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PARTS OF SPEECH

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Title: PARTS OF SPEECH


1
PARTS OF SPEECH
  • TAUGHT BY PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH

LAY SENGHOR 016 940 392
2
I
HE
SHE
THEY
IT
3
What is a pronoun?
  • Definition
  • A pronoun is a word used instead of noun or
    name, to avoid the repetition of it.
  • A pronoun is a part of speech that substitutes
    for nouns or noun phrases and designates persons
    or things asked for, previously specified, or
    understood.

4
PRONOUNS
  • Classification and Definition

Self-pronoun
Personal pronoun
Possessive pronoun
Demonstrative pronoun
Relative pronoun
Interrogative pronoun
Indefinite pronoun
Reciprocal pronoun
5
What is a personal pronoun?
  • Definition
  • A personal pronoun is a kind of pronouns that
    is used to denote the three persons.

Second person
First person
Third person
6
  • Personal pronoun is divided
  • Subject Object

me
WE
I
us
you
YOU
him
HE
them
THEY
her
SHE
IT
it
one
ONE
7
FUNCTIONS OF PERSONAL PRONOUN
  • 1/ Subject of a verb
  • They want to conduct a diplomatic negotiation
    with Sarah Palin about war in Pakistan.
  • 2/ Object of a verb
  • I met them in New York during election
    campaign.

8
  • 3/ Direct / Indirect object
  • Obama provided it to them in conference after
    election.
  • 4 / Object of a preposition
  • Ronaldo waits for me at the street corner.
  • 5 / Subjective complement
  • If I were you, I shouldnt do that.





9
THE USE OF ( IT)
  • 1/ Subject of verb
  • I have a dog. It is called Tony.
  • 2/ Object of a verb
  • I cant find it anywhere today.
  • 3/ Formal subject
  • Sometimes, it is difficult to make a decision.

10
  • 4/ Formal object
  • I consider it as my duty to return gratitude
    to my parents for supporting me to study more
    English.
  • 5/ Subject of impersonal verb
  • - Natural phenomenon - Time Distance
  • It rains. It takes 3 days.. It takes 2 km.

11
  • 6/ Emphatic sentence
  • Sok broke the glass. It was Sok that broke the
    glass.( It be noun that..)
  • 7/ In familiar expression
  • It is said that.
  • It is believed that.
  • It is reported that.

12
  • 8/ For thing without life
  • Here is your picture, take it away.
  • 9/ In speaking of the weather or the time
  • It is cold today.
  • It was 4 oclock when she arrived.
  • 10/ For a young child
  • When I saw the child. It was crying.

13
What is a possessive pronoun?
  • Definition
  • A possessive pronoun is a kind of pronouns
    that is used to show possession and is used to
    replace the possessive adjective plus noun.
  • Ex- I heard his vioce. It is really his.

14
REMARK ON DOUBLE POSSESSIVE
  • Ex- Please show me one of your picture.
  • Ex- Please show me a picture of yours.
  • Ex- She introduced me to one of Soks friends.

NOUN OF POSSESSIVE PRONOUN
15
POSSESSIVE PRONOUN
  • Singular Plural

mine
ours
yours
his
yours
hers
its
theirs
ones
16
What is a self-pronoun?
  • Definition
  • A self-pronoun is a kind of pronouns which is
    used to show that the subject does something for
    himself or to emphasize the role of subject or
    object.
  • Ex- He killed himself.
  • Ex- I myself shot the tiger yesterday.

17
SELF- PRONOUN
  • Singular Plural

myself
ourselves
yourself
himself
yourselves
herself
themselves
itself
oneself
18
SELF- PRONOUN
  • SELF- PRONOUN IS DIVIDED INTO 2

Reflexive pronoun
Emphasizing pronoun
19
REFLEXIVE PRONOUN
  • 1/ Object of the verb
  • Hillary loves herself too much.
  • 2/ Indirect object
  • We cant teach ourselves English.
  • 3/ Object of preposition
  • Obama and Clinton work for themselves.
  • Note reflexive pronoun cant be omitted.

20
EMPHASIZING PRONOUN
  • 1/ To emphasize the subject
  • The hunter himself killed the big tiger.
  • 2/ To emphasize the object
  • I have met Sarah Palin herself.
  • Note emphasizing pronoun can be omitted and
    can be put right after the subject, object or at
    the end of the sentence.

