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Ecology

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Title: Ecology


1
Ecology
2
Ecology
  • Study of the relationships between the living
    (biotic factors? plants, animals, predators,
    microbes, etc) and the non-living (abiotic
    factors? soil, temperature, pH, light, rainfall,
    wind, etc) that occur w/in a specific habitat

3
Ecosystem
  • All the living and non-living factors that
    interact in some way w/in a well-defined area at
    a specific time
  • Ex desert, pond, grassland, forest, tundra

4
WHAT AFFECTS THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE TERRESTRIAL
BIOMES? CLIMATE, ELEVATION, RAINFALL, DISTANCE
FROM EQUATOR ALL OF THE THINGS THAT AFFECT
CLIMATE!
5
BIOTIC ABIOTIC FACTORS
Abiotic and Biotic Factors
Section 4-2
Abiotic Factors
Biotic Factors
ECOSYSTEM
6
Ecological Niche
  • The role or function of an organism w/in a given
    ecosystem
  • Food chain? path of energy through trophic levels
    of an ecosystem
  • Food web? complicated, interconnected path of
    energy (food chain)

7
FOOD WEB
8
Cont. Ecological Niche
  • 1. Producers (Autotrophs)
  • Include plants, algae, and some kinds of bacteria
  • Carries out photosynthesis? process that
    synthesizes glucose (sugar) from CO2 and H2O in
    the presence of light
  • Autotrophic cells produce ALL the food available
    to the ecosystem
  • light
  • 6 CO2 6 H2O ------------------------? C6H12O6
    6 O2
  • chlorophyll

9
Cont. Ecological Niche
  • 2. Consumers (Heterotrophs)
  • Organisms which utilize nutrients synthesized by
    autotrophs (dependent on producers!)
  • Ex birds, humans, bats, elephants, butterflies,
    giraffes
  • a. Respiration
  • Aerobic (requires O2) breakdown of nutrients and
    the production of energy (ATP) and wastes


  • 6 O2 C6H12O6 --------------------? ATP
    6 H2O 6 CO2

10
Cont. Consumers
  • b. Fermentation
  • Anaerobic (does not require O2) breakdown of
    nutrients and the production of energy and wastes
  • --------? ATP 2 alcohol 2 CO2
    (yeasts)
  • C6H12O6 --------? ATP 2 acetic acid 2
    CO2 (bacteria)
  • --------? ATP lactic acid
    (bacteria)

11
Cont. Ecological Niche
  • 3. Decomposers (Detritivores/ Saprophytes)
  • Includes bacteria and fungi
  • Heterotrophic organisms which break down dead/
    decayed organic matter and then recycle the
    nutrients (elements) back into the environment
  • NOTE Observe how the carbon is cycled between
    the various organisms that are carrying out
    theses basic life reactions
  • Ex how matter (non-living) is interacting w/
    organisms (living things)

12
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13
Pyramids of Trophic Levels
  • Trophic level? each step in a food chain/
    feeding level that exists w/in an ecosystem
  • 5 trophic levels typically recognized
  • 1. Primary producers autotrophs/ usually
    photosynthetic2. Primary consumers herbivores
    that consume primary producers (ex plants and
    algae)

14
  • 3. Secondary consumers carnivores that eat
    herbivores 4. Tertiary consumers carnivores
    that eat other carnivores 5. Decomposers
    consumers that derive energy from detritus
    (organic wastes) and dead organisms from other
    trophic levels

15
  • Energy flow through an ecosystem is
    unidirectional (not returned to ecosystem)

Decomposers ? recycle matter
16
Practice
17
Ecological Pyramid
  • Ecological pyramid- diagram showing relationships
    between organisms making up an ecosystem
  • Looks at trophic efficiency? percentage of
    production (available energy) transferred from 1
    trophic level to the next

18
3 Kinds of Ecological Pyramids
  • 1. Pyramid of Numbers
  • Numbers of organisms in each trophic level

19
Cont. 3 Kinds of Ecological Pyramids
  • 2. Pyramid of Energy
  • Measures the amount of energy available to higher
    trophic levels
  • Greatest amount of energy is present in the
    producer level
  • Only a small portion of this energy (10) is
    passed on to primary consumers, and only a small
    portion of the energy (10) in primary consumers
    is passed on to secondary consumers
  • Used to show the LOSS of energy (10 LAW) at each
    level
  • Considerable energy (in the form of heat/ 90) is
    LOST to the environment at each successive
    feeding level
  •  

20
Cont. Pyramid of Energy
Energy lost a. Sunlight is reflected off leaves
instead of being used for photosynthesis b.
Through respiration as heat c. Excretion and
defecation d. Energy used for movement and
transport
.01
Respiration Heat Waste Assimilation Movement
.1
1
100 SUNLIGHT
10
  • Producers? 100

