Introduction to Maritime Transportation: Non-Indigenous Aquatic Invasive Species - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Introduction to Maritime Transportation: Non-Indigenous Aquatic Invasive Species


Introduction to Maritime Transportation: Non-Indigenous Aquatic Invasive Species Dr. Ted Grosholz Department of Environmental Science and Policy – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Maritime Transportation: Non-Indigenous Aquatic Invasive Species

Introduction to Maritime TransportationNon-Indig
enous Aquatic Invasive Species
  • Dr. Ted Grosholz
  • Department of Environmental Science and Policy
  • University of California, Davis

Defining Introduced Species
  • Introduced species (or non-indigenous) are
    those moved outside their normal range due to
    human activities
  • Like extinction, introductions are a natural
    process, but we have increased the natural rate
    by about 106

Defining Invasive Species
  • Invasive species are those introduced species
    that cause measurable economic or ecological
    damage (most do not)
  • Federal Executive Order 13112 states invasive
    species is defined as a species that is (1)
    non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under
    consideration and (2) whose introduction causes
    or is likely to cause economic or environmental
    harm or harm to human health

Ecological Consequences of Biological Invasions
  • Biological invasions are among most important
    threats to global biodiversity, second only to
    habitat loss
  • Invasive species can consume, out compete, and
    drive native species to extinction
  • Invasive species can affect the local diversity
    and functioning of entire ecosystems

Ecological Consequences of Biological Invasions
  • In the U.S., 10 of all plants and animals are
  • Introduced species are a significant risk factor
    for more than 40 of listed threatened and
    endangered species in the U.S.

Economic Consequences of Biological Invasions
  • They cost the worlds economy hundreds of
    billions per year (IUCN)
  • Introduced species cost the U.S. 128 billion per
    year (Pimentel et al. 2000)
  • A significant portion of this includes impacts on
    fisheries, boating, coastal recreation, etc.

Invasions in U.S. Coastal Systems
  • Few if any coastal systems remain without
    introduced species
  • In U.S. waters, 500 spp. of introduced species
  • Great Lakes gt140 spp.
  • Chesapeake Bay gt200 spp.
  • San Francisco Bay gt240 spp.
  • In San Francisco Bay, new species every 14 weeks

Millions of Dollars Spent in California
  • In San Francisco Bay/Delta and elsewhere in CA,
    30 million has been spent over the last two
    decades controlling aquatic weeds
  • In Southern California, the cost of controlling
    the seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia was been 2.5
    million per year
  • New control programs for invasive plants
    (Spartina marsh cord grass) are costing the state
    10-100 thousand per year

Intentional Introductions
  • Many species have been introduced intentionally
    for a variety of reasons
  • Plants (e.g. marsh grasses) have been brought
    into to provide forage for animals or for
    restoration purposes
  • Fishes (e.g. striped bass) and shellfish (e.g.
    oysters) have been introduced to create new
  • Predators/parasites have been introduced for
    biocontrol of agricultural pests (never in a
    marine system though)

Unintentional Introductions
  • Most introduced species have been introduced
    accidentally or unintentionally
  • Most of these have been brought in by transport
    vectors (ships) or as bait or seafood
  • In many cases they have been accidental
    hitchhikers with aquaculture shipments (e.g.

Ballast Water Release
Ballast Water
  • Ballast water is an important source of
    unintended introductions of marine species
  • Water ships take on to stabilize them,
    particularly when they are unloaded
  • Large commercial and military ships may contain
    over a million gallons of water up to 300 species
  • Estimated that 100 million metric tons of ballast
    water with exotic plankton are released daily in
    U. S. waters

Fouling on Ship Hulls
Underwater view of a highly fouled ship hull
showing attached fouling organisms
Hull Fouling
  • Species attached to hull or living in/on others
    are transported among harbors
  • Although fewer organisms, fouling can include
    reproductive adults
  • 800 million square meters of wetted surface area
    into North America per day
  • In U.S., of 171 species introduced due to
    shipping, more are linked to hull fouling than
    ballast water
  • In Hawaii, New Zealand and Australia, hull
    fouling may be the most important vector for

(No Transcript)
Possible vector for coastal NIS introduced to
North America by shipping (n171)
Hull Fouling
  • Risk of hull fouling a function of several
  • Vessel speed
  • Harbor residence time
  • Voyage duration
  • Surface area
  • Last cleaning
  • Areas on vessel not subject to shear (intakes,
    sea chest)
  • New technologies emerging for anti-fouling paints
  • Less toxic compounds (but still effective)
  • Teflon coatings, organisms slough off

Recreational Boats and Trailers
  • Recreational boats and trailers are frequently
    and rapidly transported over significant
  • Little regulation regarding cleaning boats,
    trailers, other exposed equipment

Recreational Boats and Trailers
  • Very likely possibility of zebra mussels invading
  • Several instances of live zebra mussels found on
    boats entering CA
  • A matter of time

Other Shipping Pathways for Introduced Species
  • Docks, barges and oilrigs with fouling can
    introduce organisms
  • Sediments, sands, gravel, or rocks with organisms
    can result in introductions
  • Traps, ropes, anchors, buoys, etc. all can
    transport species to new areas
  • Transport of these items can accelerate the
    movement of species along coasts from initial
    site of introduction

