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Chapter 5: Immigration

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Title: Chapter 5: Immigration


1
Chapter 5 Immigration Urbanization
  • Section 1 The New Immigrants

2
Text Notes
  • Millions of immigrants came to the US in search
    of opportunity and a new life. These hopes
    brought a wave of immigrants to the US in the
    late 1800s.

3
Old Immigrants
  • Most were Protestants from northwestern Europe.
  • From 1800 to 1880 more than 10 million.

4
New Immigrants
  • Immigrants from Southern or eastern Europe.
  • Czech, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Polish,
    Russian, and Slovak

5
Text Notes
  • Many immigrants learned of opportunities from
    railroad and steamship companies. These companies
    painted a tempting and often false picture of the
    US as a land of opportunity. Some railroad
    companies exaggerated the availability of
    employment. Steamship lines also charged low
    fares to attract passengers.

6
Steerage
  • Passenger quarters below the deck of a ship near
    the steering mechanisms.
  • Cramped with no privacy, and little ventilation.

7
Ellis Island
  • Where millions of newcomers first set foot on US
    soil in New York Harbor.
  • Immigration stations.

8
Angel Island
  • Immigration station in San Francisco Bay.
  • Mostly Asian

9
Physical Exams
  • All newcomers who passed through Ellis Island
    were subject to medical Examinations.
  • Those with mental disorders, tuberculosis, and
    other contagious diseases were deported.

10
Text Notes
  • Passing immigration inspections was just the
    first step. Once in America, immigrants
    immediately faced tough decisions such as where
    to settle and how to find work. On top of that,
    most had to learn a new language and new customs.

11
Religious Institutions
  • Neighborhood churches synagogues provided
    community centers that helped immigrants.

12
Benevolent Societies
  • Helped immigrants in cases of sickness,
    unemployment, and death.
  • Helped immigrants obtain education, health care,
    and jobs.

13
The Immigrant Worker
  • Many did the countrys dirty work
  • Construction, mines, sweatshops.

14
Americanization
  • Helped newcomers learn English and adopt American
    dress and diet.

15
Melting Pot
  • White people of all different nationalities
    blended to create a single culture.
  • Settlement workers and immigrants believed this.

16
Nativist
  • Native born Americans who saw immigrants as a
    threat.
  • Blamed immigrants for social problems such as,
    crime.

17
Chinese Exclusion Act
  • (1882) Congress passed this to deny people born
    in China from coming to the US and prohibited the
    importation of Chinese laborers.

18
Immigration Restriction League
  • Wanted to impose a literacy test on all
    immigrants
  • Originated in Boston.

19
Grover Cleveland
  • Congress passed a literacry test for all
    immigrants, but Cleveland vetoed it.
  • He called it illiberal, narrow and un-American

20
Text Notes
  • Contrary to nativists opinion, immigrants did
    make positive contributions to society. The rapid
    industrialization of the US would have never been
    possible in the late 1800s without immigrant
    workers.

21
Section 2 Cities Change Expand
  • Chapter 5 Immigration Urbanization

22
Urbanization
  • Expansion of cities and the number of people
    living in them.
  • Lived very differently than rural people.

23
Text Notes
  • America's major cities were manufacturing and
    transportation centers clustered in the
    Northeast, on the pacific coast, and along the
    waterways of the Midwest. Connected by the new
    railway lines, cities became magnets for
    immigrants and rural Americnas. They were
    attracted by the jobs in industry.

24
Womens Opportunities
  • Factory work, piece work, domestic servants, and
    sales clerks.
  • Few women were permitted in professional
    occupations. If so they were teachers or
    secretaries.

25
Text Notes
  • By 1900, some urban areas had a population that
    was more than 40 percent foreign born.
    Neighborhoods, cities, regions, and industries
    often acquired workers from a particular locale.
    An example of this would be the steel miles of
    Pennsylvania that were mostly made up of polish
    immigrants or the factories of NYC were European
    Jewish people mostly worked.

26
Rural to Urban Migrants
  • Many people moved to the city from rural areas in
    the 1890s.
  • Most trade farm life for factory work.

27
Skyscrapers
  • Multistory buildings
  • Architects started building skyscrapers to
    accommodate the growing number of residents.

28
Elisha Otis
  • Developed the elevator.
  • 1853
  • Buildings could now be constructed above 5
    stories.

29
Transportation
  • Forms of public transportation such as electric
    commuter trains, subways, and trolley cars.
  • Extended the cities outward.

30
Suburbs
  • Residential neighborhoods on the outskirts of the
    city.
  • Mass transit made this possible.

31
City Beautiful Movement
  • Stressed the importance of including public parks
    and attractive boulevards in the design of
    cities.

32
Frederick Law Olmstead
  • Designed Central Park in NYC.
  • Designed parks in several different urban areas.
  • 770 acres

33
Text Notes
  • The dark, airless tenements sometimes housed as
    many as 12 families per floor. Outside the
    crowded tenements, raw sewage and piles of
    garbage littered unpaved streets and alleys. They
    were also close to industrial areas that polluted
    the air.

34
Tenements
  • Poorly built apartments designed to squeeze as
    many families in as possible.
  • Housed more than 1.6 million New Yorkers

35
Text Notes
  • Late nineteenth-century cities were fility.
    Unpaved streets were snarled with ruts and
    littered with trash and even dead horses that
    were left to rot. Alleys between tenements were
    clogged with food waste and trash. Only the
    newest urban dwellings had indoor plumbing.
    People even threw their bodily waste out the
    window. These conditions could breed epidemics,
    posing a threat to everyone.

