural heritage within the area it
    originated
  • External
  • Expressing culture where they do not share the
    common culture or geographic background

37
CULTURAL REGIONS
  • Homogeneous characteristics of culture in an area

38
CULTURAL HEARTHS
  • Origin of a given culture
  • Nile River
  • Mesopotamia
  • The Indus Valley
  • Mesoamerica
  • The Andean Highland
  • Northeast Chile
  • West Africa

39
SEQUENT OCCUPANCE
  • Replacing dominant cultures over time
  • Lagos, Nigeria going from British control to
    Nigerian

40
ACCULTURATION
  • Fully adopting the culture of the dominant
    population

41
CULTURAL GLOBALIZATION
  • Media has combined cultures so much that the
    cultures have lost their connection to their
    heritage and to nature

42
ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS
  • Ethnic cleansing
  • People of one ethnic group are eliminated by
    another
  • Yugoslavian Croats and Serbs
  • Genocide
  • Large scale systematic killing of people of one
    ethnic group
  • Holocaust
  • Darfur
  • Rwanda

43
UNITS OF POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
  • Country
  • An identifiable land area
  • Nation
  • A population with a single culture
  • State
  • A population under a single government
  • Nation-state
  • Single culture under a single government
  • Japan, Iceland, Ireland

44
NATIONALISM
  • Existing culture group that desires political
    representation or independence

45
STATELESS NATION
  • Culture group is not included or allowed to share
    in the state political process
  • Kurds in Iraq, Iran, and Syria
  • Basques in northern Spain
  • Hmong in Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and southern
    China

46
CONFEDERATION
  • Several smaller states make up a federal
    government
  • US, Australia, Brazil, Russia

47
MICROSTATES
  • Sovereign states that are smaller but hold the
    same position of larger states
  • Dominica, Luxembourg, Malta, Singapore

48
MULTI-STATE NATIONS
  • Supernationalism
  • Two or more states align together for a common
    purpose
  • UN, WTO, WHO, EU, NATO, OPEC, NAFTA

49
THE EUROPEAN UNION
  • Free trade union
  • Open borders
  • Uniform currency
  • One court for international issues
  • One parliament
  • Worlds largest economy
  • Constitution is not yet ratified

50
ENCLAVES AND EXCLAVES
  • Enclave
  • The minority group concentrated inside another
    country
  • Ethnic neighborhood in Quebec
  • Exclave
  • Fragmented piece of sovereign territory separated
    by land from the main part of the country
  • Alaska

51
WATER BORDERS AT SEA
  • Territorial sea
  • 12 nautical-mile limit to sovereignty
  • Exclusive Economic Zone
  • Given country only allowed to exploit
    economically within 200 miles
  • High Seas
  • Outside of 12 mile limit

52
BORDER TYPES
  • Physical
  • Natural borders like rivers or mountains
  • Cultural
  • Estimated boundaries between people groups
  • Geometric
  • Surveyed along lines of latitude and longitude

53
BORDER CONFLICTS
  • Frontier
  • Open and undefined territory
  • Peaceful Resolutions
  • 1846 Oregon Treaty, Louisiana Purchase 1804
  • Post-colonial boundary conflicts
  • Conference of Berlin 1884 making international
    borders for Africa
  • Created the Tyranny of the Map because they did
    not consider cultural boundaries genocides in
    Rwanda were because of these issues

54
TERRITORIAL MORPHOLOGY
  • Compact
  • Shape without irregularity
  • Nigeria
  • Fragmented
  • Broken into pieces
  • Philippines
  • Elongated
  • Stretched out, long
  • Chile
  • Prorupt
  • Panhandle
  • Italy
  • Perforated
  • Has a country inside of it
  • South Africa
  • Landlocked
  • Has no oceans or seas
  • Switzerland

55
ANNEXATION
  • Territory is added as a result of the land
    purchase or when it is claimed through
    incorporation

56
GERRYMANDERING
  • Attempt to try to stack votes to guarantee
    congressional support for one particular party
    and fix elections

57
ABSOLUTE MONARCHY
  • Supreme ruler runs the country
  • Present day Saudi Arabia, Brunei, UAE

58
CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY
  • Monarch can dismiss parliament, appoints judges,
    is commander in chief, holds the monarchal
    estates.
  • Great Britain, Belgium, Japan

59
COMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES
  • Retain the British monarch as their head of state
  • Canada, Jamaica, Australia