21
What is a relative pronoun?
  • Definition
  • A relative pronoun is a kind of pronouns that
    is used to introduce an adjective clause.

that
whom
who
whose
as
which
22
  • FOR PERSON
  • WHO ( THAT) - SUBJECTIVE CASE
  • This is the man who brings me the news.
  • WHOM ( THAT) OBJECTIVE CASE
  • The girl whom you told me is standing there.

23
  • FOR THINGS
  • WHICH ( THAT) SUBJECT/ OBJECT
  • Palin lends me a book which is very
    interesting.
  • This is the novel which we are talking about.
  • This is an information which we provided

24
  • WHOSE - For person
  • The mother whose boy died in the accident is
    crying painfully.
  • OF WHICH - For thing
  • The house of which roof is red belongs to my
    uncle.
  • AS is used as a relative pronoun after such
    pronoun and sometimes after the same pronoun.

25
What is a demonstrative pronoun?
  • Definition
  • A demonstrative pronoun is a kind of pronouns
    that is used to point out person or things.

THAT
THIS
THOSE
THESE
26
ones
such
  • To avoid repetition
  • Ex-There are two shirts. I like the red ones.
  • Ex-Those students are clever ones.
  • Ex-Such are people, Ive never met.

27
What is an interrogative pronoun?
  • Definition 016 940 392
  • An interrogative pronoun is a kind of pronouns
    used to make questions.

which
what
who
whose
28
  • For person
  • what is used to ask for occupation.
  • which is used to ask for choice.
  • who is used to ask for identification.
  • whose is used to ask for possessor.
  • For things
  • what - is used to ask for information.

29
What is an indefinite pronoun?
  • Definition.
  • An indefinite pronoun is a kind of pronouns
    that is used to refer to number, but not any
    number in particular.
  • one both each either neither
  • several all every whole some
  • any a little many much a lot of..

30
What is a reciprocal pronoun?
  • Definition
  • A reciprocal pronoun is a kind of pronouns
    that is used to show reciprocity between subject.
  • Ex-In our society, we must depend on one
    another.
  • Ex-Romeo and Juliet loved each other.

31

32
What is a noun?
  • Definition 016 940 392
  • A noun is a name of anything. It may be the
    name of a person, an animal, a place an action, a
    quality, or a state of being.
  • Ex- a teacher, a sword, a bird, a town,
  • revenge, loyalty, laziness..

33
KINDS OF NOUN
  • THERE ARE TWO MAIN KINDS OF NOUN

ABSTRACT NOUN
CONCRETE NOUN
34
What is a concrete noun?
  • Definition 016 940 392
  • A concrete noun is a kind of nouns that we can
    see and touch.
  • Ex- teacher, school, laptop, car, plane
  • book, cat, telephone, girl, ..

35
KINDS OF CONCRETE NOUN
  • THERE ARE THREE KINDS OF CONCRETE NOUN

COMMON NOUN
???????
??????????????
COLLECTIVE NOUN
????????
PROPER NOUN
36
What is a common noun?
  • Definition 016 940 392
  • A common noun is a kind of nouns that we can
    share in common.
  • Common Noun is divided

COUNTABLE NOUN
UNCOUNTABLE NOUN
37
What is a proper noun?
  • Definition 016 940 392
  • A proper noun is a kind of nouns that refers
    to a name of particular persons, animals,
    places
  • Ex- Phnom Penh, London, Oslo, Paris
  • Kopenhagen, Budapest, Cambodia
  • Kampot, Pursat, Kampong Thom

38
What is a collective noun?
  • Definition 016 940 392
  • A collective noun is a kind of nouns that
    refers to a number of things, animals or person
    as a whole.
  • Ex- class, people, cattle, crew,
  • committee, police.

39
What is an abstract noun?
  • Definition 016 940 392
  • An abstract noun is a kind of nouns that we
    can not see and touch.
  • Abstract Noun may refer

ACTION
STATUS
QUALITY
40
FORMATION OF ABSTRACT NOUN
1/ ADJECTIVE NESS
  • Ex- happiness, laziness, greatness,
  • bitterness..
  • Ex- length, width, breath, youth, depth

2/ ADJECTIVE TH
41
  • Ex- materialism, heroism, socialism.
  • Ex- friendship, ownership, scholarship..

