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Natural Assets: Can We Advance Environmental Protection and Poverty Reduction? James K. Boyce ... New Economics Summer Institute, Boston College, June 2012 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Natural Assets:


1
Natural Assets Can We Advance Environmental
Protection and Poverty Reduction? James K.
BoyceDepartment of Economics Political Economy
Research InstituteUniversity of Massachusetts,
AmherstNew Economics Summer Institute, Boston
College, June 2012
2
THE QUESTION
  • Is there an inexorable tradeoff between
    environmental protection and poverty reduction?
  • Or can they be complementary goals?

3
The Conventional Wisdom Tradeoff
Environmental protection
Economic well being
Poverty reduction
4
Beyond the tradeoff Natural asset building
Environmental protection
Poverty reduction
5
Natural Asset Building Complementarity
Environmental protection
Poverty reduction
6
Economic StatusIncome or Assets?
  • Median income Median net worth
  • Source Melvin Oliver Thomas Shapiro, Black
    Wealth/White Wealth (1995).

B/W ratio 0.6
B/W ratio 0.08
7
Assets Poverty
  • Assets ? income flows
  • Assets ? collateral for credit markets
  • Assets ? social status

8
Assets Broadly defined
  • Net worth financial assets real-estate
    property
  • Human capital education health
  • Social capital bonding bridging
  • Natural capital sources sinks

9
The Right to a Clean and Safe Environment at
home
  • All persons are born free and have certain
    inalienable rights. They include the right to a
    clean and healthful environment.
  • - Constitution of the State of
    Montana
  •   
  • The people shall have the right to clean air
    and water, freedom from excessive and unnecessary
    noise, and the natural, scenic, historic, and
    esthetic qualities of their environment and the
    protection of the people in their right to the
    conservation, development and utilization of the
    agricultural, mineral, forest, water, air and
    other natural resources is hereby declared to be
    a public purpose.
  • - Constitution of the Commonwealth of
    Massachusetts
  • The people have a right to clean air, pure
    water, and the preservation of the natural,
    scenic, historic and esthetic values of the
    environment.
  • - Constitution of the State of Pennsylvania

10
The Right to a Clean and Safe Environment - abroad
  • All residents enjoy the right to a healthy,
    balanced environment.
  • - Constitution of Argentina, article 41
  • The Constitution guarantees to all persons . . .
    The right to live in an environment free from
    contamination.
  • - Constitution of Chile, Ch. III, article
    19(8)
  • Every individual has the right to enjoy a healthy
    environment.
  • - Constitution of Colombia, article 79

11
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12
Building Natural Assets
  • Investment Adding value
  • Redistribution Democratizing access
  • Internalization Capturing benefits
  • Appropriation Defending the commons

13
Investment Adding value
  • The creation of new natural capital or the
    increase of existing natural capital.
  • Examples
  • mangrove restoration - Mexico
  • soil banking - Amazonia
  • peoples artificial reefs - India

14
Investment Mangrove restoration
15
Investment Soil banking
16
Investment Peoples artificial reefs
  • Photo credit International Collective
    in Support of Fishworkers

17
Redistribution Democratizing access
  • The transfer of natural capital to low-income
    individuals and communities.
  • Examples
  • land reform east Asian countries
  • extractive reserves Brazil
  • mineral resources - Peru

18
Redistribution Land reform

19
Redistribution Land reform

20
Redistribution Land reform

21
Redistribution Extractive reserves
22
Redistribution Mineral resources
  • The Tintaya copper mine in Espinaor, Peru.
    Photo credit CooperAcción.

23
Internalization Capturing benefits
  • Rewards for previously uncompensated positive
    externalities.
  • Examples
  • payments for environmental services El
    Salvador
  • certified organic Bird Friendly coffee
    Costa Rica
  • Forest Stewardship Council-certified timber
    Mexico
  • in situ conservation of crop genetic diversity
    ??

24
Internalization Payments for environmental
services
25
Internalization Certified organic
Bird-friendly coffee

26
Internalization Forest Stewardship Council
certification
27
Internalization In situ conservation of crop
genetic diversity
  • Photo Peter Menzel, Farming
    Diversity Glimpses of Oaxaca http//www.peri.uma
    ss.edu/276/

28
Appropriation Defending the commons
  • Establishment of rights to what have previously
    been treated as open-access resources.
  • Examples
  • Environmental justice anti-toxics
  • International carbon rights greenhouse justice
  • National carbon rights cap-and-dividend

29
Appropriation Environmental justice

30
Appropriation National carbon rights
Who owns a nations share of the atmospheric
commons?
31
Appropriation International carbon rights
32
Appropriation International carbon rights

Countries should act to protect the climate
system in accordance with their common but
differentiated responsibilities and respective
capabilities. -- UN Framework Convention on
Climate Change (1992)
33
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34
For more
  • James K. Boyce and Barry G. Shelley, eds.,
    Natural Assets Democratizing Environmental
    Ownership. Washington, DC Island Press, 2003.
  • James K. Boyce, Sunita Narain, and Elizabeth A.
    Stanton, eds., Reclaiming Nature Environmental
    Justice and Ecological Restoration. London and
    NY Anthem Press, 2007.
  • James K. Boyce and Elizabeth Stanton, Environment
    for the People. Amherst, MA PERI, 2005.
    Available at http//www.peri.umass.edu/fileadmin/p
    df/envtforpeople-web.pdf.
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