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Origins of the Cold War

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Title: Origins of the Cold War


1
Origins of the Cold War
2
A Wartime Alliance Begins to Erode
  • What visions did the US and USSR have for postwar
    Europe?

3
Soviet Union
  • Security fueled Stalins decisions-Germany had
    attacked the USSR, so he wanted to create a
    friendly buffer zone of friendly communist states
    to protect them.
  • Stalin wanted the USSR to have a sphere of
    influence in Eastern Europe for protection.

4
United States
  • President Truman (US) wanted to allow Eastern
    Europe nations to determine their own form of
    government. Given that free choice, he hoped
    they would pick Democracy (free elections).

5
What were the wartime experiences of each country?
  • Soviet Union (USSR)
  • 20 million citizens, 7 million soldiers died.
  • Many died of disease and hunger or killed in
    German labor camps.
  • Crops, farm animals and equipment was all
    destroyed by the Nazis.
  • Cities were leveled.

6
US
  • Suffered far less than USSR
  • 290,000 soldiers died, very limited civilian
    casualties (Pearl Harbor).
  • No battles on US soil (except Pearl Harbor).
  • US economy boomed during the war.

7
What Ideologies Shape Each Country?
  • USSR
  • Believed in communism because capitalism produces
    social inequalities, denies the working class
    (proletariats) a fair share of the nations
    wealth.
  • Communism revolves around single party rule of
    politics and economy.

8
US
  • Believed in democratic government.
  • Capitalist economy (private ownership of
    businesses and services)

9
How did the Superpowers view each other? Why was
the conflict frightening?
  • The USSR and USA both believed their forms of
    government and economic systems were superior
  • The conflict became frightening as both countries
    began developing weapons of mass destruction.

10
How did the USSR respond?
  • Stalin denounced capitalism, publicly stated that
    peace would never exist .

11
What was the USs plan to control nuclear
weapons?
  • The US believed that a policy of containment was
    necessary (communism must not spread).
  • The US encouraged to United Nations (UN) to enact
    strict controls on raw materials used in bomb
    making and a plan on making a ban on the making
    of any future bombs. This also called for UN
    inspections of nuclear power plants and
    facilities.

12
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13
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14
What was the Soviet Union doing in Eastern
Europe?
  • The USSR was a dominate influence in Eastern
    Europe. The Iron Curtain formed-dividing Eastern
    and Western Europe.
  • Communist leaders came to power in Eastern
    European countries with the help of secret police
    (USSR) to silent all opposition.

15
Why would the US be concerned about Greece?
  • Communist rebels wanted to take over the
    democratic Greek government to get important
    shipping areas (channels)

16
How did the US respond to the Communist threats?
  • Truman advocated containing communism (Truman
    Doctrine).
  • Sent US aid to the Greek government to defeat the
    rebels.
  • Congress passed the National Security Act (NSC)
    and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

17
How did the Soviets view the US and its allies?
  • The Soviets viewed the US as hostile powers
    committed to destroying communism and threatening
    Soviet security.
  • They viewed efforts to restrict nuclear weapons
    as a way to maintain a US monopoly on them.

18
What were the conditions in Europe after the war?
  • After the war Europe was in shambles. Cities
    were destroyed and countries were bankrupt. Many
    countries were short on food, fuel and
    electricity.

19
What fears did the US have these conditions?
  • US leaders feared that the conditions in Europe
    would lead to political and social unrest.
    Communism became appealing to many who were
    suffering from difficult times.

20
What plan did the US propose for European
recovery?
  • The Marshall Plan (Sec of State George Marshall)
    Offer all European countries (including the USSR)
    generous funding to rebuild their economies as
    long as the money was spent on goods from the US.

21
How did the Soviets respond to the plan?
  • USSR responded with the Molotov Plan designed to
    aid economic recovery in Eastern Europe.

22
  • During the Cold War much of Europe became
    divided. The United States and the Soviet Union
    waged a war of words, using propaganda,
    diplomacy, economic and military aid and
    espionage (spying) as weapons.

