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The Ancient Egyptians

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Some Famous Egyptian Pharaohs of the New Kingdom Thutmose III 1504 ... Imhotep designed the world s first pyramid & started a revolution in tomb design using ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Ancient Egyptians


1
The Ancient Egyptians
2
Objectives 2.2 / 4.1 Rise and Fall of Ancient
Egypt
  • Summarize the effects of geography on the
    development of Egyptian culture
  • Explain how Egypt united into a kingdom
  • Describe ancient Egyptian religion, social
    structure, technological advances, and science
  • Explain why Egypt declined and was conquered by
    the Hykos
  • Identify key developments during the New Kingdom
    that led Egypt to become an empire

3
Ancient Egyptian History
Periods Time Frame
Nile Culture Begins 3900 B. C. E.
Unification / Dynasties Begin 3100 2650 B. C. E.
Old Kingdom 2650 2134 B. C. E.
Middle Kingdom 2040 1640 B. C. E.
New Kingdom 1550 1070 B. C. E.



4
A View of Egypt by Satellite
5
The Fertile Nile Valley
  • Nile River4,100 miles long and flows northward
    into the Mediterranean
  • Lower Egypt? contains the Nile delta
    regionbroad, marshy area of land formed by
    deposits of silt (fertile black mud)

6
The Annual Flooding of the Nile
  • Environmental benefits
  • Nile flooding is predictable
  • Provides system of transportation (sails needed
    for southbound boats)
  • Surrounded by vast areas of desertacted as
    natural barriers
  • Environmental challenges
  • Forced Egyptians to live on small portion of land
  • Limited cultural diffusion
  • Drought could cause starving / too much rain
    could destroy homes and farms

7
Unification of Egypt
  • Narmerrecent evidence suggests he was the first
    king to rule a unified Egyptconquered Lower
    Egypt circa 3000 B.C.
  • In ancient tradition, Menes (the Scorpion King)
    was believed to be the first to rule an unified
    Egypt
  • 2920 B.C.Egyptian date for foundation of the
    first dynasty

Palette of Narmer, 3000 B.C.tells the tale of
Narmers conquest of Lower Egypt (used to prepare
cosmetics) .
8
Pharaohsgod-kings
  • Ancient Egypt? theocracy government in which
    rule is based on religious authority
  • Pharaohs controlled religion, the army, and the
    government
  • Well-being of the kingdom depended on the pharaoh

9
  • Building the Pyramids
  • Centuries of Innovation

10
(No Transcript)
11
Stepped Pyramid at Saqqara
Djosers royal tomb became a model for later
pharaohsarchitect ( high priest) Imhotep
designed the worlds first pyramid started a
revolution in tomb design using cut granite
Stepped pyramid for pharaoh Djoser (2,650 B.C.)
Djoser is the first pharaoh to be worshipped as a
god
Link to video segment on Djoser
12
Imhotep Famous Architect of Djosers Pyramid
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vnRK6DTpX5Tsfeature
    player_embedded

13
Red Pyramid Important Step Forward in Design
  • Built by pharaoh Snafu (circa 2,575 B.C.)
  • Movement towards true pyramid shapesloped smooth
    sides (this is the pharaohs 3rd pyramid he built
    trying to achieve perfection)

14
Glimmering in the SunWhite Limestone Covered
Inner Core of the Pyramids
15
Great Pyramid at Giza
  • Great Pyramid at Giza (center below)2,550
    B.C. built for the pharaoh Khufu (one of the 7
    Wonders of the Ancient Worldonly one still
    standing)
  • 4 points are aligned with the 4 cardinal
    directions 481 feet high

http//voicethread.com/share/681532/
  • Ka the eternal life force
  • Pharaohs ka remains alive after deathmust have
    its needs and pleasures met
  • Old Kingdom pharaohs had pyramids built as their
    resting place after death

16
Plan of the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops in
Greek)
http//www.geocities.com/athens/delphi/3499/gp1.ht
m (facts about the Great Pyramid)
17
Pyramid Sphinx of Khafre(son of Khufu)
  • Khafre, Khufu's son, built beside his father's
    pyramid. His is the smaller pyramid, but as it is
    built on higher ground, and has a slightly
    steeper angle, it appears the larger.
  • Most complete of the Giza three--retains some of
    its upper casing stones.
  • The Great Sphinx crouches beside Khafre's Valley
    Temple---consists of the king's head, 22 times
    life-sized, perched on a massive lion's body.

