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Ecology and Conservation

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Ecology and Conservation TSWBAT: Demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships between organisms, their environment, and man. Biodiversity & Medicine ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ecology and Conservation


1
Ecology and Conservation
  • TSWBAT Demonstrate an understanding of the
    interrelationships between organisms, their
    environment, and man.

2
Ecosystem
  • A community of interacting organisms and the
    abiotic factors that affect them
  • Community all living organisms in a given area
  • Plants, animals, etc.

3
Abiotic Factors
  • Nonliving characteristics of an ecosystem
  • Weather, temperature, rock/soil chemistry,
    rainfall
  • Influence the existence of the living organisms

4
Biotic Factors
  • Living organisms that share the same ecosystem
  • will interact with each other, directly or
    indirectly.
  • They will form different types of relationships

5
  • Predator-Prey Relationships
  • One species (the predator) eats another species
    (the prey)
  • If prey increases, the of predators increases
  • If prey decreases, the of predators decreases

6
Competition
  • 2 or more organisms need the same resource at the
    same time.
  • Within the same-species or between different
    species
  • The organisms typically occupy the same niche
  • Niche the role of an organism within its habitat

7
  • Symbiosis
  • Species have coevolved

Organism 1 Organism 2 Example
Mutualism Benefits Benefits
Commensalism Benefits Neither benefits, nor is Harmed
Parasitism Benefits Harmed
8
Stable Ecosystems
  • Stable Healthy
  • The of organisms fluctuates predictably
  • The amount of resources fluctuates predictably
  • Energy flow through the system is unchanging
  • Healthy ecosystems are productive

9
Energy in Living Systems
10
Biosphere
  • Part of the Earth that supports LIFE

11
Life Requires Energy
  • Source of energy for life on Earth Sun
  • The suns energy enters Earths ecosystems
    through photosynthetic organisms
  • Trees, plants, algae

12
  • Autotrophs
  • Photosynthetic organisms
  • Use sunlight to make food
  • Heterotrophs
  • Eat other organisms for food
  • Producers
  • Trees, plants, algae
  • Primary Consumers
  • Herbivores
  • Secondary Consumers
  • Omnivores
  • Carnivores
  • Detritivores

13
Flow of Energy Models
  • Diagrams are used to show the direction energy
    goes between organisms
  • Food Chain unidirectional
  • Food Web multidirectional
  • Energy Pyramid shows relative quantities
  • Though it may not always be included, for every
    food chain, food web, or pyramid, the SUN is the
    originating source of all energy

14
Food Chain
15
Food Web
16
Energy Pyramid
Secondary Consumers (least amount)
Primary Consumers
Producers (greatest amount)
17
Life Is Always Changing
  • Organisms compete for energy
  • Plants try to outgrow, other plants
  • Succession is the process environments undergo as
    plants compete with each other for resources
  • Sunlight, soil nutrients, water, space

18
Primary Succession
  • Bare rock is sloooooowly converted to soil
  • Soil is absent, only rocky ground
  • Producers are lichens mosses
  • Pioneer species
  • Endemic Animals are few, if any
  • Most are transient

19
Secondary Succession
  • Green plants replace lichens compete with each
    other
  • Soil is present
  • Producers are grasses, shrubs, fast-growing
    trees
  • Endemic Animals are mostly small
  • Birds, mice, rats, lizards, snakes
  • Some larger species may visit
  • Deer, coyotes, wolverines

20
Climax Community
  • Mature forest changes little over time
  • Soil is present, quality varies
  • Producers are Large trees, few shrubs, mosses
  • Endemic Animals are varied
  • Complex food webs are present

21
Primary Succession
Secondary Succession
Mature Forest
22
  • Succession can also occur if part of a forest is
    disturbed
  • A tree falls, forest fire, land slide, logging
  • Plants immediately begin to compete to be the
    ones to get all the sun

23
Biogeochemical Cycles
24
Cycling of Matter
  • Living organisms need specific nutrients to
    survive.
  • These nutrients can be found in
  • Food
  • Water
  • Rocks Soil
  • Air

25
  • All necessary nutrients are recycled in the
    biosphere.
  • 4 common biogeochemical cycles are
  • Hydrologic cycle (water cycle)
  • Carbon cycle
  • Nitrogen cycle
  • Phosphorous cycle

26
Water Cycle
  • Life needs water
  • 1. Sky to Earths surface
  • Condensation Cold temp. changes water vapor to a
    liquid
  • Precipitation liquid water falls to the Earth
  • 2. Earths surface to Sky
  • Transpiration plants release water vapor as a
    product of photosynthesis
  • 3. Earths surface to oceans
  • Percolation water filters through soil
  • 4. Oceans to Sky
  • Evaporation Heat changes liquid water to a gas