23
The Cold War Expands
  • Chapter 39

24
U-2 Incident
  • On May 1, 1960, the Soviets shot down a U.S. spy
    plane over the USSR.
  • The plane was a U-2, a high-altitude, black
    aircraft known as the Black Lady of Espionage.
  • The U-2 Incident enraged Soviet leaders and
    caused a further chilling in US-Soviet relations.

25
Berlin Blockade
  • The Soviet Union imposed a blockade of Berlin,
    halting all land travel from Allied occupational
    zones.
  • The Soviets believed that the blockade would
    force the Allies to give up Berlin or plans for a
    West German state.

26
Berlin Airlift
  • President Truman ordered a massive airlift.
    270,000 flights into West Berlin, delivering over
    2.5 million tons of supplies!
  • Success!
  • The Soviets ended the blockade and Berlin was
    divided, along with the rest of the country-East
    and West.

27
Coup d'état in Czechoslovakia!
  • Stalin amassed Soviet troops on the Czech border
    and demanded the formation of an all-communist
    government.
  • This sudden government turnover alarmed Truman.
    In Czechoslovakia life drastically changed as
    non-communists were jailed and freedoms were
    taken away.

28
  • The coup d'état (sudden government take over) in
    Czechoslovakia showed that Stalin would nnot
    accept government in which power was shared with
    noncommunist's and was prepared to use force.

29
Satellite Nations
  • In the late 1940s the USSR tightened its grip on
    its satellite nations, or nations under one
    countrys control.

30
NATO-Alliance
  • Stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
  • Founding members were the US, Canada, France,
    Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, Iceland,
    Italy, Britain, Denmark, Norway, Portugal,
    Greece, Turkey, and West Germany.

31
Warsaw Pact
  • The Soviet Union formed its own alliance in 1955.
  • USSR, Albania, Czechoslovakia, East Germany,
    Hungary, Poland, and Romania.

32
Hungary test the limits of containment!
  • In 1956, protesters marched through Budapest
    waving flags and calling for democracy.
  • The Soviet Union sent tanks and soldiers to
    Hungary to kill thousands of protester-the leader
    of the revolt was put to death, and communist
    leaders were put back in power.

33
Cold War in Asia
  • After WW II, Communists and Nationalists had a
    civil war in China. In 1949 the communists won,
    and hopes for a noncommunist ally in Asia fell.
  • The US feared that China and USSR would form an
    alliance and pose a great threat to US interests.

34
The Cold War heats up on the 38th parallel!
  • Soviet troops occupied the area to the north of
    the 38th parallel and a pro-Soviet communist
    government came to power.
  • In the south, US officials supported the existing
    noncommunist government.

35
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36
Korean War
  • The war began when North Korean troop armed with
    Soviet weapons attacked South Korea.
  • The UN established a force using troops from 15
    different nations.
  • The final 2 years of the war became a stalemate
    along the 38th parallel.

37
  • The DMZ or Demilitarized Zone became the 38th
    parallel when the war ended and it established a
    buffer zone between North and South Korea.

38
Cold War in the Third World
  • Third World countries are poor, developing
    nations in Latin America, Africa, and Asia.
  • Both the US and USSR used propaganda to exert
    influence over Third World countries and to
    persuade them to join their side.

39
CIA and covert action
  • Covert action is a secret political, economic or
    military action that supports foreign policy.
  • Agents try to shape affairs in foreign countries.
  • During the Cold War the Superpowers used spies,
    satellite photography, wiretapping, and other
    covert methods to have influence in other
    countries.

40
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41
  • When the US found out that the Soviets had an
    atomic bomb, a deadly arms race followed. Both
    superpowers developed weapons of even greater
    destructive force.

42
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43
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44
  • The US tried to use a deterrence strategy. This
    strategy was to develop a weapons arsenal so
    deadly that the Soviets would not dare attack!
  • Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) meant is that
    either side would respond if there was a nuclear
    attack by launching their own missiles and
    ensuring total destruction of the other!

45
SALT- Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
  • In 1972 and 1979 negotiations were made where
    both sides signed treatise setting limits on the
    numbers of nuclear missiles and launching sites.
  • In the 1980s, a missile defense system was set up
    to intercept missiles while they were still in
    flight.

