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Title: Imperialism

  • Chapter 21
  • AP European History

  • The building of an empire
  • the process by which one state, with superior
    military strength and more advanced technology,
    imposes its control over the land, resources, and
    population of a less developed region. p 820

  • Dual Mandate
  • Civilizing
  • Resources
  • Industrialization spurs imperialism
  • Need for resources
  • Need for markets to sell manufactured goods
  • Nationalism (empirestrength, power)

Types of Imperialism
  • Colonial Imperialism
  • Old style imperialism
  • Common in the 16th and 17th centuries
  • Complete takeover
  • Colonial powers set up new governments
  • Imposition of culture upon natives
  • Migrations and settlement of people from the
    mother country to the colony

Types of Imperialism
  • Political Imperialism
  • Use of diplomacy or military force to influence
    internal affairs of a weaker nation
  • The stronger nation doesnt completely control
    the weaker one, but has a great deal of influence

Types of Imperialism
  • Economic Imperialism
  • Desire to control global trade and commerce
  • The stronger nation attempts to control the
    economy of the weaker nation so as to exploit
    them for economic gain
  • Social-cultural Imperialism
  • Forcing (or encouraging) a region to adopt the
    language, customs, religion etc. of the stronger

Imperialism and Social Darwinism
  • Social Darwinism and Racism would be used to
    justify imperialism
  • Herbert Spencer
  • Houston Stewart Chamberlain
  • White Mans Burden
  • Rudyard Kipling

New Imperialism
  • In the 1800s, a new wave of imperialism began
  • Focus on Africa and Asia
  • Known as Neo-Colonialism or New Imperialism

British Empire
  • the sun never sets on the British Empire

The British Empire
  • Great Britain would create a huge empire with
    colonies and protectorates all over the world
  • India (see notes in section on British Raj)
  • Egypt (see notes in section on Africa)
  • South Africa (see notes in section on Africa)
  • Dominions in Canada, Australia, New Zealand

Scramble for Africa
  • Before the 1800s, European contact was largely
    limited to the coastal areas
  • Europe forced to do business with the native
  • Ie. Songhai, Asante, etc.
  • Europeans were largely ignorant of the interior
    areas of sub-Saharan Africa

Scramble for Africa
  • South Africa was one of the areas of Africa to
    experience European aggression.
  • First settled by Dutch
  • Est. Cape Town as shipping location
  • 1795 British seized Cape Town
  • South African Dutch (aka Boers or Afrikaners)
    fled into a region of South Africa known as
    Transvaal (known as the Great Trek)
  • Discovered diamonds and gold
  • British want the resources

Scramble for Africa
  • Boer Wars (1880-1881 and 1899-1902)
  • British fight the Boers (Afrikaners) for access
    to resources
  • British win annexed the territory and added all
    of South Africa to their empire
  • Africans forced to work in gold and diamond mines

Scramble for Africa
  • Although part of the British Empire, South Africa
    exercised a significant amount of self-rule
  • Drafted a constitution
  • Only white men could vote
  • Africans had few rights
  • System of legal segregation later developed
  • Apartheid (1948-1994)
  • (comparable to Jim Crow in the American South)
  • 1912 Educated Africans created the African
    National Congress to oppose European colonialism

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Scramble for Africa
  • Egypt had been part of the Ottoman Empire since
  • Ottoman control was minimal
  • local rulers, called beys, had more power than
    the rulers back in Istanbul
  • 1798 Napoleon invaded in attempt to add Egypt to
    his empire
  • Muhammad Ali led Egypt to defend Egypt from
    foreign domination
  • 1805 Ottoman Sultan named Ali pasha or viceroy
    of Egypt
  • Although the Ottoman Empire still saw Egypt as
    part of its territory, Ali controlled Egypt

Scramble for Africa
  • Egypt begins to industrialize and westernize
  • Ali emphasized cotton production to give Egypt a
    valuable trading commodity
  • 1869 Suez Canal construction completed to
    connect the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean
  • France helped construct the canal, but Egypt had
    to borrow from Europe to pay for construction

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Scramble for Africa
  • Attempts at industrialization and westernization
    caused Egypt to accumulate debt
  • Began to sell stock in the Suez Canal to pay
    debts Britain biggest investor
  • By 1882, Britain controlled the canal and had
    gotten involved in Egypt to the point that Egypt
    was viewed as a protectorate of Britain
  • Although it kept its own government, Egypt had
    been added to the British empire
  • Would remain somewhat tied to Britain until a
    revolution in 1952

Scramble for Africa
  • 1884 Berlin Conference
  • Otto Von Bismarck hosted conference to discuss
  • Agreed to rules for colonization of Africa
  • Nations must notify each other of their claims
  • Effective Occupation to avoid war among the
    rival nations

Scramble for Africa
  • By 1914, nearly all of Africa was controlled by a
    European power
  • Except Ethiopia and Liberia
  • Impact of Colonization of Africa
  • Europeans put into power positions
  • Britain allowed more self-rule b/c it was
    overburdened by colonies elsewhere
  • Western culture spread
  • Traditional African culture started to fall apart
  • Islam also grew in popularity due to competition
    with Christianity
  • Africans were forced to work to produce cash
    crops for Europeans
  • European boundaries did not follow traditional
    boundaries set up by the people of Africa
  • Rival tribal groups forced together, or
    communities split apart

