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Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright

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Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright Chapter 12 Energy from Fossil Fuels PPT by Clark E. Adams – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright


1
Environmental Science Toward a Sustainable
Future Richard T. Wright
Chapter 12
  • Energy from Fossil Fuels
  • PPT by Clark E. Adams

2
Energy from Fossil Fuels
  • Energy sources and uses
  • Exploiting crude oil
  • Other fossil fuels
  • Fossil fuels and energy security

3
The Fossil Fuel Dilemma
  • Primary source of energy for transportation
  • Supports a drill, spill, and kill legacy
  • More sustainable alternatives are available

4
Energy Sources and Uses
  • Harnessing energy sources an overview
  • Electrical power production
  • Matching sources to uses

5
Harnessing Energy Sources An Overview
  • Slaves
  • Domestic animals
  • Wind and water
  • Steam (ships and locomotives)
  • Gasoline (internal combustion followed by turbine
    engine)
  • Nuclear

6
Energy Consumption in the United States
  • Sequence of use
  • Wood
  • Water (steam)
  • Coal
  • Natural gas
  • Oil
  • Nuclear power

3, 4, and 5 83.5 of U.S. energy consumption
7
Global Primary Energy Supply
8
Energy Consumption in the United States
9
Electrical Power Production The Beginning
Michael Faraday 1831
10
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11
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12
Weekly Electrical Demand Cycle
13
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14
Match Dominant Primary (Left) with Secondary
(Right) Energy Sources
  • oil-based fuels
  • natural gas
  • coal
  • nuclear power
  • transportation
  • industrial processes
  • space heating and cooling
  • generation of electrical power

15
Exploiting Crude Oil
  • How fossil fuels are formed
  • Crude-oil reserves versus production
  • Declining U.S. reserves and increasing
    importation
  • Problems of growing U.S. dependency on foreign oil

16
Crude-Oil Reserves versus Production
  • Estimated reserves educated guesses about the
    location and size of oil or natural gas deposits
  • Proven reserves how much oil can be economically
    obtained from the oil field
  • Production withdrawal of oil or gas from the oil
    field

17
How Fossil Fuels Are Formed Part I
18
How Fossil Fuels Are Formed Part II
19
Oil Production and Consumption in the United
States
20
Cost of Oil Imports
21
Cost of Oil Imports
22
Increased or Decreased since the 1970s?
  • Consumption of fuels derived from oil
  • Discoveries of new oil in the United States
  • Production of oil in the United States
  • The gap between production and consumption
  • United States dependence on foreign oil

23
Increased or Decreased because of Higher Cost of
Oil Imports?
  • Rate of exploratory drilling and discovery of oil
  • Renewed production from old oil fields
  • Efforts toward fuel conservation
  • Consumption
  • Development of alternative energy sources
  • Dependence on foreign oil

24
Increased or Decreased because of Collapse in Oil
Prices?
  • Rate of exploratory drilling and discovery of oil
  • Renewed production from old oil fields
  • Efforts toward fuel conservation
  • Consumption
  • Development of alternative energy sources
  • Dependence on foreign oil

25
Consumption, Domestic Production, and Imports of
Petroleum Products
26
What a Barrel of Persian Gulf Oil Really Costs
U.S. Consumers
  • 30 in initial costs
  • 61 for military support services
  • 91 per barrel of oil

27
Problems from Foreign Oil Dependency
  • Variations in cost of purchases
  • Threat of supply disruptions
  • Limitations of nonrenewable resource

28
Impacts of Foreign Oil Dependence
  • Trade imbalances
  • Military actions
  • Pollution of oceans
  • Coastal oil spills

29
Hubbert Curves of Oil Production
Oil production follows a bell-shaped curve and
will peak around 2010.
30
Hubbert Predictions
  • U.S. oil production would peak (1970s)
  • Dependence on OPEC oil will increase

31
Who Has the Oil? Reserves
North America 75.7
South and Central America 89.5
Western Europe 18.9
Former Soviet Countries 58.9
Middle East 673.6
Africa 75.4
Far East and Oceania 43.0
Total 1,033.2
32
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
OPEC
  • Algeria
  • Indonesia
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Kuwait
  • Libya
  • Nigeria
  • Qatar
  • Saudi Arabia
  • United Emirates
  • Venezuela

33
Other Fossil Fuels
  • Natural gas 50-year supply
  • Coal 400-year supply
  • Oil shales and oil sands complex extraction
    technologies

34
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35
U.S. Coal Deposits
http//www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/reserves/coalres
.pdf
36
(No Transcript)
37
Which Fossil Fuel Ranks the Highest in the
Following Categories?
  • Natural gas
  • Coal
  • Synfuels
  • Oil shales
  • Oil sands
  • Air pollution
  • Cost of extraction
  • Proven reserves
  • Greenhouse effect
  • Habitat alteration
  • Cost competition with current oil prices

38
Carbon (CO2) Emission Per Capita
39
Electrical Power from Burning Coal Advantages or
Disadvantages?
  • Pollution from secondary energy source
  • Pollution from primary energy source
  • Habitat alterations
  • Environmental effects of mining
  • Conversion losses

40
Primary and Secondary Effects from Burning Coal
41
Fossil Fuels and Energy Security
  • Security threats
  • Supply-side policies
  • Demand-side policies
  • Development of non-fossil-fuel energy sources

42
Security Threats
  • Oil dependence relies too much on OPEC cartel
    and volatile Persian Gulf states
  • Energy infrastructure vulnerable to terrorist
    attacks
  • Global climate change greenhouse gas emissions

43
Supply or Demand-side Policies?
  • Opening ANWAR to oil and gas exploration and
    production
  • Strategies to satisfy energy needs with minimum
    expenditure of energy and environmental impacts

44
The Potential of the Conservation Reserve
An oil field that has the potential production of
6 million barrels per day, is three times the
size of the Alaskan oil field, and its
exploitation will NOT adversely effect the
environment.
45
The Elements of the Conservation Reserve
  • Increasing fuel efficiency in cars (CAFÉ)
  • Cogeneration (CHPs)
  • Use fluorescent lights
  • Increase home insulation

46
Combined Heat and Power Cogeneration
47
Energy Efficient Lightbulbs
48
End of Chapter 12
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