27
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28
Carbon Cycle
  • Life needs Carbon
  • Used to make carbohydrates lipids
  • 1. Sky to Producer
  • Plants use CO2 gas to make glucose (C6H12O6)
  • 2. Producer to Consumer
  • Consumers receive carbon by eating producers
  • 3. Consumer to Sky
  • Exhale CO2 gas
  • 4. Producer Consumer to soil
  • Dead organisms are converted to fossil fuels
  • 5. Soil to Sky
  • Burning fossil fuels releases CO2

29
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30
Nitrogen Cycle
  • Life needs Nitrogen
  • Used to make proteins nucleic acids
  • 1. Sky to Producer
  • Lightning
  • Bacteria in soil convert unusable nitrogen from
    the air to a usable form
  • 2. Producer to Consumer
  • Consumer received nitrogen by eating a producer
  • 3. Consumer to soil
  • Consumers wastes contain nitrogen
  • 4. Soil to Sky
  • Bacteria convert waste to nitrogen gas

31
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32
Phosphorous Cycle
  • Life needs Phosphorous
  • Used to make cell structures, energy (ATP)
  • 1. Earths Surface to Lakes Oceans
  • Mountain rock containing phosphorous is eroded by
    rain water
  • Fertilizer runoff ends up in lakes oceans
  • 2. Lakes/ponds to Producers
  • Producers absorb phosphorous through roots
  • 3. Producers to Consumers
  • Consumers eat producers
  • 4. Runoff, Producer Consumer to Soil
  • Eroded rock, waste dead organisms decay to form
    sediment
  • 5. Soil to Mountains
  • Sedimentary rock is thrusted upward to form
    mountains

33
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34
Community Ecology
35
Community Ecology
  • Ecosystems are made up of many different,
    interacting populations of organisms, and the
    abiotic factors that affect them
  • Plants animals
  • Water, temperature

36
Biomes
  • Large groups of ecosystems that share the same
    climate have similar plants
  • Affected by annual rain fall, sunlight levels
    temperature
  • Terrestrial Biomes
  • Jungles, deserts, tundra, grasslands
  • Aquatic Biomes
  • Rivers, ponds, lakes, oceans

37
Community
  • Groups of interacting populations of different
    species found in the same area at the same time

38
Population
  • A group of individuals of the same species found
    in a specific area.

39
Habitat
  • Where a single organism, or a population of
    organisms lives.
  • Can be small under a rock, in a tree
  • Can be large a forest, an ocean

40
Limiting Factors
  • Limiting factors are types of biotic abiotic
    factors that control the size of a population.

41
Density-Independent Factors
  • Limiting factors that affect a population,
    irregardless of the size of the population
  • Temperature, space, nutrient availability
  • Natural disasters fire, volcanic eruptions,
    tsunamis, drought
  • Example Fish water salinity (saltiness)
  • Too salty, cant survive
  • Not salty enough, cant survive

42
Density-Dependent Factors
  • Limiting factors that affect a population,
    depending on the size of the population
  • Competition, disease, starvation, predation,
  • Example White-tail Deer Vs. Wolves
  • Too many wolves, all the deer are killed
  • Too few wolves, the deer eat all their resources
    and starve

43
Range of Tolerance
  • Limiting factors can vary between upper lower
    extremes
  • What an organism can survive tolerance
  • Organisms exist in the range between the two
    extremes

44
End Ecology Unit
45
Start Population Unit
  • Chs 4 5

46
Population Density
  • The number of individual organisms in a specific
    area

47
Spatial Distribution
  • How far apart organisms are from each other in an
    area.

Wolves in Michigan
48
Limiting Factors
  • Density-Independent Factors
  • Factors that impact organisms, no matter how many
    organisms exist in an area
  • Usually Abiotic
  • Density-Dependent factors
  • Factors that impact organisms depending on how
    many organisms exist in an area
  • Usually Biotic

49
Population Change
  • To increase a population
  • Increase of births
  • Increase survival, decrease deaths
  • Increase the that immigrate
  • To decrease a population
  • decrease of births
  • decrease survival, increase deaths
  • Increase the that emigrate

50
Reproductive Patterns
  • r-strategist species
  • Mature quickly
  • Produce many offspring
  • Offspring are precocial-require less parent care
  • k-strategist species
  • Mature slowly
  • Produce less offspring
  • Offspring are altricial-require more parent care

51
Population Growth Patterns
  • Exponential Growth
  • Population increases slowly at first
  • lag phase
  • Population explodes and increases rapidly
  • If population surpasses carrying capacity, could
    crash

52
  • Logistic Growth
  • Growth is slow at first
  • Then growth speeds up
  • Then growth slows as it approaches the carrying
    capacity of the environment

53
Human Population
  • Globally, the human population is exponentially
    growing
  • Positive Growth births or immigrants is
    greater than deaths or emigrants
  • Zero Growth births or immigrants is equal to
    deaths or emigrants
  • Negative Growth births or immigrants is less
    than deaths or emigrants

54
Demography
  • The study of human population size, density,
    distribution, movement, and birth and death
    rates.
  • Demographers use age structure charts to study
    population changes in countries around the world

55
Age Structure Charts
  • Divide human populations into 3 groups
  • 1 Pre-reproductive 0-19yrs
  • Not usually contributing to growth, but will
  • 2 Reproductive 20-44yrs
  • Currently contributing to growth
  • 3 Post-Reproductive 45-80yrs
  • Will no longer contribute to growth

56
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57
  • Each countrys population changes, depending on
    the resources available in that country.