3/ ADJECTIVE OR NOUN ISM
4/ NOUN SHIP
42
  • Ex- boyhood, childhood, neighborhood...
  • Ex- construction, dictation, action..

5/ NOUN HOOD
6/ VERB ION
43
  • Ex- freedom, kingdom, wisdom
  • Ex- management, judgement

7/ ADJECTIVE OR NOUN DOM
8/ VERB MENT
44
  • Ex- hunting, swimming, jogging, doing
  • Ex- love, taste, touch, fear, hate, smell

9/ VERB ING
10/ SOME VRBS
45
SOME KINDS OF NOUNS
COMPOUND NOUN
NOUN EQUIVALENT
DERIVATIVE NOUN
AGENT NOUN
MARTERIAL NOUN
AGGREGATE NOUN
46
What is a compound noun?
  • Definition
  • A compound noun is a kind of nouns which
    consists of two, three or more parts and is
    created by
  • Ex- postcard, bookcase, newspaper..

1/ NOUN NOUN
47
  • Ex- sawing machine, swimming pool..
  • Ex- grandson, whiteboard, redpen..

2/ GERUND NOUN
3/ ADJECTIVE NOUN
48
  • Ex- overcoat, upland, foresight.
  • Ex- pickpoket, cutpurse, cutthroat..

4/ ADVERB/ PREPOSITION NOUN
5/ VERB NOUN
49
6/ VERB ADVERB
  • Ex- breakdown, buildup, farewell
  • Ex- income, outlook, input.

7/ ADVERB VERB
50
  • Ex- spokesman, salesman, sportsman
  • statesman.

8/ POSSESSIVE CASE NOUN
51
What is a noun equivalent?
  • Definition
  • A noun equivalent is a kind of nouns which is
    created by
  • Ex- He arrived at the airport on time.

1/ PRONOUN
52
2/ GERUND
  • Ex- Swimming is a good exercise.
  • Ex- The rich must help the poor.

3/ ADJECTIVE PRECEDED BY ( THE )
53
  • Ex- To be loved is happy.
  • a- Nominative absolute phrases
  • Ex- A bird in a hand is better than two in
  • bush.

4/ INFINITIVE
5/ NOUN PHRASES
54
  • b- Infinitive phrases
  • Ex- To win the election is a victory for
  • candidates after election campaign.
  • c- Gerund phrases
  • Ex- Giving speeches made him proud to
  • his nation after being elected.

55
  • Ex- We know that hell win the election.
  • Ex- How the prisoner escaped was
  • unknown.

6/ NOUN CLAUSE
56
GENDER OF NOUN
  • Gender of noun can be
  • A noun that is the name of a male being.
  • Ex- man, son, father, ox, dog, nephew

1/ MASCULINE GENDER
57
  • A noun that is the name of a female
  • being.
  • Ex- woman, daughter, mother, cow,
  • niece..

2/ FAMININE GENDER
58
  • A noun that is the name of either male
  • or female being.
  • Ex- friend, neighbor, teacher, child..

3/ COMMON GENDER
59
  • A noun that is the name of something
  • without life.
  • Ex- tree, table, bicycle,house, car.

4/ NEUTER GENDER
60
SOME NOTES OF GENDER
  • 1/ Object distinguished for greatness,
  • power, sublimity are regarded as
  • Masculine.
  • Ex- Mine left his victims in sorrow.
  • 2/ Object of sentiment distinguished for
  • grace, beauty, gentleness are regarded
  • as Faminine.
  • Ex- Let peace holds everywhere.

61
  • 3/ Name of countries, ships, engines, cars,
  • most small animals and insects are
  • regarded as Faminine.
  • Ex- Were talking about Cambodia and
  • her industry.
  • 4/ Most large animals are considered as
  • Masculine.
  • Ex- Lion is not afraid of any animals.

62
FORMATIONS OF NOUNS
noun
prefix
  • Ex- untruth, inaction, disregard, forehead,
    prepayment, recovery, underskirt.

pre
re
un
under
in
fore
dis
63
noun
ian
ist
ful
prefix
  • Ex- musician, physician, violinist,
  • guitarist, mouthful, pocketful
  • kingdom, childhood, brotherhood,
  • friendship, patriotism, leadership

ism
ship
dom
hood
64
suffix
VERB
  • Ex- reader, operator, liar, action,
  • agreement, arrangement, swimming.