60
FREE-MARKET DEMOCRACY VS. SOCIALISM
  • Free-market does not try to put barriers on the
    economy (US and UK)
  • Republics
  • Free of aristocratic or monarchal control
  • Need separation of powers and flexible
    constitution
  • Socialism tries to distribute everything and
    centrally run the economy (USSR)
  • Lacked incentive to produce and surplus of goods

61
GEOPOLITICS
  • Global-scale relationships between sovereign
    states.
  • Exam likes to ask about Cold War and
    relationships between democracies and Communist
    countries

62
CENTRIPETAL AND CENTRIFUGAL FORCES
  • Centripetal
  • Factors that hold together social and political
    fabric of the state
  • Nationalism, well-liked leader, productive
    economy, effective social welfare programs
  • Centrifugal forces
  • Factors that tear apart the social and political
    fabric of the state
  • Cultural differences or conflicts, political
    corruption, failing economy, natural disasters
  • Yugoslavia had a good leader who identfied with
    everyone and he died and left a power vacuum

63
BALKANIZATION AND IRREDENTISM
  • Balkanization
  • When the political landscape goes from a larger
    state to several smaller states
  • Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Austro- Hungarian
    Empire, USSR
  • Irredentism
  • When a minority group desires to break away from
    a multi-ethnic state
  • Or align itself with another state
  • Chechnya, Timor, Ossetia

64
REUNIFICATION
  • When nations were torn apart, but then come back
    together
  • East and West Germany, return of the canal zone
    to Panama, Yemen

65
HEARTLAND-RIMLAND MODEL
  • Halford Mackinder
  • Effort to define the global geopolitical
    landscape and determine areas of potential future
    conflict
  • Largest was Eastern European steppe in Russia at
    the time this was called the Heartland
  • Rimland was rest of the continents of Europe and
    Asia and parts of Northern Africa
  • Landwolves
  • Eager to grab the area from the land (France)
  • Seawolves
  • Eager to grab the area from the sea (UK and
    Japan)

66
SHATTERBELT THEORY
  • Saul Cohen
  • Changed the Heartland to Pivot Area
  • Changed the Rimland into the Inner Crescent
  • Rest of the world was the Outer Crescent (US)

67
CONTAINMENT THEORY
  • George Kennan
  • Soviet Union would try to capture buffer states
  • US would try to build a containment wall
  • Worked out well at first Communism died in Greece
    and Iran
  • US feared domino effect that if one state fell
    then many would follow

68
FARMING PRACTICES
  • Intensive
  • Lots of labor or small plot of land
  • Extensive
  • Limited labor or large plot of land
  • Pastoralism
  • Agriculture based on the seasonal movement of
    animals (nomadic herding)
  • Plant domestication
  • Plant cultivatars used plants for food and used
    it to make clothing
  • Subsistence farming
  • Feeding only the producers household
  • Extensive subsistence
  • Low amounts of labor in less populated areas
    (South America)

69
FARMING PRACTICES (CNTD)
  • Non subsistence agriculture
  • Cash-cropping to sell goods at markets
  • Plantation
  • Domestic consumption and exporting crops
  • Bananas in Brazil, Sugar in Florida, Coffee in
    Ethiopia
  • Communism and agriculture
  • Communes resulted made of several families

70
HUMAN ECOLOGY
  • How humans interact with nature

71
TYPES OF CROPPING
  • Crop rotation
  • One crop is planted on a plot of land and then
    switched to another plot later
  • Multi-cropping
  • Planting one or more than one crop on the same
    land
  • Sustainable yield
  • Amount of crops or animals that can be raised
    without endangering environment or too many
    expenses
  • Non-food crops
  • Textiles, animal feed, ethanol, biodiesel
  • Shifting cultivation
  • Slash and burn in rainforests

72
NEGATIVES OF CROPPING
  • Extensive pastoralism
  • Shifting animal herds between grazing pastures
  • Overgrazing
  • Too much grazing has led to dry grassland being
    eaten away
  • Desertification
  • Any human process that turns a vegetated
    environment into a desert-like landscape
  • Soil salinization
  • Evaporation of water trapping salt on the surface

73
AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTIONSFirst
  • Vegetative planting
  • Plants grown together
  • Seed agriculture
  • Fertilized seeds were planted together
  • Animal domestication
  • Breeding of animals for specific purposes
  • Size of farms
  • Small, mainly subsistence
  • Columbian Exchange (popular on AP exams)
  • Maize, peppers, potatoes, tomatoes, yucca,
    tobacco, rubber, peanuts, chocolate, and turkeys
    to Old World
  • Wheat, rice, coffee, apples, citrus, horses,
    cattle, hogs, chickens, sheep, goats, and
    diseases to the New World

