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Exploring the External Environment:

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Title: Exploring the External Environment:


1
Exploring the External Environment Macro and
Industry Dynamics
2
THE COLA WARS
Coca-Cola sells a billion servings in cans,
bottles, and glasses every day. You can grab a
Coke in almost 200 countries. Its archrival,
Pepsi, isnt too far behind. Like ford versus
Chevy, theirs is a battle not just for customer
dollars, but for their hearts and minds as well.
The History Channel, Empires of industry. Cola
Wars
3
THE COLA WARS (TIMELINE)
4
EXTERNAL CONTEXT OF STRATEGY
External environment
  • An internal analysis is just half of what is
    needed to build strategy
  • The SWOT and more complicated frameworks help us
    understand the full picture

5
COMPARATIVE INDUSTRY WIDE LEVEL OF
PROFITABILITY, 1995 2004
Weighted average return on invested
capital Percent
Bever-ages
Ciga-rettes
Pharma-ceuticals
Eatingesta-blish-ments
Steel
Rail-roads
Truck-ing
Bott-lers
Comp-uters
Agri-cul-turalproducts
Pre-packagedsoftware
Air-lines
Wire-lesspro-viders
Source Data from Standard and Poors CompuStat
6
THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE ORGANIZATION
Macro Environment Political, Economic,
Sociocultural, Technological, Environmental,
Legal
Industry Environment
Strategic Group
The Organization
7
KEY QUESTION TO ASK
What macro environmental conditions will have a
material effect on our ability to implement our
strategy successfully?
8
UNDERSTANDING THE MACRO ENVIRONMENT USING A
PESTEL ANALYSIS
  • How stable is the political environment?
  • Tax policies
  • Etc.

Political
  • Projected interest rates?
  • Inflation?
  • Etc.

Economic
  • Lifestyle trends?
  • Demographic changes?
  • Etc.

Socio-cultural
  • Level of government research funding?
  • How mature is technology?
  • Etc.

Technological
  • Is intellectual property protected?
  • Relevant consumer laws?
  • Etc.

Legal
9
PRESSURES FAVORING INDUSTRY GLOBALIZATION
Competition
Markets
Governments
Costs
  • Interdependent countries
  • Homogeneous customer needs
  • Favorable trade policies
  • Large scale and scope economies

Source Adapted from M.E. Porter, Competition
in Global industries (Boston Harvard Business
School Press, 1986) G. Yip, Global Strategy in
a World of Nations, Sloan Management review
311 (1989), 29-40
10
COMPETITION DRIVES PROFITS TO A NORMAL LEVEL
11
ANALYZING INDUSTRY STRUCTURE USING FIVE FORCES
  • Threat of New Entrants (and Entry Barriers)
  • Absolute cost advantages
  • Proprietary learning curve
  • Access to inputs
  • Government policy
  • Economies of scale
  • Capital requirements
  • Brand identity
  • Switching costs
  • Access to distribution
  • Expected retaliation
  • Proprietary products
  • Complementors
  • Number of complements
  • Relative value added
  • Barriers to complement entry
  • Difficulty of engaging complements
  • Buyer perception of complements
  • Complement exclusivity

Industry value chain from raw materials and
other inputs, to channel to end consumer
  • Buyer Power (Channel and End consumer)
  • Bargaining leverage
  • Buyer volume
  • Buyer information
  • Brand identity
  • Price sensitivity
  • Threat of backward integration
  • Product differentiation
  • Buyer concentration vs. industry
  • Substitutes available
  • Buyers incentives
  • Supplier Power
  • Supplier concentration
  • Importance of volume to supplier
  • Differentiation of inputs
  • Impact of inputs on cost or differentiation
  • Switching costs of firms in the industry
  • Presence of substitute inputs
  • Threat of forward integration
  • Threat of Substitutes
  • Switching costs
  • Buyer inclination to substitute
  • Price-performance tradeoff of substitutes
  • Varity of substitutes
  • Necessity of product or service

Source Adapted from M.E. Porter, Competitive
Strategy Techniques for Analyzing Industries and
Competitors (New York Free Press, 1980)
12
KEY SUCCESS FACTORS AS BARRIERS TO ENTRY
SOFT DRINK EXAMPLE
Key success factor (KSF)
KSFs
Key asset or requisite skill that all firms in an
industry must possess in order to be a viable
competitor
  • Ability to meet competitive pricing
  • Extensive distribution
  • Ability to raise consumer awareness
  • Broad product mix
  • Global presence
  • Well positioned bottlers and bottling capacity