ING
ER
OR
AR
ION
MENT
65
suffix
  • Ex- freedom, realism, darkness, safety

ADJECTIVE
DOM
TY
NESS
ISM
ITY
66
FUNCTIONS OF NOUNS
  • 1/ SUBJECT OF A VERB
  • Teachers came late this morning.
  • 2/ SUBJECT COMPLEMENT
  • My friend is a tycoon.
  • 3/ OBJECT OF A VERB
  • Bird builds a nest in the forest.
  • 4/ DIRECT/ INDIRECT OBJECT
  • Obama gave me a plane last month.

67
  • 5/ OBJECT OF PREPOSITION
  • She is waiting for teacher at the street
  • corner.
  • 6/ COGNATE OBJECT
  • I dreamed a good dream last night.
  • 7/ ADVERBIAL EQUIVALENT
  • He worked ten hours a day.

68
  • 8/ OBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT 016 940 392
  • We considered him a great patriot.
  • 9/ APPOSITION
  • Soyavaraman, a famous king, built Angkor Wat
    in the half of 21 century.
  • 10/ ADJECTIVE EQUIVALENT
  • Did you see my brothers book here?

69
VERB016 940 392
  • THERE ARE TWO MAIN KINDS OF VERB

FINITE VERB
NON-FINITE VERB
70
What is a finite verb?
  • Definition
  • A finite verb is a kind of verbs which always
    changes to subjects and tenses.
  • Ex- Obama wants to conduct an ugent peace talk
    with North Korea to restore an economic crisis in
    his administration.

71
FINITE VERB
  • FINITE VERB IS DIVIDED INTO 5

TRANSITIVE VERB
INTRANSITIVE VERB
LINKING VERB
IMPERSONAL VERB
SPECIAL VERB
72
What is a transitive verb?
  • Definition
  • A transitive verb is a verb which needs object
    or objects.
  • A transitive verb is a verb that has no a
    complete meaning by itself.

73
What is an object?
  • Definition 016 940
    392
  • An object is the person or thing affected by
    the action described in the verb.
  • KINDS OF OBJECT

DIRECT OBJECT
INDIRECT OBJECT
74
KINDS OF TRANSITIVE VERB
  • TRANSITIVE VERB CAN BE DIVIDED

2
MONO TRANSITIVE VERB
DITRANSITIVE VERB
75
What is a mono transitive verb?
  • Definition
  • A mono transitive verb is a kind of transitive
    verbs that requires an object.
  • Ex- Hillary speaks English.
  • Ex- Palin kisses me.
  • Ex- I love my daughter.

76
What is a ditransitive verb?
  • Definition
  • A ditransitive verb is a kind of transitive
    verbs which requires two or more objects.
  • Ex- Obama gave a speech to his patriots
  • after economic clout.
  • Ex- Former khmer Rouge leaders provided
    documents to CDC last month.

77
What is an intransitive verb?
  • Definition
  • An intransitive verb is a verb that has a
    complete meaning by itself in sentence.
  • An intransitive verb is a kind of verbs that
  • may be modified by an adverb, an adverb
    equivalent or cognate object.

78
  • Ex- The injured man died painfully.
  • Ex- She went to school.
  • Ex- She dreamed a good dream.
  • Ex- I run
  • Ex- She sleeps.
  • Ex- He works.

79
What is a linking verb?
  • Definition
  • A linking verb or incomplete intransitive verb
    is one that joins the subject and subjective
    complement.
  • A linking verb or copular verb is a kind of
    verbs which does not express action, but helps
    complete statements about the subject by
    describing or identifying it.

80
LINKING VERBS ARE
BE
LOOK

SEEM
STAY
GET
SOUND
GROW
TURN
REMAIN
TASTE
APPEAR
SMELL
BECOME
FEEL
81
What is a special verb?
  • Definition016 940 392
  • A special verb is a kind of verbs that can not
    stand alone in the sentence.
  • SPECIAL VERB IS DIVIDED
  • 1/ PRINCIPLE AUXILIARY VERBS
  • 2/ MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS

82
What is an auxiliary verb?
  • Definition
  • An auxiliary verb is a kind of verbs which is
    used with other verbs to express moods or tense.

do
be
have
can
must
will
shall
may
ought to
used to
dare
need
83
What is a principle auxiliary verb?
  • Definition
  • A principle auxiliary verb is a special verb
    which can be used to help simple verbs make
    negative, interrogative sentence and to create
    tense and aspect.
  • Ex- She does not speak English.