74
AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTIONS Second
  • Mid- 1800s to early 1900s
  • Developed
  • Hybrid plants
  • Fertilizers
  • Pesticides
  • Machines such as trucks, tractors, pumps, and
    trailers

75
AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTIONS Third
  • Improvements
  • Genetic engineering
  • Development of vaccines, antibiotics, and growth
    hormones
  • Factory farming
  • Agribusiness
  • Corporate agriculture
  • Large scale extensive farms controlled by one
    company
  • Seeing the end of the family farm in America

76
SPECIALIZED AGRICULTURE
  • Natural foods emerging
  • Non genetically modified foods (GMOs)
  • Organics
  • Hormone-free
  • Grass-fed beef
  • Alternative livestock
  • Lamb, bison, llamas, goose, and duck
  • Fish Farming
  • Wineries

77
SECTORS OF PRODUCTION
  • Primary
  • Agriculture, mining, energy, forestry, fisheries
  • Secondary
  • Processing of raw materials (manufacturing)
  • Tertiary (services)
  • Transportation, wholesaling, retailing of the
    finished goods
  • Quaternary
  • Wholesaling, finance, banking, insurance, real
    estate, advertising, and marketing
  • Quinary production
  • Retailing, tourism, entertainment, and
    communication, government, or education, and
    utilities

78
LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT
  • First World
  • Industrialized and service based
  • Free markets
  • High level of productivity
  • High quality of life
  • Second World
  • Communist countries
  • Centrally planned economies
  • Third World
  • Mainly agricultural
  • Low levels of productivity
  • Low quality of life
  • Fourth World
  • Third World with economic crisis
  • Fifth World
  • Third World with no government

79
NEWLY INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES
  • Third world states that have made a shift from
    agriculture to manufacturing
  • Mexico, Brazil, Dominican Republic, Nigeria,
    China, Vietnam, India

80
COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE
  • Country has the ability to produce a good or
    service at less cost than other states

81
ASIAN TIGERS
  • Old Asian Tigers
  • Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore
  • Developed because of foreign aid during the 50s,
    60s, and 70s
  • New Asian Tigers
  • China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand,
    Vietnam
  • Developed because of foreign direct investment
    during the 80s and 90s
  • Growth possible because of cheap land, labor, and
    resources and a lack of environmental regulations

82
ECONOMIC MEASURES OF DEVELOPMENT
  • GDP total volume of a countrys economy
  • Good Services
  • GNI dollar value of all goods and services
    produced in a country plus the value of exports
    minus imports
  • Goods Services(Exports-Imports)
  • Trade surplus
  • ExportsgtImports
  • Trade deficit
  • ExportsltImports
  • GDP per capita
  • GDP/Population
  • GNI per capita
  • GNI/Population

83
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX
  • Designed by the UN to measure the level of
    development of states based on
  • GDP per capita, the adult literacy rate, average
    level of education, and total life expectancy
  • Score is indexed from .0-1.0
  • Intent is to provide a more balanced measure of
    development

84
OTHER MEASUREMENTS
  • The Gini coefficient
  • Measures the difference between the rich and the
    poor population groups on a scale of 0-100
  • The Gender-Related Development Index
  • Compares men and women much of the way that HDI
    is calculated

85
ROSTOWS STAGES OF GROWTH
  • Walter Rostow
  • 5 stages of growth
  • Traditional society focused on primary
    production
  • Preconditions for takeoff leadership invests in
    infrastructure more technology is used
  • Takeoff begins to shift focus to industry
  • Drive to maturity technology advances, industry
    grows rapidly, workers become skilled
  • Age of mass consumption highly specialized
    production like cars or energy, technology
    knowledge high, education levels are high,
    agriculture mechanized

86
DEPENDENCY THEORY
  • Most LDCs are dependent on MDCs to provide
    employment
  • Prebisch Thesis
  • Detailed the dependency of the Third World
    economy on First World loans and investments to
    pay for their infrastructure
  • Claimed that LDCs could never break the bonds of
    their dependence because they could never
    manufacture for themselves or make any extra money