58
Density-Dependent Factors
  • Increasing the number of people in an area, but
    not increasing the area leads to stress.
  • Stress is a physical and emotional reaction to
    unfavorable environmental conditions.
  • Stress can lead to emigration, disease outbreaks,
    or war and other antisocial behaviors.

59
Density-Dependent Factors
  • Disease
  • disease outbreaks are more likely to occur when
    human-to-human contact increases.
  • Bubonic plague
  • Small pox
  • Influenza
  • Ebola
  • Cholera-current problem in Haiti

60
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61
Biodiversity Conservation
62
Biodiversity
  • The variety of species of plants and other
    organisms in a specific area
  • More variety increased biodiversity

63
Biodiversity Contributes to
  • Stable Ecosystems
  • Different species may share the same niche, thus
    no 1 species is solely responsible for a specific
    purpose.
  • If that species no longer thrives, other species
    can replace its function

64
  • Genetic Diversity
  • of genes alleles affects species survival
    development
  • Having a greater variety of genes ensures that
    organisms will have a greater ability to survive
    ecosystem changes

65
Natural Resource Usage
  • Renewable Resources
  • Organisms, or products of organisms, that can be
    replaced as fast as they are used.
  • Bamboo, r-strategist species (rabbits, mice)
  • Nonrenewable Resources
  • Organisms, or products of organisms, that can not
    be replaced as fast as they are used.
  • Will run out if we do not change how we use them.
  • Fossil fuels, k-strategist species (Panda,
    Leopard)

66
Biodiversity Medicine
  • Scientists continue to find new medicines from
    plants and other organisms that are used in the
    treatment of human diseases.

Anti-Tuberculosis
67
Loss of Biodiversity
  • Weakens Ecosystems
  • Ecosystems become dependent on just a few
    species.
  • If these species are lost, then the entire
    ecosystem could be lost.

68
Without Biodiversity
  • Our water will become dirtier
  • No fishing, no swimming
  • Our forests will become smaller
  • no wood, no paper
  • Our parks will become quieter
  • No birds
  • Our world will become emptier

69
Threats to Biodiversity
  • How to lose an Ecosystem
  • Poorly controlled use of natural resources
  • Overdevelopment of land
  • Over hunting of animals
  • Pollution
  • Natural Disasters

70
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71
Pollution Conservation
72
Pollution
  • Non-natural chemicals that damage natural
    biogeochemical cycles
  • Can sicken or kill living species
  • Can degrade abiotic factors

73
Common Pollutants
  • Sewage, fertilizers, pesticides, industrial waste
  • Rich in phosphorous nitrogen
  • May contain mutagens or carcinogens
  • Gases produced from burning fossil fuels
  • Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide,
    CFCs
  • Litter

74
Acid Rain
  • Sulfur Nitrogen gases are released by burning
    fossil fuels
  • These gases combine with water in the atmosphere
    and form nitric acid and sulfuric acid
  • These acids precipitate towards Earth, damaging
    plants, and water bodies

75
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76
Eutrophication
  • Excess phosphorous nitrogen from farm runoff
    sewage enter the waterways
  • Causes algae to multiply.
  • The algae use up the oxygen in the water for
    cellular respiration.
  • Other oxygen-dependent organisms suffocate

77
Manitoba, Canada Picture A Circa
1975 Picture B Circa 1994 After nearly 19
yrs of phosphorous pollution.
A
B
78
Biological Magnification
  • Pollutants and toxins become more concentrated,
    further up a food pyramid
  • Producers receive the least amount of poison
  • Top consumers receive the most amount of poison

79
Conservation Efforts
  • Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
  • Best way to prevent waste from entering an
    ecosystem is by not making any to begin with.
  • Clean Ups
  • Global efforts to fix polluted areas
  • Super Fund US set aside for cleaning polluted
    areas
  • Laws
  • Environmental Protection Agency

80
Bioremediation
  • Use of living organisms, such as bacteria, fungi,
    or plants, to detoxify a polluted area.

81
Biological Augmentation
  • Sometimes, species from other countries enter the
    US, and out-compete local species for resources.
  • Predators of these nonnative species are then
    introduced in order to remove the damaging
    species, and return balance to our native
    ecosystems

82
Responsible Stewardship
  • People are going to use natural resources.
  • If these resources are used wisely, then they can
    last a very long time and without polluting.
  • We ALL need to work together to make sure future
    generations have a healthy planet.
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