18
Pyramid Sphinx of Khafre
http//voicethread.com/share/681724/
19
Great Pyramidmade of granite and
limestone taken from quarries Each block
weighed at least 2.5 tons and there are 2
millions blocks usedfitted together with exact
precision Pyramids reflected the power of
ancient Egypt Economic strength and
technological advancement needed to support these
massive public works projects
Pyramids at Gizabuilt over an 80 year period
The orientation of the pyramids runs east to
westconnects the pharaoh to the rising and
setting sun
20
  • Egyptian Religion
  • Foundation of their culture

21
Egyptian Gods GoddessesThe Sacred Trinity
Osiris Isis
Horus
Underworld
Magic
Pharaoh
voicethread.com/share/681436
22
Preparations for the Underworld
ANUBIS weighs the dead persons heart against a
feather.
Priests protected your KA, or soul-spirit
23
Materials Used in Mummification
1. Linen
6. Natron2. Sawdust
7. Onion3. Lichen
8. Nile Mud4. Beeswax
9. Linen Pads5. Resin
10. Frankinsense
http//voicethread.com/e684373
24
Preparation for the Afterlife
25
Egyptian Mummies
Ramses II1279-1212 B. C. E.
Seti I1291-1278 B. C. E.
Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep II1210-1200 B. C.
E.
26
Journey to the Underworld
The dead travel on the Solar Bark.
A boat for the journey is provided for a dead
pharaoh in his tomb.
27
Egyptian Book of the Dead
  • Ancient Egyptian collection of funerary texts
    made up of spells and charms
  • Placed in tombs to aid the deceased in the next
    world.
  • Scribes produced and sold copies, often
    colorfully illustrated, for burial use.
  • Believed to have 200 chapters but none of the
    surviving copies are complete

http//voicethread.com/share/681135/
28
Egyptian Book of the Dead
29
The Final Judgment
Anubis
Horus Osiris
30
The Pharaohs Servants in the Afterlife
31
The Ankh The Cross of Life
32
  • Ancient Egyptian Society

33
Papyrus ? Paper
Scroll Piece
Papyrus Plant
34
Hieroglyphics Alphabet
24 letters 700 phonetic symbols
35
The Rosetta Stone
Champolliondecoded hieroglyphics
http//voicethread.com/share/681515/
Discovery of this stone by French soldiers in
1799 led to the deciphering of hieroglyphics
36
Egyptian Social Hierarchy
37
Egyptian Nobility
38
Egyptian Priestly Class
39
Egyptian Scribe
40
Ancient Egyptian Housing
Middle Class Homes
Peasant Homes
41
Scenes of Ancient EgyptianDaily Life
42
Making Ancient Egyptian Wine
43
An Egyptian Womans Must-Haves
Mirror
Perfume
Whigs
http//voicethread.com/share/681276
44
Egyptian Medicine
  • Became masters of human anatomy and healing
    mostly due to the extensive mummification
    ceremonies---involved removing most of the
    internal organs including the brain, lungs,
    pancreas, liver, spleen, heart and intestine (put
    in Canopic jars to dry out and then the organs
    were put back in the body)
  • The Egyptians had (and this is an understatement)
    a basic knowledge of organ functions
  • Knowledge of anatomy branched into many other
    medical practices, such as treating fevers and
    wounds, healing broken bones, surgical procedures

http//voicethread.com/share/685051/
http//voicethread.com/share/685051/
http//voicethread.com/share/684373
http//voicethread.com/share/684373
45
Egyptian Math Draftsmanship

1 10 100 1000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000
What number is this?
System of numbersused especially for the
collecting of taxes
46
Egyptian Technology
  • Calendar system---solar year (365 days)very
    accurate prediction of the Nile floodingbased on
    astronomy
  • Irrigation and canals
  • Geometryused to build pyramids and
    monumentsadvanced engineering/problem solving
    skills
  • First use of cut stone and columns

