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Introduction to Forensic Science

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Introduction to Forensic Science Chapter 1 CSI effect video CSI effect article – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Forensic Science


1
Introduction to Forensic Science
  • Chapter 1

CSI effect video CSI effect article
2
What is Forensic Science?
  • Definition
  • Application of science to the law (both criminal
    and civil laws)
  • Physical vs. Natural?
  • Physical deals with non-living
  • Natural (biological) deals with living
  • Forensics?
  • Criminalistics?
  • Synonym to forensics
  • Technically more descriptive for describing the
    services of a crime lab

3
Basic Services of a Crime Lab
  • Physical Science Unit
  • Biology
  • Dr. Josef Mengele Brazil/Germany 1992
  • Firearms
  • Al Capone 1929 St.Valentines Day Massacre
  • Document Examination
  • The Hitler Diaries Germany - 1983
  • Photography

4
Optional Services of a Crime Lab
  • Toxicology
  • Caroline Grills Australia - 1948
  • Fingerprints
  • Thomas Jennings US - 1910
  • Polygraph
  • Voiceprint
  • Crime Scene Investigation

5
Outside Services
  • Pathology
  • Anthropology
  • John Wayne Gacy 1978
  • Entomology
  • The Ken and Barbie Murders 1991
  • http//huffmanconklin.blogspot.com/2011/08/and-dea
    d-shall-speak-video.html
  • Psychiatry
  • The Hillside Stranglers - 1978
  • Odontology
  • Ted Bundy 1978

6
Outside Services
  • Engineering
  • Timothy McVeigh the OK bombing 1995
  • http//www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/notorio
    us/mcveigh/dawning_1.html
  • Computer and Digital Analysis

7
History of Forensic Science
  • Many people believe that Arthur Conan Doyle was
    the first to popularize forensic science with his
    Sherlock Holmes novels. The first, A Study in
    Scarlet, was published in 1887.

8
Historical Pioneers
  • Handout!!
  • Mathieu Orfila
  • Spanish born but did work in France
  • Father of modern toxicology
  • Published book on
  • poisons in 1814

9
Historical Pioneers
  • Alphonse Bertillon
  • 1st personal ID method
  • Anthropometry measure bones

10
Anthropometry
  • The Bertillon system relied on a detailed
    description and measurement of the subject.
  • Eleven measurements were necessary.
  • These included height, reach, width of head, and
    length of foot.

11
Anthropometry
  • The down fall of Anthropometry occurred in 1903
    at Leavenworth Federal Prison. A prisoner named
    Will West was brought to the prison and had his
    measurements taken. His measurements matched a
    prisoner already in the prison named William
    West. Despite the system there was no way to tell
    the two apart. The only noticeable difference
    between the two men was their fingerprints. Thus
    the Anthropometry was abandoned and the
    fingerprint (Henry) system was adopted.

Will West William West
12
Historical Pioneers
  • Francis Galton
  • British Scientist
  • 1892 published the book Finger Prints
  • Contained the 1st statistical proof supporting
    the uniqueness of fingerprints.
  • Laid the foundation of modern fingerprints.

13
Historical Pioneers
  • Leone Lattes
  • Italian Scientist
  • Blood type (A,B,O) of dried bloodstains 1915

14
Historical Pioneers
  • Calvin Goddard
  • Comparison scope
  • Firearm ID expert
  • Matched bullet to gun
  • Helped establish FBI crime
  • lab in 1932

15
Historical Pioneers
  • Albert S. Osborn
  • Development of the fundamental
  • principles of document analysis
  • Walter C. McCrone
  • Utilized microscopy to examine evidence in
    criminal and civil cases

16
Historical Pioneers
  • Hans Gross
  • Lawyer and Judge in Austria
  • 1st real life forensic scientist
  • Methods of scientific investigation
  • Karl Landsteiner
  • Austrian who immigrated to the U.S.
  • Discovered that human blood
  • could be grouped and devised
  • the ABO blood groups won a Nobel Prize in 1930

17
Historical Pioneers
  • Edmond Locard
  • The Sherlock Holmes of France
  • 1910 set up the first Forensic Lab in Lyons,
    France
  • Formulated the basic principle of forensic
    science
  • Locards Exchange Principle
  • Cross-transfer of evidence occurs when a criminal
    comes in contact with an object or a person
  • Basis of forensic investigation
  • Led to trace evidence

18
Historical Pioneers
  • J.Edgar Hoover
  • Director of FBI (1924-1972)
  • Professionalized the organization
  • August Vollmer
  • Created 1st forensic lab in US
  • LA - 1923

19
Historical Pioneers
  • Dealing with Evidence CD
  • Activity
  • Assessment

20
Historic Timeline
  • http//www.forensicdna.com/Timeline020702.pdf
  • http//www.trutv.com/shows/forensic_files/timeline
    .html

21
Crime Labs
  • National (federal) Level
  • FBI
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • Originated around 1908-1910 during presidency of
    Theodore Roosevelt
  • The worlds largest crime lab

22
Crime Labs
  • National (federal) Level
  • DEA
  • Drug Enforcement Administration
  • Developed in 1973
  • Why?
  • To enforce the controlled substances laws and
    regulations of the US

23
Crime Labs
  • National (federal) Level
  • ATF
  • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and
    Explosives
  • Law enforcement organization dedicated to
    reducing violent crime and protecting the public
  • Enforces laws relating to alcohol, tobacco,
    firearms, explosives, and arson