21
Cont. Pyramid of Energy
Ex a. Humans? cellular respiration 6
O2 glucose --------? 36 ATP (energy
molecules) (100) ---------? 55
lost as heat b. Cycles C, O2, N2
-------? recycled through respiration and
photosynthesis
22
Cont. Pyramids of Trophic Levels
  • 3. Pyramid of Biomass
  • Total dry weight of ALL organisms at EACH trophic
    level
  • Low trophic efficiency? a decrease in available
    energy at higher feeding levels
  • Therefore, less organic matter/ biomass can be
    supported at each higher level
  • a) Total mass of producers MUST be gt total
    mass of primary consumers
  • b) Total mass of primary consumer MUST be gt
    total mass of secondary consumers

23
Pyramid of Biomass
24
Ecological Pyramids
Pyramid of Numbers Shows the relative number of
individual organisms at each trophic level
Energy Pyramid Shows the relative amount of
energy available at each trophic level/ organisms
use about 10 of this energy for life processes
and the rest is lost as heat
Biomass Pyramid Represents the amount of living
organic matter at each trophic level/
typically, the greatest biomass is at the base
of the pyramid
25
Competitive Relationship
  • A change in the size of 1 population affects all
    other organisms w/in the ecosystem
  • Predation? (/-) relationship in which 1 species
    kills and eats the prey
  • a. Predator? animal that hunts, kills
  • and eats other animals for food
  • -Need to be adapted for efficient
  • hunting if they are to catch enough
  • food to survive
  • b. Prey? organisms that predators kill
  • for food
  • - Must be well adapted to escape
  • their predators if enough of them are
  • to survive for the species to continue

26
Cont. Competitive Relationships
  •  1. Niche? how an organism lives/ how it does its
    jobs affects the energy flow w/in ecosystem
  • 2. Competition? when 2 species uses the same
    resources/ when the resource is in limited supply
  • 3. Character displacement? response to
    competition some changes may by physical or
    behavioral 
  • 4. Competitive exclusion? species that is the
    better competitor may drive the other out
  • a. No 2 species can occupy the same niche
  • b. Local elimination of 1 competing species
  • c. Species using resource more efficiently
    eliminates the other

27
Cont. Competitive Relationships
  • 5. Coevolution? 2 species interacting w/in an
    ecosystem some work in opposition to each other,
    others cooperate w/ each other
  • 6. Coevelution arms race
  • a. Selection pressure on each other- 1 must
    defend itself and the other must overcome the
    defense
  • b. Predator counter-attack measures
  • Ex stealth, camouflage, avoiding
    repellants

28
3 SPECIES OF WARBLERS THEIR NICHES
Figure 4-5 Three Species of Warblers and Their
Niches
Section 4-2
Cape May Warbler Feeds at the tips of
branches near the top of the tree
Bay-Breasted Warbler Feeds in the middle part of
the tree
Yellow-Rumped Warbler Feeds in the lower part of
the tree and at the bases of the middle branches
Spruce tree
29
Camouflage/ Cryptic Coloration
30
Aposematic/Warning Coloration
31
Mimicry
Venomous Coral Snake
Red Milk Snake
32
  • The monarch (left) and viceroy (right)
    butterflies exhibiting Müllerian mimicry

33
Symbiosis
  • 2 different species living together in some
    (unusual) way
  • 3 Patterns
  • 1. Mutualism (/)
  • Both species benefit from each other
  • 2. Commensalism (/0)
  • 1 specie benefits while the other is neither
    helped nor harmed
  • 3. Parasitism (/-)
  • 1 specie benefits while the other is harmed
  • Parasite steals nourishment from host

34
Cont. Symbiosis
RELATIONSHIPS WHO WINS? () WHO LOSES (-)
Interactions Effect on One Effect on Other
Competition
Parasitism
Predation
Mutualism
Commensalism
Neutral relationship
35
Guess the relationship?
36
Guess the relationship?Tick in a dog
37
Guess the relationship?Barnacles on whale
38
THE WATER CYCLE
The Water Cycle
Section 3-3
Condensation
Precipitation
Runoff
Seepage
Root Uptake
39
CARBON CYCLE
CO2 in Atmosphere
CO2 in Ocean
40
NITROGEN
  • 79 OF ATMOSPHERIC GAS (N2) IS NITROGEN
  • UNUSABLE AS GAS PLANTS ANIMALS MUST HAVE IT
    FOR THEIR PROTEINS
  • ANIMALS EXCRETE NITROGEN COMPOUNDS AS METABOLIC
    WASTE (BREAKDOWN OF PROTEINS) URIC ACID, UREA,
    AND AMMONIA (LISTED FROM LEAST TO MOST TOXIC)