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Asia in an Age of Imperialism
  • Like Africa, Asia was also affected by
    imperialism in the 1800s.
  • India fell to British rule
  • China was broken into Spheres of Influence
  • Japan became an imperial power

British Raj in India
  • By 18th Century, Mughal Empire in decline
  • Conflict among Hindus and Muslims weakened the
  • French and British slowly made their way into
    dominant roles
  • France and Britain fight, France defeated
  • Britain becomes the dominant European force in
  • British East India Company uses troops to conquer
    Bengal (Bangladesh)

British Raj in India
  • Over next 100 years, British slowly take over
  • British East India Company used sepoys to guard
    their administrative buildings
  • Sepoy Indian troops who served the British
  • The Sepoy Mutiny (1857) spelled the end for
    Mughal rule in India
  • Sepoys revolted against the British East India
    Company, which prompted the British government to
    get involved
  • 1858 Britain declared India a royal colony and
    the last of the Mughal rulers (Bahadur Shah II)
    was exiled
  • The monarch of Britain was officially recognized
    as the ruler of India (Queen Victoria)

British Raj in India
  • Indian government was administered from London
  • Sent people to govern in the name of Britain
  • Tried to preserve Indian traditions, but
  • Indian Civil Service supplied members of the
  • Mostly British
  • Britain helped to industrialize and modernize
  • Railroads, canals, urbanization, telegraph lines

British Raj in India
  • Although Britain had a firm hold on India, many
    dreamed of independence
  • Some middle class and educated Indians formed the
    Indian National Congress (1885)
  • Call for greater Indian involvement in govt.
  • Try to begin path toward independence
  • The British raj (British rule of India) would
    last until 1947

Spheres of Influence in China
  • China isolated throughout much of its history
  • Up until 1830s, Europeans restricted to Canton
    for trade
  • Strict limitations on outside influence
  • As European nations grew more powerful through
    industrialization and weaponry, they were
    increasingly able to push China around

Spheres of Influence in China
  • Opium was a major product the British imported
    into China
  • Chinese government eventually banned the
    substance due to its addictive and harmful
  • British government reacted negatively
  • Resulted in war (Opium Wars)
  • Two separate wars, both victories for Britain
  • China forced to open up to western influences

Spheres of Influence in China
  • Foreign nations began to see China as weak
  • They too demanded increased access to China
  • Europeans created Spheres of Influence in China
  • Invested money, built military bases, created
    businesses, etc.
  • Open Door Policy advocated by the U.S.
  • Called for equal access to Chinese markets

Spheres of Influence in China
  • The Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists
    (A.K.A. Boxers) organized a rebellion
  • Goal to drive Europe and Japan out of China
  • Used guerilla warfare tactics to murder Christian
    missionaries and attack foreign embassies
  • The Boxer Rebellion was eventually put down
  • China was forced to sign the Boxer Protocol
  • China forced to apologize and pay European
    nations for costs incurred during the rebellion

The Fate of China
  • Chinese culture started to alter due to foreign
  • 1901 foot binding abolished
  • 1905 Civil Service examination system abolished
    after 2,000 years of use
  • And, Chinese Dynastic rule came to an end
  • 1911-1912 uprising resulted in end of Qing rule
    and establishment of a republic

Japan Builds an Empire
  • During 17-18th Centuries, Japan avoided foreign
  • Even restricted its own citizens from traveling
  • Japan developed a highly ethnocentric society
  • Downside, their isolation kept them from adopting
    new technologies

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Japan Builds an Empire
  • 1853 U.S. sent Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan
    to negotiate ties
  • Arrived by steamship- unknown to Japan
  • Japan quickly realized their inability to compete
    with western powers
  • Begins plans to industrialize and modernize
  • Japan slowly opened itself up to foreign
  • Signed treaties with Europeans granting them
    access to Japanese markets
  • Japan emerges as a world power as result of
    changes and Meiji Restoration

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Japan Builds an Empire
  • Many grew resentful of foreign influence and
    revolted against the shogunate
  • Known as Meiji Restoration
  • shogun was overthrown and power given to the
  • Began widespread changes to modernize Japan

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Japan Builds an Empire
  • By 1870s, Japan had started its own Industrial
  • Under the emperor a new bureaucracy was formed
  • Even drafted a constitution and created an
    elected legislature
  • However, voting rights were restricted
  • Transportation and communication systems
  • Samurai class abolished and modern military
  • Economic transformation
  • End of feudalism, industry implemented, private
  • Increased emphasis on education

Japan Builds an Empire
  • Japans new power made them nearly equal with the
  • Able to negotiate trade on an equal footing with
  • Began to turn its eyes to other nations in Asia
  • 1895 war with China- gained control of Taiwan
    and Korea
  • 1904 Russo-Japanese War- defeated Russia and
    gained access to Manchuria and established a
    sphere of influence there
  • This war helps to solidify Japans place as a
    world power