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Lauren Litchet

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Title: Lauren Litchet


1
ARTChapters 10-18
  • Lauren Litchet
  • APUSH
  • Period 1

2
The Written Word
  • A print revolution began in 1826
  • The American Tract Society installed the
    countrys first steam-powered press
  • Steam powered press produced 300,000 Bibles and 6
    million religious tracts
  • In 1810 there were 376 newspapers
  • In 1835 there were as many as 1,200 newspapers
  • Most newspapers were published by political
    parties and were openly partisan
  • Thorough the country, religious literature was
    the most widely read
  • A middle-class audience existed for literary
    magazines
  • Women especially read sentimental magazines and
    novels

3
The Telegraph
  • Samuel F.B. Morse sent his first message from
    Washington to Baltimore in 1844
  • Morse code was used to send messages across the
    country
  • The timeliness of information available vastly
    increased
  • The telegraph increased everyones sense of
    community

4
American Artists
  • Thomas Cole
  • Came to America from England in 1818
  • Found inspiration in the American landscape
  • Paintings reflect the influence of the British
    Romantic school of landscape painting
  • Founded the Hudson River school of American
    painting
  • Had a nationalistic style is a key focus in his
    school
  • Known for his scenes of New York States Catskill
    and Adirondack Mountains

5
American Artists Continued
  • Western Painters
  • Realists Karl Bodmer and George Catlin
  • Romantics Albert Bierstadt and Thomas Moran
  • Drew on the Western Landscape and its peoples
  • Their art was a contribution to the American
    sense of the land and the nations identity
  • George Catlin
  • Driven by the need to document Indian life before
    it disappeared
  • Spent 8 years among tribes of the upper Missouri
    River
  • Toured the country from 1837 to 1851 in an
    unsuccessful attempt to arouse public indignation
    about the Western Indian nations

6
American Artists Continued
  • John James Audubon
  • Etchings of American birds
  • George Caleb Bingham
  • Produced tidied-up scenes of real-life American
    workers
  • Record the way of American life
  • The inspiration of the painters most prevalent
    theme, the American wilderness, was endangered by
    the rapid western settlement

7
Architecture in America
  • Neoclassical style were favored for public
    buildings
  • In the south many homes were mansions
  • Americans were in too much of a hurry to build
    for the future
  • Built balloon-frame structures a basic frame of
    wooden studs fastened with crosspieces top and
    bottom
  • First used in Chicago in the 1830s
  • The four-room balloon-frame house became
    affordable for many families which was housing
    for the common man and his family

8
Artisans in the South
  • A small number of slaves were skilled workers
  • Artisan tasks included
  • Weavers
  • Carpenters
  • Seamstresses
  • Blacksmiths
  • Mechanics

9
Urban Artisans in the North
  • Urban artisans kept long hours
  • Crafts often interrupted families activities and
    neighborliness
  • Formal apprenticeship was strictly for men
  • It was assumed that once women married they would
    learn a domestic skill or craft
  • Women who wanted to work often worked as
    seamstresses or as laundresses

10
Art in the 1820s
  • The Hudson River School emerged as a loosely
    organized group of painters, whose subjects
    depicted the natural settings of the American
    continent
  • art movement was reflective of America and
    influential to Americans
  • works were part of visual culture
  • Artists in the Hudson River School
  • Thomas Cole
  • Thomas Doughty
  • Alvan Fisher
  • In 1822 John Rubens Smith produced the Juvenile
    Drawing Book
  • three volumes and sold for seventy-two dollars

11
Art in the 1820s Continued
  • William Bentley Fowle wrote An Introduction to
    Linear Drawing
  • first documented book for teaching art in the
    United States public schools
  • gave directions for drawing lines, angles,
    geometry, simple moldings, classical forms, and
    architecture
  • Fielding Lucas published Lucas Progressive
    Drawing Book
  • taught pencil drawing, landscape watercolor
    painting, and perspective
  • never adopted by public schools

