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The Byzantine Empire

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The Byzantine Empire World History Constantinople Surrounded on 3 sides by water; good for trade and defense a shipping and trading hub Capital of Eastern Roman ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Byzantine Empire


1
The Byzantine Empire
  • World History

2
Constantinople
  • Empire was a blend of Christian, Roman, Greek
    (official language) culture
  • Survived centuries of riots, religious
    discord,wars, 88 leaders
  • Seized by Turks in 1453Renamed Istanbul
  • Surrounded on 3 sides by water good for trade
    and defense
  • a shipping and trading hub
  • Capital of Eastern Roman Empire heavily
    influenced by Roman culture
  • Christian city from the beginning

3
Emperor Justinian
  • What Justinian Accomplished
  • Came to throne at age 45. Considered the most
    ambitious ruler
  • Acted as head of church and state
  • Drove barbarians out of North Africa, Spain, and
    Italy
  • Expanded Byzantine Empire but failed to recapture
    Rome
  • Built bridges, churches, hospitals, libraries and
    parks
  • How Justinian was Described
  • While alive he was described as devout,
    determined, and energetic
  • After death, Procopius referred to him as
    two-faced and cruel
  • Legal Codes
  • Scholars revised laws and created Corpus Juris
    Civilis
  • This code of Justinian influenced many Western
    legal Codes

4
Empress Theodora
  • She convinced her husband to expand womens
    rights in the empire
  • She angered Justinian by giving orders that
    cancel his orders
  • She was known to destroy her enemies.
  • She started programs to help the poor and the
    homeless
  • Convinced Justinian he should crush the Nika
    rebellion instead of fleeing
  • Theodora
  • Born into lower class as daughter of a
    bear-keeper
  • Worked as an actress and dancer when she was
    young
  • Married Justinian while in her 20s
  • Equaled and sometimes surpassed Justinians in
    political skill and wisdom

5
The Hagia Sophia
  • Key Points in the History of the Hagia Sophia
  • Built during the reign of Justinian largest of
    Justinians 25 new cathedrals
  • Built in 5 years 532-537 Known as Church of Holy
    Wisdom
  • When Constantinople fell to the Turks, Hagia
    Sophia became a mosque
  • Today it is a museum
  • Size, pillars, and enclosed space show Roman
    influence
  • Intricate and ornate design shows Eastern
    influence
  • Cathedral shows blending of east and west in the
    Byzantine Empire
  • Style spread to Russia S. Italy
  • Important Concepts Found in Hagia Sophias
    Architecture
  • Plain exterior symbolizes earthly life
  • Ornate interior Spiritual universe

6
Icon of Mary and Jesus
  • Icons
  • Icons are pictures of important Christians or
    sacred events. They take the form of murals,
    mosaics, or wooden panels.
  • In the West, Icons were to be respected.
  • In the East, Icons were used, although many
    disapproved of them.

7
How the Great Schism Happened
  • Btwn. 800 and 1000 eastern and western Christians
    fought over icons and spiritual power
  • Christians in the Holy Roman Empire used icons
    because few people could read
  • Some Christians in the Byzantine Empire
    disapproved of showing devotion to icons.
  • Byzantines also struggle with Rome over power
  • In 1054, the Christian church split into two
    churches forever.
  • Orthodox Church
  • Orthodox is Greek for correct belief
  • Masses conducted in Greek Bible translated into
    various languages
  • Patriarch appointed by Byzantine emperor
  • Bishops celibate priests could marry
  • Catholic Church
  • Catholic is Latin for universal
  • Masses conducted in Latin
  • Pope thought to be supreme religious authority
  • Clergy were celibate

8
Trade Routes in the Byzantine Empire
  • A Hub of Trade and Culture
  • Connected 3 continents with a vast trade network
    of caravans, rivers, seaways, and roads
  • Constantinople became the center of religion and
    trade after the fall of the Roman Empire, until
    its own demise in 1453 at the hands of the
    Ottoman Turks
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