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Fundamentals of Geographic Data

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FUNDAMENTALS OF GEOGRAPHIC DATA James STEWART MEASURE Evaluation 15 f vrier 2010 Suivi et Evaluation des programmes VIH/SIDA- S minaire r gional – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fundamentals of Geographic Data


1
Fundamentals ofGeographic Data
  • James STEWART
  • MEASURE Evaluation
  • 15 février 2010
  • Suivi et Evaluation des programmes VIH/SIDA-
    Séminaire régional
  • CESAG - Dakar, Sénégal 

2
MEASURE Evaluation is funded by USAID through
Cooperative Agreement GHA-A-00-08-00003-00 and is
implemented by the Carolina Population Center at
the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
in partnership with Futures Group International,
John Snow, Inc., Macro International Inc.,
Management Sciences for Health, and Tulane
University. The views expressed in this
publication do not necessarily reflect the views
of USAID or the United States government. Visitez
-nous en ligne à http//www.cpc.unc.edu/measure.
3
General Objective
  • The general objective of the module
     Fundamentals of Geographic Data  is to present
    the fundamentals of geographic data, including
    the relationship between geographic and attribute
    data, and to help participants understand some
    important data quality considerations.

4
Session Plan
  • Coordinate systems and datums
  • Geographic data
  • Geographic identifiers
  • Data schema best practices

5
(No Transcript)
6
Geographic Identifiers
7
Geographic Identifiers
  • GPS coordinate
  • Administrative name
  • In reference to other features

8
Geography basics
9
Latitude/Longitude
10
Taj Mahal 27.17 Latitude 78.04 Longitude
11
GPS Coordinate
  • Global
  • Positioning
  • System

12
GPS Coordinates
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Very accurate
  • 10 meters or less
  • Easy to get a quick location of a few objects
  • Receivers and devices becoming more affordable
  • If many objects need to be located, there needs
    to be a well designed data collection protocol
  • Capturing something other than a point can add
    time and cost

13
GPS Coordinate
  • Best practice
  • Display as latitude/longitude coordinate
  • Example
  • 36.05576
  • 078.91376

14
Geographic Identifiers
  • Administrative division names or codes
  • Regions, provinces, districts, communes
  • Human settlement names or codes
  • Cities, villages, neighborhoods, informal
    settlements
  • Exact locations
  • Street addresses, GPS coordinates

15
Geographic Identifiers Administrative Divisions
Kenyan Geographic Hierarchy for 1999 Census
Source Odhiambo, Emma. Census Cartography The
Kenyan Experience, presented at the United
Nations Expert Group Meeting on Contemporary
Practices in Census Mapping and Use of
Geographical Information Systems, 29th May 1st
June 2007, New York.
16
Acknowledgments USAID, FEWS, EDC- International
Program, and the U.S. Geological Survey.
17
Source Administrative boundaries
downloaded October 2008 from http//gisweb.ciat.cg
iar.org/povertymapping/.
18
Geographic IdentifiersHuman Settlements
  • Cities
  • Towns
  • Villages
  • Neighborhoods
  • Communities
  • Informal settlements

19
Geographic Identifiers
  • Anything that helps uniquely identify where
    something is

20
(No Transcript)
21
Data Schema Best Practices
22
Data Schema Best PracticesData Dictionary
23
Data Schema Best PracticesData Dictionary
24
Data Schema Best PracticesData Dictionary
25
Data Schema Best PracticesData Dictionary
26
Data Schema Best PracticesExample
27
Data Schema Best PracticesExample
28
Data Schema Best PracticesExample
29
Data Schema Best PracticesSummary
  • Use a data dictionary
  • Always include geographic identifiers
  • Require one record per row, one value per cell
  • Avoid missing values

30
Data Schema Best PracticesSummary
  • Related Assumptions
  • Data stored in electronic format
  • Paper-based records inhibit analysis
  • Data stored in spreadsheet or database
  • Word processing and PDF documents inhibit
    analysis

31
Data Schema Best PracticesSummary
  • Good Data Schema
  • Results in higher quality data
  • Facilitates linking and sharing of data
  • Strengthens the data infrastructure
  • Improves the decision-making process

32
  • MERCI

33
Discussion Questions
  • What geographic identifiers do you use in your
    country, and do they work well for the types of
    decisions you need to make?
  • What problems have you run into, if any?
  • Do you always include these geographic
    identifiers in your data?
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