12
Art in the 1830s
  • Wheaton College, becomes one of the first
    primarily liberal arts devoted schools
  • The Creation of Negatives
  • William Henry Fox Talbot discovered a way to use
    a negative to make duplicate positive prints
    without losing the image on the negative
  • The Latticed Window, is known to be the oldest
    negative
  • Photography
  • In 1839 Sir John Herschel coined the term
    Photography and this is the year the
    photographic process became public

13
Art in the 1840s
  • Elizabeth Palmer Peabody
  • pioneer in art education
  • published papers about how art needed to be
    taught in school
  • in 1846 the Smithsonian Institute National Museum
    of American Art opens
  • holds the largest collection of American art in
    the world
  • John Gadsby Chapman published American Drawing
    Book
  • It was to be used in schools as well as home
    instruction

14
Art in the 1840s Continued
  • The Philadelphia School of Design for Women
  • established by Sarah Worthington Peter
  • the first and only art college for women in the
    United States
  • The school gave women a chance to learn both a
    trade to become financially independent, and gain
    an education and respect from her peers

15
Art in the 1850s
  • The stereoscope becomes popular in 1851
  • Stereoscope - unites images that are seen
    differently by each eye into one image creating a
    three-dimensional scene that allows the viewer to
    experience depth
  • The stereoscope allows landscape photographers
    helping to equally represent a landscape from
    two different points of sight
  • New York's School of Design for Women
  • Established in 1852
  • Focused on teaching technical drawing and
    designing paper and textiles for manufacturers
  • Van Gogh
  • Was born in 1853
  • worked as an artist in the Post-Impressionist
    period

16
Art in the 1850s Continued
  • The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science
    and Art
  • Founded in 1859 by Peter Cooper
  • The union was a college that was to prepare
    students for the professions of architecture, art
    and engineering
  • Realism
  • Started to appear in the 1850s
  • Realisms purpose was to accurately depict and
    create artwork that was identical to that of the
    ordinary world
  • Realism was a faith based movement as well as an
    artistic movement
  • Realism focused on the emphasis of light,
    photography, construction and architecture

17
Landscape Painting During the Civil War
  • Landscape painting was made popular during the
    Civil War era due to the Hudson River School
  • The Hudson River School Was said to be founded by
    Thomas Cole, an English painter, seeing that he
    sparked the Landscape movement within the United
    States
  • The majority of the Landscape painters within
    America were located in New York City
  • The Hudson River Schools artists were known to
    incorporate romanticism into their Landscape
    designs
  • Hudson River School painters typically painted
    landscapes such as the Adirondacks, Hudson River
    Valley, Catskills and the White Mountains within
    their paintings
  • The Hudson River School slowly evolved to
    painting western landscapes
  • Most landscape scenes produced by the Hudson
    River School were composite scenes paintings
    that were a compilation of real and imaginary
    places
  • Artists within the Hudson River Schools
    Landscape Movement
  • Asher B. Durand
  • Thomas Doughty
  • Thomas Cole
  • Thomas Moran

18
Impressionism During the Civil War
  • Paintings sought to convey the fleeting effects
    of sunlight and atmosphere
  • Artists wanted to create a heightened sense of
    reality in their work
  • Artists painted landscapes and scenes of leisure
  • Artists attempted to capture the overall sense of
    light
  • Artists attempted to replicate French
    Impressionism while blending in their own
    interpretation of it
  • American Impressionists tended to retain more
    structure and realism in their work as opposed to
    French artists
  • American impressionists hoped to recreate the
    same spirit of camaraderie found in art colonies
    abroad

19
Impressionism During the Civil War Continued
  • Notable American Impressionists
  • Frank Weston Benson
  • J. Ottis Adams
  • Mary Cassatt
  • William Merritt Chase
  • Childe Hassam
  • J. Alden Weir

20
Realism During the Civil War
  • Visual art style that depicts the actuality of
    what the eyes can see
  • Realist artists tend to paint situations and
    dilemmas that discard anything extra
  • Realism artists painted scenes that depicted a
    contemporary view of what was happening in the
    world around them
  • Artists attempted to define what was real through
    their artwork