84
KINDS OF PRINCIPLE AUXILIARY VERB
  • Principle auxiliary verbs are

3
DO
HAVE
BE
85
What is a modal verb?
  • Definition
  • A modal verb is a kind of verbs which is used
    to modify the meaning of the main verbs in some
    ways.
  • A modal verb is a kind of verbs that is used
    to express necessity or possibility, and change
    the main verb in that sense.

86
HOW TO NOTE MODAL VERB IN SENTENCES
  • 1/ Modal verbs have no s / es / ies form.
  • 2/ Modal verbs have no to infinitive form.
  • 3/ Modal verbs have no participle form.
  • 4/ Modal verbs form the questions by
  • inversion and negatives by adding ( not ).

87
MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS
  • ARE

CAN
USED TO
MAY
DARE
WILL
NEED
SHALL
OUGHT TO
MUST
88
MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS
  • ARE DIVIDED INTO
  • 2

PURE MODALS
SEMI-MODALS
MAY
OUGHT TO
NEED
CAN
WILL
MUST
SHALL
DARE
USED TO
89
What is a pure modal auxiliary verb?
  • Definition016 940 392
  • A pure modal auxiliary verb is used to express
    ideas in sentences.
  • Ex- I could swim quite well when I was
    younger.
  • Ex- Bush, former president of the United
    States of America, must resign after election.

90
What is a semi-modal auxiliary verb?
  • Definition
  • A semi-modal auxiliary verb is a kind of modal
    auxiliary verbs which is partly like modal verbs
    and partly like main verbs.
  • Ex- I need not come to work tomorrow.
  • Ex- Palin used to speak English at home.

91
What is an impersonal verb?
  • Definition
  • An impersonal verb is a verb which is used to
    express a natural phenomenon and a measurement.
  • Ex- It takes three hours to get to the
    airport.
  • Ex- It takes five kilometers from my house to
    the college.

92
What is a non-finite verb?
  • Definition
  • A non-finite verb is a verb that does not
    change to subject and tense.
  • Ex- Obama wants to reform his nation after
    Bushs administration.
  • Ex- Clinton stopped working as a senator in
    New York after election.

93
NON-FINITE VERB
  • NON-FINITE VERB IS DIVIDED INTO
  • 3

INFINITIVE
GERUND
PARTICIPLE
94
What is an infinitive verb?
  • Definition016 940 392
  • An infinitive verb is a name of certain verb
    forms that exists in many languages.
  • An infinitive of a verb is its basic form with
    or without the particle ( to ).

95
KINDS OF INFINITIVE VERB
  • INFINITIVE CAN BE DIVIDED INTO
  • BARE INFINITIVE
  • FULL INFINITIVE
  • SPLIT INFINITIVE

3
96
What is a bare infinitive?
  • Definition
  • A bare infinitive verb is a kind of verbs that
    is not preceded by infinitive marker.
  • Ex- appreciate, felicitate, coordinate,
    persue, reproduce

97
HOW TO USE BARE INFINITIVE
  • 1/ Bare infinitive is used as the main verb after
    the dummy auxiliary verb ( do ) or most modal
    auxiliary verbs ( can, will..).
  • 2/ Bare infinitive is used after several verbs of
    perception ( see, watch, hear and sense ) take a
    direct object and a bare infinitive, where the
    bare infinitive indicates an action taken by the
    main verbs direct object.

98
  • 3/ Bare infinitive is used after several verbs
    of permission or causation including ( make, bid,
    let, and have ).
  • Ex- She always makes me cry.
  • 4/ Bare infinitive is used as present
    subjunctive form and imperative form.
  • Ex- PAD always demands Thai prime minister be
    dismissed.

99
  • Ex- I heard Cambodian prime minister speak in
    the conference yesterday.
  • Ex- I see a prisoner be beaten in Uganda.
  • Ex- Sarah Palin watches her speech be broadcast
    on CNN everyday.
  • Ex- Obama feels USA be transformed after
    election campaign.

