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Foreign Policy and Democracy

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Chapter 18 Foreign Policy and Democracy – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Foreign Policy and Democracy


1
Chapter 18
Foreign Policy and Democracy
2
Foreign Policy and Democracy
3
The Nature of Foreign Policy
  • Foreign policy programs and policies that
    determine Americas relations with other nations
    and foreign entities
  • American foreign policy arenas
  • Diplomacy
  • Military and security policy
  • International human rights policy
  • Economic policy

4
The Nature of Foreign Policy
5
Goals of Foreign Policy
  • Three main goals of U.S. foreign policy
  • Security
  • Economic prosperity
  • Creation of a better world

6
Security
7
Goals of Foreign Policy
  • Security
  • Traditionally concerned with dangers posed by
    hostile foreign nations
  • Military and regime threats at home and abroad
  • Today, threats posed by nonstate actors
  • Organized groups that are not nation-states
  • Such groups attempt to play a role in the
    international system via rogue means

8
Goals of Foreign Policy
  • Physical and online security
  • Protection from attacks on U.S. citizens and
    property, both domestic and abroad
  • Security extends beyond physical borders,
    military installations, and/or embassies.
  • Technology leads to new concerns about
    intelligence hacks, protecting power grids,
    massive fraud/theft on public.

9
Goals of Foreign Policy
  • Isolationism desire to avoid involvement in the
    affairs of other nations
  • Most of nineteenth century isolationism was
    dominant U.S. foreign policy.
  • Much easier in era when United States was not yet
    a military or economic world power
  • Technology (aircraft, communications, banking)
    era also made isolationism viable.

10
Goals of Foreign Policy
  • World War II ended isolationism.
  • Isolation was replaced with deterrence.
  • Deterrence develop and maintain military
    strength as means of discouraging attack
  • So strong that no enemy dares engage
  • Point of military buildup is so that weapons are
    never actually used
  • Stockpiling weapons for invasion is NOT a
    deterrence strategy.

11
Goals of Foreign Policy
  • Preventive war (preemption) policy of striking
    first when a nation fears that a foreign foe is
    planning hostile action
  • Appeasement effort to forestall war by giving in
    to the demands of a hostile power

12
Goals of Foreign Policy
  • The Cold War (1940s1990s)
  • After WWII, the U.S. and USSR became the worlds
    two superpowers.
  • Each was capable of destroying the world many
    times over with their nuclear arsenals.
  • Never fought one another directly (a hot war)
  • Competed for the allegiances of other countries
  • Nations all over the globe allied themselves with
    the United States or USSR (democracy vs.
    communism).

13
Goals of Foreign Policy
  • Deterrence assumes certainty and rationality.
  • Works for countries (except rogue states) but not
    for nonstate actors
  • USSR and U.S. both feared global nuclear war.
    Neither would directly attack the other.
  • Terrorist groups not fearful of losing life among
    their own group members/followers

14
Goals of Foreign Policy
  • U.S. international economic policies promote
    prosperity by
  • Expanding domestic employment
  • Ex Toyota factories in six U.S. states
  • Maintaining access to foreign natural resources
    at favorable costs
  • Promoting foreign investment in the United States
  • Lowering prices that citizens pay for goods and
    services

15
Goals of Foreign Policy
  • Trade policy
  • The United States wants to promote exports and
    discourage imports.
  • Tariffs taxes on imports
  • Countries that reciprocate on low tariffs are
    granted most favored nation status.

16
U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services
17
The United States and the World Trade Organization
18
Goals of Foreign Policy
  • World trade
  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
    eliminated tariffs on imports between America,
    Canada, and Mexico
  • World Trade Organization (WTO) promotes free
    trade and provides a dispute mechanism for members

19
Goals of Foreign Policy
  • International humanitarian policies
  • International environmental policies
  • International human rights policies
  • International peacekeeping
  • These policies can range in priority depending on
    the other security and trade issues associated
    with a given nation.

20
Goals of Foreign Policy
21
Goals of Foreign Policy
  • The United States has been on the forefront of
    human rights issues.
  • U.S. constitutional protections against
    discrimination based on race, gender, political
    beliefs and religion
  • Other nations often look to America to take
    leadership on human rights issues, even if only
    in public statements.
  • Economic interest can take priority though.

22
Goals of Foreign Policy
  • Humanitarian efforts include peacekeeping.
  • Sending troops to keep other nations from
    fighting one another
  • Efforts to protect civilians from starvation,
    homelessness, and abuse
  • Frequently joined by other nations in these
    efforts
  • Humanitarian relief during natural disasters
    (funds, military, medical, logistical support)

23
Who Makes American Foreign Policy?
  • President dominates foreign policy matters
  • Can directly set foreign policy strategies
  • Ambassador and military appointments
  • Relationships with foreign heads of state
  • Congress has a role, but less influential
  • Courts, interest groups, public opinion also play
    a role
  • Highly charged issues like Iraq War

24
Who Makes American Foreign Policy?
  • Presidents can be tremendously influential.
  • Head of state
  • Ability to initiate treaties and agreements
  • Place senior officials who oversee bureaucracy
  • Have enormous resources available for
    policymaking
  • Constitutional authorities uniquely position the
    president for foreign policy leadership.