21
Realism During the Civil War Continued
  • Notable Realism artists
  • Thomas Eakins
  • Painted The Champion Single Sculling
  • John Singer Sargent
  • Painted Morning Walk
  • James McNeill Whistler
  • Painted Arrangement in Grey and Black The
    Artists Mother
  • Winslow Homer
  • Painted Sunlight on the Coast

22
Photography During the Civil War
  • Matthew M. Brady Was granted permission from
    Abraham Lincoln to document the war with
    photographs
  • Bradley financed photographers to document
    primarily the Unions military
  • Alexander Gardner was the most prominent
    photographer that Brady had hired to photograph
    the war
  • It was too dangerous to take photographs on the
    battlefield, so the photographers took photos of
    the soldiers at camp, preparing for battle and
    the bloody aftermath of each battle

23
Photography During the Civil War Continued
  • Photographers used wet plate negatives to develop
    their photos
  • When a photographer was ready to take a picture
    they had to prepare a sheet of glass that was
    coated with collodion and silver nitrate
  • This glass plate was then placed in front of the
    camera and acted as the film
  • Each glass plate produced one photograph
  • Once the photograph was captured, the glass plate
    negative was then developed in a darkroom tent
  • Due to the complexity of taking photographs,
    photographers were limited in taking battle
    specific photographs

24
Photography During the Civil War Continued
  • At the end of the war two books were published
    depicting the war with photographs
  • Gardner's Photographic Sketch Book of the War
    (186566)
  • This book was composed of over 100 photographs
    from the war along with numerous sketches from
    the war
  • Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign (1866)
  • This book is composed of photographs with
    captions depicting the Civil War

25
Key Terms
  • Religious tracts small pamphlets used for
    religious and political purposes
  • Partisan Committed member of a political party
  • Telegraph a device for transmitting and
    receiving messages over long distances
  • Neo-Classical Style manifested both in its
    details as a reaction against the Rococo style of
    naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural
    formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing
    features of Late Baroque
  • Seamstress a woman who makes her living through
    sewing

26
Key Terms Continued
  • Perspective - a technique of depicting volumes
    and spatial relationships on a flat surface
  • Stereoscope - unites images that are seen
    differently by each eye into one image creating a
    three-dimensional scene that allows the viewer to
    experience depth
  • Post-Impressionist - A school of painting in
    France in the late 19th century that rejected the
    objective naturalism of impressionism and used
    form and color in more personally expressive ways
  • Realism artwork whose purpose was to accurately
    depict and create artwork that was identical to
    that of the ordinary world
  • Progressive - Proceeding in steps continuing
    steadily by increments

27
Key Terms Continued
  • Impressionism style of painting originally
    developed in France that was characterized by
    strokes of unmixed colors to give the impression
    of reflective light
  • Realism an art movement aimed at representing
    the real world in a visually truthful way
  • Collodion flammable solution of pyroxylin that
    is used to produce wet plate negatives
  • Camaraderie mutual trust and friendship among
    people who spend a lot of time together
  • Contemporary views a modern or sophisticated
    approach to a situation

28
Important People
  • Thomas Cole
  • Came to America from England in 1818
  • Found inspiration in the American landscape
  • Paintings reflect the influence of the British
    Romantic school of landscape painting
  • Founded the Hudson River school of American
    painting
  • Had a nationalistic style is a key focus in his
    school
  • Known for his scenes of New York States Catskill
    and Adirondack Mountains
  • George Catlin
  • Driven by the need to document Indian life before
    it disappeared
  • Spent 8 years among tribes of the upper Missouri
    River
  • Toured the country from 1837 to 1851 in an
    unsuccessful attempt to arouse public indignation
    about the Western Indian nations