41
Nitrogen Cycle
Compound Converts To By (Which Bacteria)
N2 Ammonia/Protein N2 Fixing
NH3 Nitrites NO2- Nitrifying
NO2- Nitrates NO3- Nitrifying
NO3- Nitrogen N2 Denitrifying
42
Nitrogen Cycle
N2 in Atmosphere
NO3- and NO2-
Reduces nitrates to nitrogen, restoring N2 to
atmosphere
Convert N2 to proteins in plants called legumes ?
clover
NH3
Nitrates (Usable can be absorbed by roots)
Nitrifying bacteria convert NH3 to nitrites
convert nitrites to nitrates
43
PHOSPHOROUS CYCLE
44
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45
WHICH THINGS CYCLE THROUGH THE BIOSPERE?
WHICH ONES DO SO WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF THE
ATMOSPHERE?WATERPHOSPHOROUSSULFUR
CARBONNITROGENOXYGEN
46
POPULATION GROWTH
Concept Map
Section 5-1
Population Growth
can be
represented by
characterized by
characterized by
represented by
which cause a
47
3 Factors that Affect Pop Size
  • 1. of births
  • 2. s of deaths
  • 3. s of inds that enter or leave the pop
    (IMMIGRATION EMIGRATION)
  • POPULATION .
  • Grows when BIRTHRATE gt DEATH RATE
  • Stays more/ less the same when
  • BIRTHRATE DEATH RATE
  • Shrinks when DEATH RATE gt BIRTHRATE

48
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH
  • Occurs when inds in a pop reproduce at a
    constant rate
  • Under ideal conditions with a UNLIMITED
    RESOURCE, a pop will grow exponentially
  • J-shaped curve

49
LOGISTIC GROWTH
Figure 5-4 Logistic Growth of Yeast Population
Section 5-1
  • As resources become less available, growth of
    pop slows or stops
  • CARRYING CAPACITY? of inds that a given
    environment can support
  • S-shaped curve

Carrying capacity
Number of Yeast Cells
Time (hours)
50
LIMITING FACTORS (CAUSES POPULATIONS TO DECREASE)
  • DENSITY-INDEPENDENT AFFECT ALL POPULATIONS
    REGARDLESS OF SIZE
  • - UNUSUAL WEATHER, SEASONAL CYCLES, CERTAIN
    HUMAN ACTIVITIES
  • DENSITY-DEPENDENT DEPENDS ON POP SIZE
  • - (AFFECT LARGE DENSE POPULATIONS, NOT SMALL
    SCATTERED POPULATIONS)
  • - COMPETITION, PREDATION, PREDATION, PARASITISM,
    DISEASE

51
A DENSITY-DEPENDENT LIMITING FACTOR
A Density-Dependent Limiting Factor
Section 5-2
Growth of Aphids
Exponential growth
Peak population size
Rapid decline
Steady population size
Steady population size
52
A DENSITY-DEPENDENT LIMITING FACTOR
Figure 5-7 Wolf and Moose Populations on Isle
Royale
Section 5-2
60
2400
50
2000
40
1600
1200
30
20
800
10
400
0
0
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
Moose
Wolves
53
HUMAN GROWTH POPULATION
Human Population Growth
Section 5-3
Industrial Revolution begins
Agriculture begins
Bubonic plague
Plowing and irrigation
54
HUMAN POPULATION GROWTH(AGE- STRUCTURE DIAGRAMS)
Figure 5-13 Age Distribution
Section 5-3
U.S. Population
Rwandan Population
Males
Males
Females
Females
55
SPECIES DIVERSITY
Species Diversity
Section 6-3
Protists
56
BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION/AMPLIFICATION
Figure 6-16 Biological Magnification of DDT
Section 6-3
  • CONCENTRATIONS OF A HARMFUL SUBSTANCE INCREASE IN
    ORGS AT HIGHER TROPHIC LEVELS IN A FOOD CHAIN/
    WEB
  • TOP CARNIVORES AT HIGHEST RISK

57
ECOLOGICAL SUCCESION
  • SERIES OF PREDICTABLE CHANGES THAT OCCURS IN A
    COMM OVER TIME
  • PRIMARY SUCCESION- occurs on an area of newly
    exposed rock or sand or lava or any area that has
    not been occupied previously by a living (biotic)
    community
  • Pioneer species? LICHEN
  • B. SECONDARY SUCCESION-takes place where
    community has been removed
  • ex in a plowed field or a clearcut forest

58
PRIMARY SUCCESION SECONDARY SUCCESION
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