Other Pathways of Introduction
  • Release from home aquariums
  • Escape of live seafood products
  • Dumping of live bait containers and packing

Other Pathways of Introduction
  • Transfers of aquaculture products or fish stocks
  • Intentional introductions to establish new
  • Escape from backyard ornamental ponds

Examples of Impacts
  • Zebra mussels cost 100s million per year in U.S.
    to remove from water pipes, screens, intakes
  • Aquatic plants (Hydrilla, Egeria, Water Hyacinth)
    and seaweed invasions (Caulerpa in So. CA) cost
    CA millions per year
  • In CA, Chinese mitten crabs, European green crabs
    and other have also resulted in substantial costs

ExampleSan Francisco Bay
  • Asian Clam (Potamocorbula amurensis)
  • Has eliminated seasonal cycle of planktonic
    plants that support the SF Bay foodweb
  • Asian Copepods (Limnoithona tetraspina, Tortanus
  • Replaces native copepods, not good food for
  • Introduced species may are likely contributing
    significantly to the decline of fishes/pelagic
    organisms in SF Bay (the Pelagic Organism Decline

ExampleSan Francisco Bay/Delta
Native Copepod
Introduced Copepod
ExampleSan Francisco Bay/Delta
From California Dept. of Fish and Game
Example San Diego and Orange County
  • The invasive alga Caulerpa taxifolia (Med.) had
    huge impacts in Mediterranean where no control
    measures used
  • In CA since 2001, it has cost more than 6
    million for its eradication
  • Officially declared eradicated Feb. 2006

ExampleSac-SJ Delta
  • Chinese Mitten Crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) live in
    freshwater as juveniles then return to Bay to
  • Mitten Crabs clogged Fish Salvage Facilities in
    1998 and nearly shut down the Tracy facility
  • Could shut down irrigated agriculture statewide

Solutions Early Detection
  • Most cost-effective investment is fund a regular
    survey of high priority sites of introduction
  • Early detection of an invasion can allow
    eradication just after the species has become
  • An annual survey of 6 high priority sites in CA
    could be accomplished cheaply saving the state

SolutionsRapid Response
  • Eradication is only possible as the result of
    early detection and a very rapid response
  • A comprehensive rapid response plan for priority
    species is required for effectively dealing with
    a new invasion
  • Prior agreements/MOUs outlining authorities and
    means of coordination must be in place before the
  • Public education to raise awareness about the the
    risks and costs of invasions

Solutions Eradication
  • Eradication is difficult but not impossible if
    initiated early in the invasion
  • Several successful eradications in
    marine/estuarine systems
  • Striped mussel (Mytilopsis sallei) in Australia
  • Abalone parasite in California (Terebrasabella
  • Caulerpa taxifolia in southern California
  • Brown algae (Ascophyllum nodosum) in SF Bay

Policy Issues Ballast Water Legislation
  • Federal legislation (mandatory reporting)
  • NISA (1996)
  • NAISA (near future)
  • State legislation
  • California AB 703 (1999) and AB 433 (2003)
  • CA State Lands Comm. and US Coast Guard
  • Requires flow through exchange or open ocean
    exchange beyond 200 nm and 2000 m depth (ships
    gt300 GRT)
  • Requires reporting, ballast management plan,
    ballast water log, personnel training, etc.

Policy Issues Ballast Water Legislation
  • Future
  • Alternate Ballast Water Exchange Areas (ABWEA)
  • For ships coming from outside 200 nm without
    exchanging, provide alternate exchange sites
  • New technologies possible for ballast treatment
  • Ship based (e.g. cyclonic separation,
    deoxygenation, filtration, UV, chemicals)
  • Shore based (e.g. feed to existing treatment

Case Study Port of Oakland Expansion
  • Plans to expand the Port of Oakland
  • In 2001, Center for Marine Conservation and San
    Francisco BayKeeper sued ACE, USFWS and NMFS
  • Environmentalists argued that expansion would
    violate ESA and NEPA by bringing in more ballast
    water and introduced species into the bay
  • The risk of increased ballast release and
    invasive species are a concern for several new or
    expanding ports along the west coast

Case StudyThe Mothball Fleet
  • Section 1158 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1986
    (46 USC App. 1158) gives the Secretary of
    Transportation the authority to sell or scrap
    obsolete vessels transferred to or acquired by
  • Section 6 of the National Maritime Heritage Act
    of 1994 (PL 103-451) directs the Secretary of
    Transportation to dispose of vessels in the
    National Defense Reserve Fleet not assigned to
    the Ready Reserve Force
  • This Suisun Fleet was considered for ship
    breaking in Newport, OR
  • Concern about introducing species from SF Bay to
    Newport Bay, since ships sitting for years
    without cleaning

Case StudyThe Mothball Fleet
  • Two ships were monitored as they were moved from
    Suisun through Panama Canal to the Gulf of Mexico
    (40 days)
  • Many organisms died but some (barnacles,
    hydroids) made it through the ocean-freshwater
  • Concern about the movement of retired vessels
    will continue to be an important issue for MARAD

For More Information
  • Aquatic Bioinvasion Research and Policy Institute
  • West Coast Ballast
  • http//
  • Smithsonian Marine Bioinvasions Laboratory
  • http//
  • Reducing the Introduction and Distribution of
    Non-Native Invasive Species (RIDNIS)
  • http//
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