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Short Stories (notes, literary terms, Grammar)


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Title: Short Stories (notes, literary terms, Grammar)

Short Stories (notes, literary terms, Grammar)
The Bet Anton Chekhov
  • Russian (1860-1904)
  • Was a doctor before he chose to be a full-time
  • Wrote and completed many of his stories in an
    hour or two.

The Bet Assignment
  • What is the meaning or motivation behind this
    story? And how can you relate it to your world?
  • How does the lawyers characterization change
    after fifteen years in isolation? How has the
    bankers character changed?

Narration (Point of View) Notes
  • First-person narrative The narrator calls
    themselves I. This is their story, from their
    perspective. Some are aware that they are
    telling a story, some are merely thinking aloud
    to the readers.
  • Second-person narrative Refers to the
    characters as you. A difficult style to
    manage, it places the reader into the role of a
    character who cannot control his or her own fate.
  • Third-person, objective - tells a story without
    describing any character's thoughts or feelings.
    Like a fly-on-the-wall.

Narration (Point of View)
  • Third-person, subjective - the narrator conveys
    the thoughts, feelings, etc. of one or more
  • Limited the narrator only conveys
    the thoughts of one character
  • Omniscient the narrator conveys the
    thoughts of any and all characters.
  • Unreliable narrator a narrator who does not
    know everything that is happening in the story or
    is lying to the reader

Its POE-Time!
The Cask of the Amontillado Edgar Allan Poe
  • American (1809-1849)
  • Was a superstar at the height of his career. He
    was hired to do poetry readings for parties and
    so on.
  • Often depressed, even more after his wife died
    suddenly, Poe spiraled into alcoholism and died.

The Cask of the Amontillado Assignment
  • What type of narration is this written in?
  • According to Montresor, what makes a perfect
  • What character traits in Fortunato make him an
    easy target for Montresor?
  • How is Montresor an unreliable narrator?

BW Finding a Motive
  • Suppose you are a detective assigned to the case
    at the time it happened. Write a half-page
    report with your theory about the disappearance
    of Fortunato (you can have fun with this!)
  • Example "Montresor is the last member of an old
    aristocratic Catholic family that lost its money.
    Fortunato was a businessman who had recently
    become wealthy and wasnt above cheating to make
    money. Fortunato also was a member of the Masons,
    a secret Protestant organization that Catholics
    cannot join. These facts explain Montresors
    hatred of Fortunato. They also supply him with a
    motive for murder."

Character and Language Terminology
  • PROTAGONIST good guy/lead character
  • ANTAGONIST villain
  • Voice the writers or speakers distinctive use
    of language
  • Diction the writers or speakers choice of
    words (slang, simplistic, flowery language, etc.)
  • Tone the attitude conveyed through the writers
    or speakers words (mocking, affectionate, etc.)

Motivation and Inference
  • Motivation the reason for a characters
  • Inferences an educated guess based on clues
    from a story

  • Symbol person, place, thing, or event that
    stands for itself and for something beyond itself
    as well
  • Figurative language refers to words, and groups
    of words, that exaggerate or alter the usual
    meanings of the component words. (opposite of
    literal language)
  • Allegory a narrative in which characters and
    settings stand for abstract ideas or moral

Chrysanthemums John Steinbeck
  • American (1902-1968)
  • Nobel Prize winner
  • Wrote to the common man of the Great Depression

Chrysanthemums Assignment
  • Describe the setting in your own words. Its
    mentioned in great detail, so why is the setting
    important to this story?
  • Describe Steinbecks diction in this story.
  • Explain Elisas relationship with her husband
  • How does the chrysanthemum plant symbolize Elisa?

Golden Kite, Silver Wind Ray Bradbury
  • American (1920-2012)
  • One of the greatest science-fiction writers of
    the 20th century in both literature and
  • Used a typewriter for all of his writing up until
    his death this year.

Golden Kite, Silver Wind Assignment
  • What motivates the two towns to engage in the
    wall-building competition? What are the negative
    effects of the competition on the townspeople?
  • Explain what One without the other is nothing
  • Fully explain in 5 sentences how this story
    functions as an allegory about the Cold War.

The Masque of the Red Death Edgar Allan Poe
  • Poe is back, and now he wants to go to a
    fancy-dress party!

Red Death P.O.V. Assignment
  • Write for a half page about how the story would
    have differed if we followed the point of view of
    Death throughout the entire story. First, tell
    me what form of narration this new story has and
    then what form it would be if the entire story
    came directly from the Red Deaths thoughts. What
    changes when we shift perspective? Consider
    setting, surprise, and characterization.

