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DNA To RNA To Proteins

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DNA To RNA To Proteins Transcription, Translation Proteins Which is The Central Dogma of Biology Foothill High School Science Department Foothill High School ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DNA To RNA To Proteins


1
DNA To RNA To Proteins
  • Transcription, Translation ? ProteinsWhich is
  • The Central Dogma of Biology

2
The Structure of RNA
  • Long Chains of Nucleotides
  • 5 Carbon Sugar ( Ribose )
  • Phosphate Group
  • Nitrogenous Base
  • A, G, C, U ( no T )
  • Single Stranded

3
Types of RNA
  • RNA Mostly For Protein Synthesis
  • Three Types of RNA
  • Messenger RNA, mRNA
  • Ribosomal RNA, rRNA
  • Transfer RNA, tRNA

4
Types of RNA
  • mRNA
  • A Copy of the Recipe in the DNA. Transports the
    Recipe to the Ribosome.
  • rRNA
  • Part of ribosome.
  • It Reads the Recipe in the mRNA
  • Puts the ingredients together
  • tRNA
  • Transports Amino Acids (the ingredients) from
    cytoplasm to the Ribosomes in the Order Needed to
    make the Protein (the Cookies)

5
Transcription (mRNA)
  • The process of copying the DNA nucleotide
    sequence into a complementary sequence of RNA
  • ( copying the recipe)
  • Requires a special enzyme RNA
    Polymerase(Transcription Rate 60
    nucleotides/second)

6
RNA Polymerase
DNA
DNA
RNAPolymerase
7
Transcription
  • Key Concept
  • During transcription, RNA polymerase binds to DNA
    and separates the DNA strands. RNA Polymerase
    then uses one strand of DNA as a template to
    assemble nucleotides into RNA

8
Transcription
  • Promoters
  • Regions on DNA that show where RNA Polymerase
    must bind to begin the Transcription of RNA
  • Specific base sequences act as signals
  • Other base sequences indicate stopping points

9
TranscriptionThe Devil is in the Details
  • RNA Splicing
  • After the DNA is transcribed into mRNA
  • Editing must be done to the mRNA chain to make
    the mRNA functional

10
TranscriptionThe Devil is in the Details
  • Introns need to be removed
  • These are non-functional segments of the mRNA
    strand copied from the DNA
  • Snipped out of the chain in the nucleus
  • Exons need to be glued back together
  • These segments contain the real recipe and need
    to be reconnected to make the real, functional
    mRNA
  • This Process is called mRNA Splicing

11
mRNA Splicing
12
The Genetic Code
  • Proteins are
  • long chains of amino acids.
  • There are 20 different amino acids
  • The order of amino acids in the protein
    determine its shape and function

13
The Genetic Code
  • There are 20 amino acids but only 4 bases in
    RNA.So, How Can You Design A Code?
  • Adenine A
  • Cytosine C
  • Guanine G
  • Uracil U

RNABases
14
The Genetic Code
  • The genetic code consists of words three bases
    long
  • Each word is called a Codon
  • A codon is three consecutive nucleotides that
    code for a single amino acid

15
The Genetic Code
  • For Example
  • UCGCACGGU RNA Sequence
  • UCG - CAC - GGU Codons
  • UCG codes for Serine
  • CAC codes for Histidine
  • GGU codes for Glycine

16
The Genetic Code
  • If you have 4 Bases and.
  • Codons are defined with 3 Bases..
  • How many combinations of 3 can you make?
  • There Are 64 Possible 3-base codons
  • Since there are only 20 amino acids,some amino
    acids are represented by multiple codons

17
Code Wheel
Table On Page 303
18
Code Table
19
8 Essential Amino Acids
Essential AA An Amino Acid That Can NOT Be
Made, It Must Be Eaten
Essential AA Meats Grains Legumes
Methionine ? ?
Tryptophan ? ?
Phenylalanine ? ? ?
Leucine ? ? ?
Threonine ? ? ?
Valine ? ? ?
Isoleucine ? ?
Lysine ? ?
20
Translation
  • Translation is the process of decoding the mRNA
    and chaining Amino Acids together into the
    polypeptide chain(making the protein)
  • (See pages 245-247)
  • Ribosomes
  • Read mRNA and construct the proteins

21
Translation Step A
22
Translation Step B
23
Translation Step C
  • Step C
  • Ribosome connects the amino acids together as
    they come into the ribosome
  • Ribosome disconnects the the 3rd amino acid from
    the ribosome to float into the cytoplasm

24
Translation Step D
  • Step D
  • Polypeptide chain grows until the mRNA STOP
    Codon is reached
  • The ribosome then releases the polypeptide chain
    into the cytoplasm

25
The Roles of DNA RNA
  • DNA The Cookbook

mRNA A copy of the recipe from The Cookbook
26
Genes Proteins
  • Genes are instructions for assembling proteins
    (recipes in a cookbook)
  • Proteins (the cookies from the recipe) are
    enzymes that catalyze and regulate chemical
    reactions
  • Pigments, antigens, regulators
  • Proteins are the keys to biological function
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