100
What is a full infinitive verb?
  • Definition
  • A full infinitive verb is a kind of verbs
    which is preceded by infintive marker.
  • Ex- to resume, to conduct, to detain,
  • to kiss, to judge, to arbitrate..

101
HOW TO USE FULL INFINITIVE
  • 1/ Full infinitive is used like a noun phrase to
    be a subject of a verb.
  • Ex- To speak is very difficult.
  • 2/ Full infinitive is used like an adjective or
    adverb, expressing purpose or intent.
  • Ex- He is the man to talk to.

102
  • 3/ Full infinitive is used as an object of a
    verb.
  • Ex- She wants to speak English with me.
  • 4/ Full infinitive is used after the direct
    object of many transitive verbs.
  • Ex- I asked her to make his case on his behalf.

103
What is a cleft infinitive?
  • Definition016 940 392
  • A cleft infinitive verb is a verb form with an
    element, usually an adverb, interposed between
    infinitive marker and the verb form.

to adverb verb
104
HOW TO USE CLEFT INFINITIVE
  • 1/ Cleft infinitive verb is used to emphasize
    subject.
  • Ex- He wants me to strongly cry.
  • Ex- Hillary wants Obama to strictly revise the
    USA after election.
  • Ex- Palin wants Prad Pitt to strongly love her
    after marriage.

105
What is a gerund?
  • Definition
  • A gerund is a verbal form that ends in ing
    and functions in a sentence as a noun.
  • FORM

VERB ING
106
HOW TO USE GERUND
  • 1/ Gerund can be used as a subject.
  • Ex- Travelling might satisfy your desire for new
    experience.
  • 2/ Gerund can be used as direct object.
  • Ex- They do not appreciate my singing.
  • 3/ Gerund can be used as subjective
    complement.
  • Ex- My cats favourite activity is sleeping.

107
  • 4/ Gerund can be used as object of preposition.
  • Ex- The police arrested him for speeding.
  • 5/ Gerund can be used after verb pattern
  • admit, avoid, carry on, consider, delay,
  • deny, dislike, cant help, enjoy, finish

108
  • justify, keep, mention, mind, practise
  • give up, imagine, include, involve..
  • 6/ Gerund can be used after special phrases
  • to be busy, couldnt help, dont mind,
  • feel like, how about, it is no good
  • it is no use, spend on time, there is no
  • there is no point, what a bout, worth

109
What is a participle?
  • Definition
  • A participle is a verbal form having some
    characteristics and functions of both verb and
    adjective.
  • A participle is a verb form that combines with
    an auxiliary verb to indicate certain tenses.

110
PARTICIPLE
  • PARTICIPLE IS DIVIDED INTO
  • 2

PRESENT PARTICIPLE
PAST PARTICIPLE
V ED/ V3
V ING
111
What is present participle verb?
  • Definition
  • A present participle verb is a kind of verbs
    that ends in ing form and functions as verb and
    as attributive verb.
  • Ex- talking, swimming, starting, making
  • travelling, studying, moving, being.

112
HOW TO USE PRESENT PARTICIPLE
  • 1/ The present participle is used to form the
    present action or progressive aspect.
  • Ex- Susanna is learning English at CUE.
  • 2/ The present participle is used as adjective
    to modify noun.
  • Ex- The watering can that is used by Obama is
    mine.

113
  • 3/ The present participle is used to modify a
    verb or sentence.
  • Ex- Broadly speaking, the project was
    successful.
  • Ex- Broadly smiling, Hillary got expertise from
    college in New York in 2009.

114
What is a past participle verb?
  • Definition
  • A past participle verb is a kind of verbs that
    is finished by ( suffix -ed ) or changed to other
    form that depends on verbs.
  • Ex- visited, wanted, cried, stayed
  • allowed, spoken, written, paid..

115
HOW TO USE PAST PARTICIPLE VERB
  • 1/ Past participle verb is used to form perfect
    aspect.
  • Ex- He has studied English since 1999.
  • 2/ Past participle verb is used to form passive
    voice.
  • Ex- The chicken was eaten after two- hour cook
    yesterday.

116
  • 3/ Past participle verb is used to modify a
    noun, active sense.
  • Ex- Our fallen comrades
  • 4/ Past participle verb is used to modify a
    noun, passive sense.
  • Ex- The attached files

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  • 5/ Past participle verb is used to modify a verb
    or sentence.
  • Ex- Seen from his perspective, the problem
    presents no easy solution.
  • Ex- Considered as a hero in the USA, Obama tried
    best to restore the nation.