24
Crime Labs
  • National (federal) Level
  • US Postal Service
  • Protect the US mail

25
Crime Labs
  • State Level
  • PA state police crime labs
  • Bethlehem, Erie, Greensburg, Harrisburg, Lima,
    Wyoming, DNA Division
  • PSP Forensic Services
  • ASCLD (American Society of Crime Laboratory
    Directors) accredited labs
  • http//www.ascld-lab.org/accreditedlabs.htmlpa

26
Crime Labs
  • Local
  • Provides services to county and municipal
    agencies
  • Financed by local government
  • Individual police departments

27
Autopsy
  • Coroner
  • Investigates the facts surrounding death
  • County elected or appointed position
  • Medical Examiner (ME)
  • Physician with degree typically in forensic
    pathology licensed to practice medicine
  • Performs autopsy
  • May also be coroner but does not have to be

28
Autopsy
  • Duties of a ME
  • Determine cause and manner of death
  • Establish identity of unknown corpses
  • Determine time window of death
  • Supervise collection of evidence
  • Correlate wounds with weapons
  • Certify or sign death certificate
  • Testify in court

29
Autopsy
  • Cause of death
  • Main reason individual died
  • Examples heart attack, gunshot wound
  • Mechanism of death
  • Physiological change that caused life to stop
  • Examples Exsanguination (bleeding to death),
    asphyxia (stoppage of breathing), sepsis
    (infection of blood stream)
  • Manner of death
  • Root cause of the sequence of events that lead to
    death

30
Manners of Death
  • Five manners of death
  • Natural
  • Workings of Mother Nature Largest category
  • Examples heart attack, stroke, cancer
  • Accidental
  • Unplanned or unforeseeable sequence of events
  • Examples car accident, fall
  • Suicidal
  • By dead persons own hand
  • Drug OD, GSW
  • Homicidal
  • By hand of someone else
  • Undetermined
  • Cannot accurately determine category

31
Manners of Death
  • Several manners can be associated with one cause
    of death!!!
  • Gunshot wound could be accidental, suicidal, or
    homicidal!

32
Forensic Autopsy
  • Performed to determine manner, cause, and
    mechanism of death
  • Who gets autopsied?
  • Depends!! See website.
  • Recommendations
  • Violent
  • Traumatic
  • Unusual - suspicious
  • Sudden and unexpected
  • Employment related
  • Prison/psychiatric inmates
  • Threat to human health

Science, Technology The Real CSI
http//www.deathreference.com/A-Bi/Autopsy.html
33
Forensic Autopsy
  • Four Basic Steps
  • Determine Time of Death
  • External Exam
  • Internal Exam
  • Autopsy Report

34
Forensic AutopsyStep One Determine Time of Death
  • Rigor Mortis
  • Shortening of muscle tissue and then the
    stiffening of body parts
  • Manifests in first 24 hours and disappears within
    36 hours
  • If the body feels
  • Warm and not stiff Not dead more than three
    hours
  • Warm and stiff Dead between 3 and 8 hours
  • Cold and stiff Dead between 8 and 36 hours
  • Cold and not stiff Dead more than 36 hours
  • Livor Mortis
  • Settling of blood in areas closest to ground
  • Skin appears dark blue or purple
  • Begins immediately and continues for up to 12
    hours after death
  • Determining if body position has been changed

35
Forensic AutopsyStep One Determine Time of Death
  • Algor Mortis
  • Loss of body heat
  • Estimates time of death
  • Body will lose 1-1 ½ per hour until body
    reaches environmental temp
  • State of Decomposition
  • Dealing with Evidence CD
  • Potassium Levels
  • In ocular fluid
  • Amounts can determine time of death

36
Forensic AutopsyStep Two External Exam
  • External exam
  • Basics
  • Height, weight
  • Age, sex, race, hair/eye color
  • Photograph
  • Both clothed and unclothed
  • Frontal and profile
  • Scars, birthmarks, tattoo

37
Forensic AutopsyStep Two External Exam
  • External exam
  • Check clothing
  • Trace evidence
  • Damaged clothing correlate to weapons?
  • Removed and sent to lab

38
Forensic AutopsyStep Two External Exam
  • External exam
  • Exam injuries
  • Lacerations and contusions
  • Lacerations cuts and slices
  • Contusions bruises
  • Defensive wounds scattered defending body
  • Photograph and measure search for weapon
    fragments
  • Stab wounds
  • Width, thickness, depth of each
  • Hesitation wounds accompany suicide attempts
  • GSW
  • Measure entry wounds

39
Forensic AutopsyStep Three Internal Exam
  • Internal Exam
  • Dissect body using Y incision
  • http//www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/galleries/med
    ia/autopsy/index.html
  • Remove heart and lungs
  • Removed as one unit
  • Examine abdomen
  • Each organ weighed and examined
  • Tissue samples taken for microscopic examination

40
Forensic AutopsyStep Three Internal Exam
  • Internal Exam
  • Collect samples
  • Stomach toxicology (may reveal drug use)
  • Ocular fluid - toxicology
  • Bile (gall bladder) toxicology
  • Urine
  • Liver tissue
  • Hair heavy metals (poison)
  • Blood

41
Forensic AutopsyStep Three Internal Exam
  • Internal Exam
  • Assess head and brain
  • Head trauma?
  • Open skull
  • Examine brain in place
  • Then remove for thorough inspection
  • http//www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/galleries/med
    ia/autopsy/index.html
  • Return organs and suture
  • Baseball stitch
  • Release body to family for burial

42
Forensic AutopsyStep Four Autopsy Report
  • Autopsy Report
  • Legal
  • Includes
  • Description of body
  • Description of injuries
  • Description of any illness
  • Description of internal exam (detailed)
  • Results of all lab tests
  • Pathologists opinion
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