29
Important People Continued
  • William Henry Fox Talbot
  • Discovered a way to use a negative to make
    duplicate positive prints without losing the
    image on the negative
  • The Latticed Window, is known to be the oldest
    negative
  • Elizabeth Palmer Peabody
  • Pioneer in art education in the 1840s
  • Published papers about how art needed to be
    taught in school

30
Important People Continued
  • Thomas Cole
  • English-born American artist
  • Said to be the founder of the Hudson River School
  • Artistic movement that sparked interest in
    landscape painting in the 19th century
  • Known for his detailed paintings of American
    landscapes and the American wilderness
  • Featured themes of naturalism and romanticism
  • Mary Cassatt
  • Was an American painter and printmaker
  • Spent most of her adult life in France painting
  • Was an artist of the impressionist movement
  • Painted portraits of women and children
  • Paintings focused on the bond between mothers and
    their children

31
1
  • When did the printing revolution begin?
  • a. 1826
  • b. 1829
  • c. 1828
  • d. 1830

32
Answer
  • A

33
2
  • How many bibles were produced from the steam
    powered press?
  • a. 500,000
  • b. 400,000
  • c. 300,000
  • d. 200,000

34
Answer
  • C

35
3
  • Men typically read sentimental magazine and
    novels.
  • a. True
  • b. False

36
Answer
  • B

37
4
  • Morse sent his first message from
  • a. Boston to New York City
  • b. Philadelphia to Washington
  • c. Baltimore to Boston
  • d. Washington to Baltimore

38
Answer
  • D

39
5
  • Thomas Cole came to America from
  • a. France
  • b. England
  • c. Germany
  • d. Austria

40
Answer
  • B

41
6
  • Which painter wanted to document Indian life?
  • a. Bingham
  • b. Moran
  • c. Bodmer
  • d. Catlin

42
Answer
  • D

43
7
  • Audubon made etchings of American birds.
  • a. True
  • b. False

44
Answer
  • A

45
8
  • The first balloon-frame structures were built in
  • a. Washington
  • b. Philadelphia
  • c. Chicago
  • d. Savannah

46
Answer
  • C

47
9
  • Which of the following was NOT an artisan task in
    the south?
  • a. Weavers
  • b. Seamstresses
  • c. Blacksmith
  • d. Cotton picker

48
Answer
  • D

49
10
  • In the north, women who wanted to work were
    unable to because of the restrictions placed on
    them.
  • a. True
  • b. False

50
Answer
  • B

51
11
  • Who produced the Juvenile Drawing Book?
  • a. John Rubens
  • b. Thomas Cole
  • c. Thomas Doughty
  • d. Alvan Fisher

52
Answer
  • A

53
12
  • What was the first documented book for teaching
    art in public schools in the united states?
  • a. Juvenile Drawing Book
  • b. Lucas Progressive Drawing Book
  • c. An Introduction to Linear Drawing
  • d. The Latticed Window

54
Answer
  • C

55
13
  • Who discovered the way to create multiple prints?
  • a. Peabody
  • b. Herschel
  • c. Lucas
  • d. Talbot

56
Answer
  • D

57
14
  • The term photography was coined in this year
  • a. 1836
  • b. 1837
  • c. 1838
  • d. 1839

58
Answer
  • D

59
15
  • Where is the largest collection of American Art
    held?
  • a. The Louvre
  • b. The Guggenheim
  • c. The Smithsonian Institute
  • d. The Met

60
Answer
  • C

61
16
  • Which of the following is NOT true about The
    Philadelphia School of Design for Women?
  • a. It was established by Sara Warrington
  • b. It was the first art college for women in the
    United States
  • c. The school offered women an education not only
    in art, but in the humanities
  • d. It gave women the opportunity to be
    financially independent

62
Answer
  • A

63
17
  • The stereoscope becomes popular in what year?
  • a. 1850
  • b. 1851
  • c. 1852
  • d. 1853

64
Answer
  • B

65
18
  • Van Gough was known as
  • a. An impressionist
  • b. A post- impressionist
  • c. A realist
  • d. A surrealist