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What is an adverb?
  • Definition
  • An adverb is a word which modifies the meaning
    of a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a
    phrase, a clause or a whole sentence.
  • Ex- Obama absolutely wants to solve the
    conflict between Pakistan and the USA.

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KINDS OF ADVERB
  • ADVERB IS DIVIDED INTO
  • 7

PLACE
MANNER
INTERROGATIVE
DEGREE
TIME
FREQUENCY
AFFIRMATION
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What is an adverb of place?
  • Definition
  • An adverb of place is a kind of adverbs that
    is used to show where the action happens.
  • Ex- Please wait for me right here.

121
What is an interrogative adverb?
  • Definition
  • An interrogative adverb is a kind of adverbs
    that is used to make questions.
  • Ex- Where is he from?
  • Ex- Why are you so late?

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What is an adverb of frequency?
  • Definition
  • An adverb of frequency is one that is used to
    show how often the action happens.
  • Ex- I have told him twice about that.
  • Ex- My secretary often makes mistakes.

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What is an adverb of time?
  • Definition
  • An adverb of time is an adverb that is used to
    show when the action happens.
  • Ex- I have heard this story before.

124
What is an adverb of manner?
  • Definition
  • An adverb of manner is an adverb that is used
    to show how the action is done.
  • Ex- The teacher reads the text clearly.
  • Ex- The short course is well organized.

125
What is an adverb of degree?
  • Definition
  • An adverb of degree or quantity is a kind of
    adverbs that is used to show how much or in what
    degree or what extent the action happens.
  • Ex- He was too careless in his speech.

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What is an adverb of affirmation?
  • Definition
  • An adverb of affirmation is a kind of adverbs
    which is used to indicate that a statement is
    true or that in some other ways to affirm it.
  • Ex- I have definitely decided to go to Paris.

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ADVERB EQUIVALENT
  • Adverb equivalent is a kind of adverbs that is
    made from
  • 1/ Some adjectives.
  • Ex- We take a fast train.
  • 2/ Adverb phrase
  • Ex- Sok studies hard to become a good doctor
    in his country.

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  • 3/ Adverb clauses
  • Ex- Sok reads the newspaper while he is riding
    on the bus.
  • Ex- His wife follows him wherever he goes.
  • Ex- We go early so that we can get the good
    seats.

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FORMATIONS OF ADVERB
  • 1/ NOUN WARD eastward
  • 2/ A NOUN away, afire
  • 3/ IN NOUN indeed
  • 4/ AL ADVERB already
  • 5/ ADV ADV whenever
  • 6/ ADV PRE hereby.
  • 7/ SOME HOW somehow.

130
FUNCTIONS OF ADVERB
  • 1/ Adverb is used to modify a verb
  • Ex- Linda runs quickly out of the house.
  • 2/ Adverb is used to modify an adjective
  • Ex- Those workers are quite lazy.
  • 3/ Adverb is used to modify another adverb
  • Ex- Hillary studies hard during the exam.

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  • 4/ Adverb is used to modify adverbial clause
  • Ex- I like this house simply because it is near
    the supper market.
  • 5/ Adverb is used to modify adverbial phrase
  • Ex- I see an angel flying exactly over my house.
  • 6/ Adverb is used to modify a whole sentence
  • EX- May be, I will go with you.

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What is an adjective?
  • Definition
  • An adjective is a word that is used to modify
    the meaning of noun.
  • Ex- Cambodian country, ugly face

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KINDS OF ADJECTIVE
  • ADJECTIVE CAN BE DIVIDED INTO
  • 8

PROPER
INDEFINITE
RELATIVE
DESCRIPTIVE
INTERROGATIVE
DEMONSTRATIVE
NUMERAL
POSSESSIVE
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What is a proper adjective?
  • Definition
  • A proper adjective is an adjective that
    delivered from proper nouns.
  • Ex- Cambodia Cambodian
  • England English
  • Angkor Angkorian

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What is a descriptive adjective?
  • Definition
  • A descriptive adjective is an adjective that
    tells something aout the nature, appearence and
    properties of noun.
  • Ex- beautiful girl, round table, deep sea
  • ugly face, big guy, small chair.....