47
  • STOP STOP
  • REVIEW SECTION 2.2
  • Before Continuing

48
  • The New Kingdom 1570-1025 B.C.
  • (4.1)

49
Invaders Rule Egypt
  • The Hykosinvaders from Palestine conquered Egypt
    using their advanced weaponry, especially
    chariots
  • Egypt had been weakened by internal warfare and
    poor rulers
  • Hebrewsmove into the region around 1650 B.C.
    settling in Egypt with the Hykos

50
Rise of the New Kingdom
  • Strong, warlike pharaohs came to power in Egypt
    and eventually expelled the Hykos around 1570
    B.C.
  • Bronze weapons and chariots made Egypt a great
    powerstrong armybecame conquerors establishing
    an empire
  • According to t he Old Testament, the Hebrews
    remained in Egypt and were enslaved

51
(No Transcript)
52
HatshepsutMake Trade, Not War
  • Woman who declared herself pharaoh while ruling
    for her young stepson
  • Encouraged tradesent ships down the Red Sea to
    trade with East Africa
  • Her tomb walls reveal the glories of her reign (a
    recently discovered mummy is believed to be her)
  • Stepson Thutmose III tried to erase her memory
    from historymay have murdered her

http//voicethread.com/share/681814/
53
The Valley of the Queens
Temple of Queen Hatshepsut
1473-1458 B. C. E.
54
Some Famous Egyptian Pharaohs of the New Kingdom
Tutankhamen1336-1327 B. C. E.
Thutmose III1504-1450 B. C. E.
Ramses II1279-1212 B. C. E.
55
Thutmose IIIEmpire Builder
  • Warlike ruler
  • Conquered the areas of Palestine and Syria
  • Contact with other cultures brought wealth and
    new ideas (cultural diffusion)
  • Egypt reaches the height of its power and
    influence

56
The Valley of the Kings
  • New Kingdom pharaohs were grand
    builderselaborate temples and great palaces
    (pharaoh means great house)
  • Grand tombs were built under desert cliffs in
    the remote Valley of the Kingsgood location for
    security and peace in afterlife

57
Akhenaton First Monotheist?
Shows ideal home life of the pharaoh with the
sun disk shining on them
1352-1336 B. C. E.
  • He and his wife Nefertiti started a practice of
    monotheism worshipped the sun disc god over all
    others, and seem to have outlawed their subjects'
    polytheistic devotion threatened Egypt's
    priesthood and ensured they would have no
    shortage of powerful enemies.

http//voicethread.com/share/680976
58
QueenNefertiti
http//dsc.discovery.com/convergence/nefertiti/nef
ertiti.html
Royal wife of Akhenatonsome scholars argue she
was responsible for instituting the monotheistic
religion and may have had a hand in the boy king
Tutankhamens death
Controversial long-necked Queen of legendary
beauty---this famous bust represents the changes
in art that Akhenaton instituted during his
reignmuch more realistic, not rigid, real
portrait (if you are ever in Berlin you must go
see this bust)
59
Archaeologist, Howard Carter (1922)
  • Discovered the tomb of Tutankhamen (Akhenatons
    son)
  • Tomb was undisturbed and contained all of its
    riches

60
King Tutankhamen's Death Mask
Tutankhamun married Ankhesenpaaten, his half
sister, the third daughter of Akhenaten and
Nefertiti---he died at age 18/19
http//voicethread.com/share/681389/
1336-1327 B. C. E.
61
King Tutankhamuns Tomb
62
Ramses IIGreat Builder
  • Preserved his memory through monumental building
  • Constructed a temple to Amon-Re at Karnak
    complete with enormous statues of himself
  • Built a major temple carved into the red
    limestone at Abu Simbel

Temple of KarnakRamses II additions
63
Abu SimbelMonument to Ramses II
1279-1213 B. C. E.
64
Who Are These Strange People?
65
Routes of the Sea Peoples
  • Mystery as to who the Sea Peoples were, but
    they caused great destruction
  • Egypt never fully recovered from these invasions
    after 1150 B.C.
  • Egypt culture continued to greatly influenced the
    powers that came to dominate the region, such as
    Libya and Nubia (south of Egypt where the Nile
    divides)

The end of the Bronze Age!
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