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Ecology and the Biosphere

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Title: Ecology and the Biosphere


1
Ecology and the Biosphere
  • Chapter 52

Hercules scarab beetle-Panama
2
Definitions
  • Ecology
  • The study of interactions between organisms and
    the environment
  • Ecosystem
  • A community of organisms and its physical
    environment
  • The biosphere
  • The global ecosystem, the sum of all the planets
    ecosystems

3
Organisms and the Environment
  • The environment of any organism includes
  • Abiotic, or nonliving components
  • Biotic, or living components. (All the organisms
    living in the environment are the biota)

4
Questions of organisms and the environment are
frequent in ecology
  • What environmental components affect the
    distribution and abundance of organisms? Can you
    predict the distribution of Red Kangaroos by
    looking at environmental components?

5
Subfields of Ecology
6
Organismal ecology
  • Studies how an organisms structure, physiology,
    and behavior meet the challenges posed by the
    environment

How do hammerhead sharks select a mate?
7
Population ecology
  • Concentrates mainly on factors that affect how
    many individuals of a particular species live in
    an area

8
Community ecology
  • Deals with the whole array of interacting species
    in a community

(c) Community ecology.What factors influencethe
diversity of speciesthat make up aparticular
forest?
9
Ecosystem ecology
  • Emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling among
    the various biotic and abiotic components

(d) Ecosystem ecology. Whatfactors control
photosyntheticproductivity in a
temperategrassland ecosystem?
10
Landscape ecology
  • Deals with arrays of ecosystems and how they are
    arranged in a geographic region

11
Global ecology
  • The Big Picture

12
Ecology and Environmental Issues
13
Ecology and Environmental Issues
  • Ecology provides the scientific understanding
    underlying environmental issues
  • Rachel Carson
  • Is credited with starting the modern
    environmental movement

14
  • Silent Spring 1962 warned that widespread
    pesticide use (DDT etc.) was causing widespread
    population declines in nontarget species
  • Over increasingly large areas of the United
    States, spring now comes unheralded by the return
    of the birds, and the early mornings are
    strangely silent where once they were filled with
    the beauty of bird song.

15
  • Aldo Leopold A Sand County Almanac (1949)
  • There are some who can live without wild things,
    and some who cannot. These essays are the
    delights and dilemmas of one who cannot.
  • Land ethic
  • That land is a community is the basic concept of
    ecology, but that land is to be loved and
    respected is an extension of ethics.
  • A land ethic, then, reflects the existence of an
    ecological conscience, and this in turn reflects
    a conviction of individual responsibility for the
    health of land.

16
Precautionary Principle
  • Most ecologists follow the precautionary
    principle regarding environmental issues
  • The precautionary principle
  • Basically states that humans need to be concerned
    with how their actions affect the environment
  • To keep every cog and wheel is the first
    precaution of intelligent tinkering.Aldo
    Leopold

17
Distribution of organisms
18
Climate and the distribution of organisms
  • Interactions between organisms and the
    environment limit the distribution of species
  • Ecologists recognize global and regional patterns
    of distribution of organisms within the biosphere
  • Biogeography study of distribution of organisms

19
Biographic realms
  • Broad patterns of distribution

20
Dispersal and Distribution
  • Dispersal
  • Is the movement of individuals away from centers
    of high population density or from their area of
    origin
  • Contributes to the global distribution of
    organisms

21
Natural Range Expansions
  • Natural range expansion show the influence of
    dispersal on distribution

Spread of great-tailed grackle 1974-1996
22
Natural Range Expansions
Cattle egretNative to the Old World. First
reported in South America in 1877
23
Species Transplants
  • Species transplants
  • Include organisms that are intentionally or
    accidentally relocated from their original
    distribution
  • Can often disrupt the communities or ecosystems
    to which they have been introduced

Purple loosestrife-Introduced from Europe
24
Behavior and Habitat Selection
  • Some organisms do not occupy all of their
    potential range
  • Species distribution may be limited by habitat
    selection behavior

25
Biotic Factors
  • Biotic factors that affect the distribution of
    organisms may include
  • Interactions with other species
  • Predation
  • Competition

26
Abiotic Factors
  • Abiotic factors that affect the distribution of
    organisms may include
  • Temperature
  • because of its effects on biological processes
  • Water
  • Sunlight
  • Light intensity and quality can affect
    photosynthesis.
  • Also important to the development and behavior of
    organisms sensitive to the photoperiod
  • Wind
  • Rocks and soil

27
Wind
  • Wind
  • Amplifies the effects of temperature on organisms
    by increasing heat loss due to evaporation and
    convection
  • Can change the morphology of plants

28
Rocks and Soil
  • Many characteristics of soil limit the
    distribution of plants and thus the animals that
    feed upon them
  • Physical structure
  • pH
  • Mineral composition

29
Climate
30
Climate
  • Climate is the prevailing weather conditions in a
    particular area
  • Four major abiotic components make up climate
  • Temperature, water, sunlight, and wind

31
Climate scale
  • Climate patterns can be described on two scales
  • Macroclimate, patterns on the global, regional,
    and local level
  • Microclimate, very fine patterns, such as those
    encountered by the community of organisms
    underneath a fallen log

32
Sunlight Intensity
  • Sunlight intensity plays a major part in
    determining the Earths climate patterns

33
Sunlight Intensity
34
Air circulation and wind patterns
35
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36
Landscape features contribute to local variations
in climate
37
Bodies of Water
  • Oceans and their currents, and large lakes
    moderate the climate of nearby terrestrial
    environments

38
Mountains
  • Mountains have a significant effect on
  • The amount of sunlight reaching an area
  • Local temperature
  • Rainfall

39
Microclimate
  • Microclimate is determined by fine-scale
    differences in abiotic factors.
  • Shade from a tree
  • Wind blockage by a boulder
  • Low-lying area that collects moisture

40
Biomes
  • Biomes Are the major types of ecological
    associations that occupy broad geographic regions
    of land or water

41
Aquatic Biomes-distribution
42
Aquatic Biomes
  • Aquatic biomes
  • Account for the largest part of the biosphere in
    terms of area
  • Can contain fresh or salt water
  • Oceans
  • Cover about 75 of Earths surface
  • Have an enormous impact on the biosphere

43
Stratification of aquatic biomes
  • Stratified into zones or layers defined by light
    penetration, temperature, and depth

44
Lakes
Nutrient rich / oxygen poor
Nutrient poor / oxygen rich
45
Wetlands
46
Streams and Rivers
47
Estuaries
A transition area between rivers and the ocean
48
Intertidal Zones
49
Oceanic pelagic biome
50
Coral Reefs
51
Marine benthic zone
52
Terrestrial Biomes
  • Climate
  • largely determines the distribution and structure
    of terrestrial biomes
  • important in determining why particular
    terrestrial biomes are found in certain areas

53
Climate and Terrestrial Biomes
  • climograph

54
Terrestrial biomes-distribution
55
Terrestrial Biomes
  • Terrestrial biomes
  • Are often named for major physical or climatic
    factors and for their predominant vegetation

56
Tropical Forest
57
Desert
58
Savanna
59
Chaparral
60
Temperate grassland
61
Coniferous forest
62
Temperate broadleaf forest
63
Tundra
TUNDRA
Denali National Park, Alaska, in autumn
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