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What is a numeral adjective?
  • Definition
  • A numeral adjective is an adjective which is
    used to tell the number.
  • 2

ordinal
cardinal
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What is a relative adjective?
  • Definition
  • A relative adjective is a kind of adjectives
    that is used to introduce a noun clause.
  • They qualify a noun in the subordinate clause.
  • Ex- You may take whichever book you like.

138
What is an interrogative adjective?
  • Definition
  • An interrogative adjective is an adjective
    that is used to make questions.
  • Ex- Which student is cleverest in the class?
  • Ex- What color is the best?

139
What is a possessive adjective?
  • Definition
  • A possessive adjective is a kind of adjectives
    that stands before noun to show possession.
  • Ex- Where is your suitcase?

140
What is an indefinite adjective?
  • Definition
  • An indefinite adjective is an adjective that
    stands before nouns to show a certain quantity.
  • Ex- I met some US soliers on my way home.

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What is a demonstrative adjective?
  • Definition
  • A demonstrative adjective is an adjective that
    is used to point out person or thing.
  • Ex- That villa is newly built.
  • Ex- Those men are candidates.

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What is a compound adjective?
  • Definition
  • A compound adjective is a kind of adjectives
    that is formed from

present participle
NOUN
adjective
past participle
noun ed
143
  • Ex- house-keeping, home-made
  • dog-cared, lion-hearted.

ADJECTIVE
adjective
present participle
past participle
noun ed
144
  • Ex- dark-blue, light-green, soft-spoken
  • sweet-smiling, long-lived, four-footed
  • Ex- hard-working, well-advised, well-done

ADVERB
present participle
past participle
145
What is an adjective equivalent?
  • Definition
  • An adjective equivalent is an adjective which
    is formed from
  • 1/ Present participle
  • Ex- I hear the singing bird in the bush.
  • 2/ Past participle
  • Ex- She found her lost pendant yesterday

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  • 3/ Absolute adjective phrase
  • Ex- That girl is wearing a hat bigger than her
    head.
  • 4/ Present participle phrase
  • Ex- The man sitting on the bench is an English
    teacher.
  • 5/ Past participle phrase
  • Ex- The wach found yesterday is mine.

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  • 6/ Infinitive phrase
  • Ex- Hurry up, it is about time to go to the
    airport.
  • 7/ Prepositional phrase
  • Ex- He is a man of action.
  • 8/ Relative pronoun
  • Ex- The girl who loves me is Palin.
  • 9/ Relative adverb

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FORMATIONS OF ADJECTIVE
  • SOME ADJECTIVES ARE FORMED

ary
ory
ar
y
ful
like
some
ate
less
NOUN
ly
ous
ic
an
ious
en
ial
al
ant
ent
eous
149
  • Ex- windy, foggy, airy, leafy
  • hopeful, painful, fearful
  • hopeless, painless
  • mountainous, dangerous, courageous
  • distant, vacant, confident, frequent
  • formal, cultural, colonial, industrial
  • artistic, democratic, patriotic, friendly

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  • motherly, teacherly, monthly, yearly
  • daily, lifelike, warlike, familiar,
    circular
  • congratulatory, honorary, necessary
  • satisfactory, fortunate, wooden, African
  • Cambodian, bothersome

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  • ADJECTIVES FORMED FROM
  • ANOTHER ADJECTIVES

al
some
ADJECTIVE
ish
fold
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  • Ex- classical, periodical, historical
  • greenish, whitish, reddish, bluish
  • twofold, threefold, manyfold
  • wholesome, gladsome, worrysome

A
IN
IR
DIS
IM
ADJECTIVE
UN
PRO
IL
NON
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  • Ex- atropic, disagreeable, disobedient
  • disloyal, illegal, illogical, illegible
  • immoral, impossible, impolite, invisible
  • irregular, unlucky, pro-governmental
  • nonexistent, nonpolitical, pro-royalistic
  • anti-governmental, under-developed..

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VERB

ABLE
IVE
active
eatable
IBLE
beakable
restorative
visible
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POSITIONS OF ADJECTIVE IN SENTENCES
  • 1/ Generally before a noun
  • Ex- He is a good student.
  • 2/ After linking verbs
  • Ex- Hillary looked pale after election campaign
    in 2008.
  • 3/ After a noun
  • Ex- Book one, Orussey two, two meters deep, 19
    years old,.

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