87
BREAKING THE CYCLE OF DEPENDENCY
  • LDC programs that try to break free from MDC
    control
  • Internalization of economic capital
  • Requires companies to deposit profits from the
    factories in LDC banks and reinvest locally
  • Import substitution
  • Instead of buying First World produced
    consumer-products, they would buy from LDC
    factories
  • Nationalization of natural resource-based
    industries
  • Instead of allowing foreign companies to own
    resources, local governments would
  • Profit-sharing agreements
  • Foreign companies agree to share part of the
    profits they get with the governments
  • Technology development programs
  • Use limited funds to invest in technological
    advances and worker training

88
OTHER DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES
  • Tourism
  • Brings in a good deal of money from foreigners
  • Ecotourism has become very popular through rain
    forests, reefs, and savannahs
  • Free trade agreements
  • Improve international trade and boost economies
  • Free-market reforms
  • Allowing people to trade freely from a country,
    abolishing Communism

89
THEORY OF LOCATION
  • Alfred Weber
  • Determines the optimal factory locations
  • Bulk-reducing manufacturing close to the inputs
    (limestone, coal, and water)
  • Bulk-gaining manufacturing close to the
    consumers (cars)

90
FORDIST VS. POST-FORDIST PRODUCTION
  • Fordist
  • Relied on a single company owning all the aspects
    of production
  • Post-Fordist
  • Companies now dependent on many different
    manufacturers to build parts of cars

91
RETAIL LOCATION THEORY
  • Threshold
  • Minimum number of people required to support a
    business
  • Range
  • Maximum distance people are willing to travel to
    gain access to the service
  • Spatial margin of profitability
  • Area where local demand for the service maximizes
    profit

92
AGGLOMERATION AND DEGLOMERATION
  • Agglomeration
  • Concentration of human activities in a cluster or
    around a central place
  • Agglomeration economies
  • Find firms with related or similar products
    together and share in the advantages of skilled
    labor, specialized suppliers, and service
    providers
  • Deglomeration
  • When a location is overloaded with similar firms
    or services

93
SUBURBAN SPRAWL
  • Sprawl
  • Expansion of housing, transportation, and
    commercial development to undeveloped land on the
    urban periphery
  • Anti-growth movements
  • Push land laws to limit the growth in suburban
    areas
  • Growth boundaries
  • Set minimums for lot sizes of homes so they do
    not become packed in by the growth

94
EDGE CITIES
  • CBDs that have grown in the suburbs

95
CITY TYPES
  • Colonial cities
  • Originated in colonial trade retained their
    European-style archetecture
  • Fall-line cities
  • Ports that were upstream to the point where ocan
    ships could no longer navigate (break-in-bulk
    point) Boston, Albany, Baltamore
  • Medieval Cities
  • Urban centers that date back to the Renaissance
    Rome, Paris, London, Kyoto, Beijing
  • Gateway cities
  • Places where immigrants have made their way into
    a country New York, Miami, Toronto
  • Entrepot
  • Port city in which goods are shipped in at one
    price and shipped out for another
  • Megacities
  • More than 10 million people Tokyo, New York,
    Mexico City
  • Megalopolis
  • Urbanized area of two or more cities that merge
    together Northeastern US

96
CITY TYPES (CNTD)
  • World City
  • Global center of finance
  • First-order New York, London, Tokyo
  • Second-order Los Angeles, Washington DC,
    Chicago, Frankfort, Paris
  • Third-order San Francisco, Miami, Sydney
  • Primate city
  • Largest city is more than twice the size of the
    second largest

97
RANK SIZE RULE
  • The nth largest city is 1/n the size of the
    countrys largest city

98
UBRAN SOCIETY
  • Segregation
  • Ethnic neighborhoods have sprung up Chinatown
  • Redlining
  • Designing homes so that African Americans cannot
    buy in that area
  • Restrictive covenants
  • Putting whites only clauses in home agreements
  • Racial steering
  • Real estate agents encouraging African Americans
    to only buy in certain areas

99
GENTRIFICATION
  • The economic reinvestment in existing real estate
  • Historical renovation
  • Has had the negative effect of driving
    lower-class citizens out because of higher prices

100
URBAN SUSTAINABILITY
  • Many problems to address
  • Balancing taxes and maintaining municipal
    services
  • Expensive schools
  • Traffic congestion
  • Pollution
  • Mass transit can fix some of these problems
  • New downtown housing
  • Mixed-use buildings
  • Both hosing and commercial space (New
    Urbanization)
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com