46
Nuclear Power in the Age of Terrorism
  • Today more than a half a dozen countries have
    nuclear weapons or are in the process of
    developing them. The administration of GW Bush
    referred to these countries as rogue states (or
    states/countries that have weapons of mass
    destruction, sponsor terrorism or chemical
    warfare.

47
Fighting the Cold War at Home
  • How did the anxieties raised by the Cold War
    affect life in the United States?
  • Chapter 40

48
Searching for Communists at Home
  • In 1951 the govt published a pamphlet that
    listed 100 questions and answers about communism
    in the US
  • The US not only fought communism in foreign
    countries, but also here at home.

49
Communists Under Suspicion at Home
  • During the depression, many people were attracted
    to the idea of communism-some joined the
    Communist Party.
  • Communist sympathizers are people who believed in
    the ideology, but did not join the party.

50
  • As the Cold War heated up, many people grew
    scared that communists would plot to overthrow
    the govt.
  • To calm this public anxiety, President Truman
    established the Federal Employee Loyalty Program.
    It required federal workers to take a loyalty
    oath to the US.

51
HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee)
  • HUAC investigated communist influence in the film
    industry.
  • The Hollywood 10 were 10 individuals who
    refused to answer HUACs questions. They argued
    the 5th Amendment gave them the right to refuse
    testimony.

52
Hollywood Ten Cont.
  • The committee charged them with contempt of
    Congress (failure to obey the authority of
    Congress).
  • The investigation led studios to make
    blacklists, or lists of people who had (or were
    thought to have) communist sympathies. If
    people appeared on the list, they could not find
    work.

53
  • During the 1950s Americans became increasingly
    concerned with espionage (Soviets spying).
  • A German born physicist named Klaus Fuchs
    confessed that he had spied for the Soviet Union
    while working on the Manhattan Project.
  • From Fuchs, a trail of espionage led
    investigators to Ethel and Julius Rosenberg.

54
Rosenberg Trial
  • The Rosenberg's were charged with passing atomic
    secrets to the Soviet Union.
  • Both defendants were sentenced to death.
  • Many people protested the verdict, contesting the
    evidence was inconclusive.

55
(Ethel and Julius Rosenberg)
56
Joseph McCarthy
  • Senator Joseph McCarthy gained fame and power by
    launching a one-man crusade against communist
    sympathizers in government agencies.
  • He gained public support and helped Republicans
    gain control of the Senate in 1952.
  • Many people were driven out of their jobs because
    of the accusations made against them.

57
(Joseph McCarthy)
58
McCarthyism-
  • The reckless persecution of innocent people
    became known as McCarthyism.
  • Today, the term signifies the practice of
    publicly accusing someone of subversive
    activities with no evidence to back up changes.
  • Eventually (1954)McCarthy took his antics too far
    (accusing the President and the Army of being
    soft on communism), and faded from the scene.

59
The Atomic Age
  • Many novels written in the 1950s imagined WW
    III-a conflict fought with weapons powerful
    enough to destroy all life on Earth.
  • People had fear of total destruction, however
    despite these fears many people were excited
    about nuclear power (for cars, ships, airplanes
    and power plants).

60
Federal Civil Defense Admin.
  • FCDA-
  • Civil defense-organization and training of
    citizens to work with the armed forces and
    emergency services during a war or natural
    disaster.
  • The agency distributes millions of civil defense
    manuals to help prepare people for a nuclear
    attack.

61
1950s Bomb Shelter
62
Civil defense and daily life
  • Many communities set up bomb shelters in public
    buildings.
  • People kept emergency food and water supplies.
  • Across the country tests of warning sirens and
    emergency radio signals were tested every week!
  • Some families built their own bomb shelter in
    their backyards.

63
Children and civil defense
  • In schools children watched a movie featuring
    Bert the Turtle who taught children to duck
    and cover when an emergency siren sounded.

64
  • Throughout the 1950s the FCDA repeated operation
    alerts.
  • For a growing number of people it became an
    opportunity to speak out against the nuclear arms
    race.
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