25
Principal Foreign Policy Provisions of the
Constitution
26
Who Makes American Foreign Policy?
  • Major governmental players in foreign policy
  • Secretaries of State, Defense, and Treasury
  • Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS)
  • Director of CIA
  • Director of National Security Council (NSC)
  • President appoints all of these positions.
  • Hence, foreign policy can easily reflect a
    presidents agenda (at least more readily than
    domestic policy).

27
Who Makes American Foreign Policy?
  • Constitution Congress has the power to declare
    war.
  • Has only done so five times War of 1812, Mexican
    War (1846), Spanish American War (1898), WW I
    (1917), WW II (1941)
  • Congress controls funding for war.
  • Rarely refuses to fund military actions the
    president has initiated.
  • Politically very unpopular to vote against funds
    associated with American military troops at war

28
U.S. Military Expenditure Since 2001
29
Who Makes American Foreign Policy?
  • Interest groups
  • Economic interest groups
  • National origin groups
  • Example Jewish Americans with respect to Israel
    Cuban Americans
  • Human rights groups
  • Media
  • Negative media can lead to negative pubic opinion

30
Who Makes American Foreign Policy?
  • In times of foreign crisis
  • The presidency is at its strongest.
  • Congress not designed to act quickly
  • Media and public look to singular voice, leader
    on crisis matters
  • The circle of influence is very constrained.
  • Foreign actors can limit options open to U.S.
    policy makers.

31
Instruments of Modern American Foreign Policy
  • Diplomacy the representation of a government to
    other foreign governments
  • American civilian jobs with the foreign service
    (State Department) require extensive skill sets,
    and process is very selective
  • United Nations comprised of 192 countries, each
    of which gets one vote

32
Instruments of Modern American Foreign Policy
33
Instruments of Modern American Foreign Policy
  • Economic aid
  • America provides 30b a year to other countries
  • Carrot (positive incentive, benefits) to get
    countries to take desired actions that U.S.
    prefers
  • Economic sanctions
  • Stick (negative incentive, penalties) to get
    countries to take desired actions that U.S.
    prefers
  • Trade embargoes, bans on investment, bans on
    travel, freezing of assets held in banks

34
Instruments of Modern American Foreign Policy
  • Bank for reconstruction and development (World
    Bank)
  • Mechanism for governments to lend money to one
    another in ways that private-sector markets could
    not
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • Helps stressed nations borrow short-term funds

35
Who Serves in the U.S. Military?
CHAPTER 18
36
Gender
SOURCES Department of Defense, Population
Representation in the Military Services, 2010.
U.S. Census, 2010.
37
Race / Ethnicity
SOURCES Department of Defense, Population
Representation in the Military Services, 2010.
U.S. Census, 2010.
38
Education
New enlistees, 2010
SOURCES Department of Defense, Population
Representation in the Military Services, 2010.
U.S. Census, 2010.
39
Geographic Origin
SOURCES Department of Defense, Population
Representation in the Military Services, 2010.
U.S. Census, 2010.
40
Collective Security
41
Instruments of Modern American Foreign Policy
  • Collective security
  • OAS, NATO, ANZUS, SATO
  • An armed attack against any of its members shall
    be considered as an attack against all
  • Arbitration agreement negotiated by neutral
    third party
  • Soft power as opposed to the military
  • Virtually all international contracts have
    arbitration.

42
Instruments of Modern American Foreign Policy
43
Public Opinion Poll
  • Should the United States engage in trade or offer
    any
  • kind of military support to nations with
    well-documented human rights abuses that are
    contrary to democracy?
  • Yes, the U.S. should do business with such
    nations if it benefits the United States.
  • No, the United States should not trade or offer
    assistance to nations that are antidemocratic in
    any manner.

44
Public Opinion Poll
  • Should Congress be required to declare war before
    the
  • United States engages in armed conflicts?
  • Yes, there should be formal declarations of war
    by Congress that signal the will of the people
    and the nation to engage in the conflict.
  • No, formal declarations are not needed and serve
    no real purpose.

45
Public Opinion Poll
  • Which foreign policy tactic would be the most
  • successful to convince the largest number of
    nations to
  • adopt policies favorable to the United States?
  • Economic benefits and/or sanctions
  • Military threats
  • Diplomacy (dialogue, negotiation)

46
Public Opinion Poll
  • Should the United States adopt a more
    isolationist
  • foreign policy approach as it did a century ago?
  • Yes, the United States should not intervene or
    engage with other nations much, if at all.
  • No, the United States must be engaged with the
    rest of the world and viewed as a major
    power/player by other nations.

47
Public Opinion Poll
  • What is the biggest foreign policy concern to
    American
  • national interests?
  • Terrorist threats
  • Rising economic powers make the American economy
    weaker.
  • Cyber hacks and attacks that compromise American
    state secrets (e.g., WikiLeaks)

48
Chapter 18 Foreign Policy and Democracy
  • Quizzes
  • Flashcards
  • Outlines
  • Exercises
  • wwnorton.com/we-the-people

49
  • Following this slide, you will find additional
    images, figures, and tables from the textbook.

50
Interest Groups
51
Diplomacy
52
Digital Citizens
53
Who Makes American Foreign Policy?
54
Economic Aid and Sanctions
55
Thinking Critically about Americas Role in the
World Today
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