36
Fire and crime
  • Fires could destroy cites and did so in Chicago
    in 1871. 200 to 300 people were killed.
  • At night the city streets were very dangerous and
    soon police forces were formed.
  • Communities even clashed along racial and ethnic
    lines.

37
Chapter 5 Immigration Urbanization Section 3
Social Cultural Trends
38
Mark Twain
  • Satirized American culture in his 1873 novel The
    Gilded Age.
  • He depicted American society as gilded, or having
    a rotten core covered with gold paint.

39
The Gilded Age
  • Everything that glitters isnt gold.
  • American society looked great on the outside, but
    if you looked deep enough it was corrupt.
  • Can also describe the new lifestyle of Americans.

40
Nouveau Riche
  • Newly Rich
  • Made their money in industries.
  • Made an effort to display their wealth.

41
Conspicuous Consumption
  • Noveau riche spending their wealth freely, so
    that everyone would know they were successful.

42
Text Notes
  • During the late 1800s the growth of new
    industries brought about an increase in the
    number of middle class city dwellers.

43
Professionalism
  • New industries created a huge demand for educated
    workers.

44
Ronald H. Macy
  • Opened a department store in NYC in 1858.
  • It b/c the largest store in America.

45
John Wannamaker
  • Developed innovative ways to keep customers
    satisfied.
  • Also used advertisements.
  • He was the first to give a money back guarantee.

46
Catalogs
  • Special catalogs that catered to rural markets.
  • Offered products like shoes and clothes.

47
Text Notes
  • After the Civil War, Americans began measuring
    success by what they could buy. In this period,
    the cost of living decreased b/c manufactured
    products and new technology cost less.

48
Mass Culture
  • Similar cultural patterns in society as a result
    of the spread of transportation, communication,
    and advertising.

49
Joseph Pulitzer
  • A Hungarian immigrant who moved to NYC in the
    1880s
  • Started a newspaper the World and the Evening
    News
  • Pulitzer believed his job was to inform people
    and stir up controversy.

50
Yellow Journalism
  • The practice of exaggerating news stories to get
    readers.
  • New York Journal

51
Yellow Kid
  • One of the first cartoons printed in color.
  • A young tenement dweller, who was dressed in a
    yellow gown and reflected stereotypes many
    Americans had about immigrants.

52
William Randolph Hearst
  • Pulitzer's competitor
  • The Mourning Journal
  • Its sensational style sold many newspapers.

53
Horatio Alger
  • Wrote about characters who succeeded through hard
    work.

54
Compulsory Education Laws
  • Laws requiring parents to send children to
    school.
  • From 1870 to 1890 the number of students in
    public schools grew from 7 million to more than
    15 million.

55
John Dewy
  • An educational reformer, who stressed cooperative
    learning by doing.
  • Emphasized art, history, and science.

56
Schools
  • Most schools during this era, late 1800s, were
    segregated.
  • Schools for minorities were poorly equipped.

57
Text Notes
  • The expansion of public education made newspapers
    and literature more important in the daily lives
    of many Americans. The growing number of students
    meant that by 1900 some 90 of Americans could
    read. The rise in literature launched the an age
    of publishing.

58
Lamarcus Thompson
  • Opened the worlds first roller costar.
  • 10 cents a ride.
  • 1884

59
Vaudeville
  • Shows that were a medley of musical drama, songs,
    and comedy.

60
Nickelodeons
  • Movie theaters
  • The Great Train Robber was the first silent film.

61
Text Notes
  • During the late 1800s many Americans spent their
    leisure time playing the eras new organized
    sports. Many urban residents found sports like
    baseball and football exciting to play as well as
    watch.

62
Baseball
  • Basic organization of the game evolved in the
    early and mid 1800s from the British game
    rounders.
  • Civil War expanded the popularity of the sport.

63
Cincinnati Red Stockings
  • 1869
  • Aaron Champion organized the first professional
    baseball team.
  • Soon other clubs start hiring professionals.

64
Text Notes
  • Baseballs popularity continued to rise. By 1890
    professional teams were drawing and estimated
    60,000 fans a day. A seconded professional league
    was founded in 1900. Three years later the first
    World Series was played between the Pittsburgh
    Pirates and the Boston Red Sox.

65
Football
  • Developed during the late 1800s on the college
    campuses of upper class New England schools.

66
Walter Camp
  • Played football for Yale during the late 1870s.
  • Established many rules and principles of the
    game.

67
Basketball
  • James Naismith (1891) invented
  • b-ball.
  • Wanted to invent a sport that would entertain and
    unruly class in the winter months.
  • First to introduce the helmet in football.

68
The End
69
Settlement Houses
  • Community service centers in poor neighborhoods.
  • Offered educational opportunities, skills
    training, and cultural events.

70
Jane Adams
  • Dedicated her life to helping the urban life.
  • Also promoted womens suffrage

71
The Hull House
  • A settlement house in Chicago (1889)
  • Ellen Gates Star and Jane Adams opened it.
  • Offered educational opportunities, skills
    training, and cultural events.

72
Janie Porter Barrett
  • Founded one of the first African American
    settlement houses.
  • Hampton, VA

73
Social Gospel
  • Called for people to apply Christian principles
    to address social problems.
  • Washington Gladden early leader

74
Caroline Bartlett
  • Organized the Peoples Church in Michigan.
  • Unitarian Minister
  • Free public kindergarten, a gym, and meal
    programs.
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