Now, get out a piece of blank paper and draw the
Black Room. Poe gave you a lot of details that
should make this easy to visualize!
The Main Idea Is?..
  • Of all the representatives sent
    abroad by Congress in the early part of the
    Revolutionary war to secure aid of various kinds
    from certain friendly nations, no one has equaled
    Benjamin Franklin in ability, tact, common sense,
    diplomacy, and reputation that was national as
    well as world wide. Any government to which he
    was assigned received an unusual personality.
  • When Franklin went to France in
    the early part of the Revolution as the official
    diplomat and ambassador of the thirteen colonies,
    he came as a man of maturity, brilliance,
    ability, and as a world statesman. Upon his
    arrival in Paris, there was no other statesman or
    philosopher who could equal him in his ability
    and accomplishments. His presence in Paris
    annoyed the British minister and staff. Franklin
    enjoyed the situation. The years he remained in
    Paris were unusually fruitful ones for America
    and helping to work out the future destiny of the
    United States of America. In the early 1950's the
    United States published ten volumes of the United
    States Foreign Affairs during the Revolution, and
    the major part of the ten volumes covers the work
    of Franklin.
  • The colonies indeed needed help of
    every description--men, money, equipment, ships,
    and all things to fight a successful war. The
    long years of enmity between France and Britain
    opened the way for the leadership of Franklin.
    And he was not only the man to exploit it, but
    also the reason for the acceptance of thirteen
    states as a recognized nation in the world of

NonFiction terminology
  • Thesis one or two sentences in which you
    identify the main idea of your paper
  • Synthesizing putting all the pieces together to
    create a coherent combined whole
  • Paraphrasing summarizing the writers most
    important ideas in your own words
  • Evidence the specific details used to support a
    thesis quotes, summaries, etc.
  • Elaboration the connections you create for your
    readers so that they understand your analysis of
    the subject matter

Non-fiction practice
  • Complete the Edgar Allen Poe Webquest
  • Read the four articles pertaining to Edgar Allen
    Poes death. (pgs. 221-228)
  • Answer the Test Practice questions on p. 229-230
  • Look at page 221. Make a Main Idea/Support chart
    for each article. Be sure that you include at
    least two examples of supporting evidence for
    each main idea. (Four articles/letters)

  • Theme the central idea of a work of literature
    (ex Love is more powerful than hatred, no one
    wins in war)
  • Conflict struggle or clash between opposing
    characters or opposing forces
  • External conflict struggle caused by an
    outside force (nature, another character,
    society, etc)
  • Internal conflict takes place entirely
    inside the characters own mind (desires,
    emotions, etc)
  • Think of three movies you like and come up
    with their themes.

Irony and Ambiguity
  • Irony contrast between expectation and reality
  • Verbal Irony a writer or speaker
    says one thing but means something completely
    different (sarcasm)
  • Situation Irony when there is a
    contrast between what would seem appropriate and
    what really happens (a contradiction of
  • Dramatic Irony when the
    audience/reader knows something important that a
    character does not known (most often occurs in
  • Ambiguity an element of uncertainty in a text,
    in which something can be interpreted in a number
    of different ways

How Much Land Does a Man Need? Leo Tolstoy
  • Russian (1828-1910)
  • He came from a wealthy family. An early believer
    of Marxism and Communism, Tolstoy gave away most
    of his possessions and lived a simple life.
  • Considered one of the fathers of Russias Golden
    Age of Literature

How Much Land Does a Man Need? Assignment
  • Contrast Pahom and the Bashkir chiefs attitudes
    about land. Why are their views different?
  • What is the theme of this story?
  • What is ironic about the final line of the story?
  • How does the conversation between the two sisters
    at the beginning of the story foreshadow Pahoms

Poison Roald Dahl
  • Welsh (1916-1990)
  • Best known for his kids stories, but also has
    written a lot of adult stories, many in
  • Story takes place in India at the time that
    England had colonized the country.

Poison Assignment
  • Explain all of the meanings that the word
    poison can mean in this story literally and
  • What is ironic in this story?
  • What is ambiguous about it?
  • Give an example of internal conflict and external
    conflict happening in the story.

The String Guy de Maupassant
  • French (1850-1893)
  • Prolific writer best known for his short stories
    with ironic twists.

The String Assignment
  • Who is the protagonist of the story? The
  • What is the main conflict in the story?
  • What is the theme?
  • What is ironic in the story? What type of irony
    is that?

A Rose for Emily William Faulkner
  • American (1897-1962)
  • Grew up in Mississippi, stories focus on the
    decay of the old South
  • Another Nobel Prize winner

A Rose for Emily Assignment
  • Put the events in this story in chronological
    order! Just make a simple timeline and summarize
    what happens during each event.

Now that you know what it takes to make a short