66
Answer
  • B

67
19
  • Realism
  • a. Attempted to depict the everyday world
    identically
  • b. Was disproportional
  • c. Used dark, harsh, contrasting colors that did
    not deal with light
  • d. Was only focused on drawing and painting

68
Answer
  • A

69
20
  • The Cooper Union was founded in what year by
    Peter Cooper?
  • a. 1856
  • b. 1857
  • c. 1858
  • d. 1859

70
Answer
  • D

71
21
  • Landscape paintings were made popular by which
    school?
  • a. The Hudson River Valley School
  • b. The Hudson River School
  • c. The Hudson Valley School
  • d. The Hudson School of Art

72
Answer
  • B

73
22
  • Who was the Hudson River School founded by?
  • a. Thomas Cole
  • b. Asher B. Durand
  • c. Thomas Moran
  • d. Thomas Doughty

74
Answer
  • A

75
23
  • Hudson River School painters did NOT typically
    paint which of the following landscapes
  • a. Hudson River Valley
  • b. Adirondacks
  • c. Catskills
  • d. The Poconos

76
Answer
  • D

77
24
  • Impressionism paintings sought to capture
  • a. Nature
  • b. Dusk
  • c. Sunlight
  • d. People

78
Answer
  • C

79
25
  • Who is NOT considered to be an artist from the
    Impressionist movement?
  • a. Mary Cassatt
  • b. J. Alden Weir
  • c. Frank Weston Benson
  • d. James McNeill Whistler

80
Answer
  • D

81
26
  • Realism
  • a. Depicts only what the eyes can see
  • b. Is a combination of real and imaginary scenes
  • c. Depicts only portraits of people and their
    interactions
  • d. Depicts objects that do not exist in everyday
    life

82
Answer
  • A

83
27
  • Who painted The Champion Single Sculling?
  • a. Winslow Homer
  • b. Thomas Eakins
  • c. Childe Hassam
  • d. John Singer Sargent

84
Answer
  • B

85
28
  • Who was granted permission by Abraham Lincoln to
    take pictures of the war?
  • a. Alexander Gardener
  • b. Sherman
  • c. Matthew M. Brady
  • d. John Cook

86
Answer
  • C

87
29
  • _________ acted as the film for each camera
    during the Civil War.
  • a. Glass plates
  • b. Glass discs
  • c. Plastic plates
  • d. Plastic discs

88
Answer
  • A

89
30
  • Photographers used what kind of negatives to
    develop their photographs?
  • a. Dry glass negatives
  • b. Dry plate negatives
  • c. Wet glass negatives
  • d. Wet plate negatives

90
Answer
  • D

91
References
  • Faragher, J.M., Buhle, M.J., Czitrom, D.,
    Armitage, S.H. (2002). Out of Many, A History of
    the American People. Upper Saddle River, NJ.
    Prentice Hall.

92
References Continued
  • Multiple Authors. (2002). Decades of Art
    Education History in Contexts of Schooling and
    Artworlds. The History of Art Education in the
    1800s. Retrieved from http//personal.psu.edu/m
    as53/timln850.html

93
References Continued
  • Multiple Authors. (2009). Hudson River School
    19th Century American Landscape Painting
    Movement Lead by Thomas Cole. The Hudson River
    School (1825-1875). Retrieved from
    http//www.visual-arts- cork.com/history-of-art/hu
    dson-river-school- landscape- painting.htm

94
References Continued
  • Penrose, Patricia. (2002). American Realism
    1865-1910. American Collection American
    Realism. Retrieved from http//www.ncteamerican
    collection.org/amer_rea lism.htm

95
References Continued
  • Lloyd, Michael. (1997). American Impressionism.
    Lyme Art Colony American Impressionism.
    Retrieved from http//www.lymeart.com/AmericanI
    mpressionis m/index.html

96
References Continued
  • Multiple Authors. Photography in the Civil War,
    1861- 1865. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History.
    Retrieved from http//www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd
    /phcw/hd_ phcw.htm
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