13
INDUSTRY FRAGMENTATION AND CONCENTRATION
Monopoly
Duopoly
Fragmented
14
CONCENTRATION IN SELECT U.S. INDUSTRIES
Others
Percent of market
Top four competitors
Entirefoodindustry
Animal food
Break-fastcereal
Dairy pro-ducts
Entireapparel industry
Mens and boys apparel
Womens and girls apparel
Source U.S. Census Bureau, Economic Census
Concentration Rations, Economic Census 2002
(accessed July 15,2005),www.census.gov/epcd/www/co
ncentration.html
15
Exit Barriers
Low
High
Low
Low, risky Returns
Low, stable Returns
Entry Barriers
High
High, risky Returns
High, stable Returns
16
CAUSES OF RIVARLY
Barriers to Entry
  • Strong brands
  • Proprietary technology
  • Start-up costs
  • Etc.,

17
Bargaining Power of Suppliers
  • Supplier power increases when
  • Suppliers are large and few in number
  • Suitable substitute products are
  • not available
  • Individual buyers are not large customers of
    suppliers and there are many of them
  • Suppliers goods are critical to buyers
    marketplace success
  • Suppliers products create high switching costs.
  • Suppliers pose a threat to integrate forward into
    buyers industry

18
Supply Chain
Deliver
Make
Deliver
Make
Source
Source
Make
Deliver
Source
CustomersCustomer
Your Company
Supplier
Customer
SuppliersSupplier
19
Supply Chain
Customer Base
Retailer
Retailer
Retailer
Retailer
Wholesaler
Wholesaler
Sell Side
The Firm
1st Tier Supplier
1st Tier Supplier
2nd Tier Supplier
2nd Tier Supplier
Buy Side
3rd Tier Supplier
3rd Tier Supplier
Resources Base
20
Competitors
21
Threat of Substitute Products
  • The threat of substitute products
  • increases when
  • Buyers face few switching costs
  • The substitute products price is lower
  • Substitute products quality and performance are
    equal to or greater than the existing product
  • Differentiated industry products that are valued
    by customers reduce this threat

22
Intensity of Rivalry Among Competitors
  • Industry rivalry increases when
  • There are numerous or equally
  • balanced competitors
  • Industry growth slows or declines
  • There are high fixed costs or high
  • storage costs
  • There is a lack of differentiation opportunities
    or low switching costs
  • When high exit barriers prevent competitors from
    leaving the industry

23
Interpreting Industry Analyses
Low entry barriers
Suppliers and buyers have strong positions
Strong threats from substitute products
Intense rivalry among competitors
Low profit potential
24
Interpreting Industry Analyses
High entry barriers
Suppliers and buyers have weak positions
Few threats from substitute products
Moderate rivalry among competitors
High profit potential
25
Competitor Analysis
  • Competitor Intelligence
  • The ethical gathering of needed information and
    data that provides insight into
  • A competitors direction (future objectives)
  • A competitors capabilities and intentions
    (current strategy)
  • A competitors beliefs about the industry (its
    assumptions)
  • A competitors capabilities

26
Competitor Analysis Components
27
SUPPLIER POWER
Diamond supply Percent
Others
50
When firms in the supply industry can dictate
terms, they can extract greater profits
DeBeers
50
28
BUYER POWER
ILLUSTRATIVE
Industry A
Suppliers
Buyers
Profits
29
THREAT OF SUBSTITUTES
Soft drinks
Movie rentals
Block buster
Coke
Pepsi
Hollywood video
30
IMPACT OF COMPLEMENTOR
Complementor
Any factor that makes it more attractive for
suppliers to supply an industry on favorable
terms or that makes it more attractive for buyers
to purchase products or services from an industry
at prices higher than it would pay absent the
complementor
124
31
MAPPING STRATEGY GROUPS U.S. BICYCLE INDUSTRY
High
Cannondale, GaryFisher, Klein
Huffy,Murray,Brunswick
Price/quality/image
Schwinn/GTMongoose
TrekSpecialized
Low
Independentdealers
Independentdealers and massmerchandisers
Massmerchandisersonly
Principal distribution channels
32
HOW WOULD YOU DO THAT? U.S. AIRLINE INDUSTRY
33
IMPORTANCE OF DYNAMIC STRATEGIC ANALYSIS
Pineapple industrypre-1980s
34
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35
Sales and Profits ()
Sales
Profits
Time
Product Development
Introduction
Growth
Maturity
Decline
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Losses/ Investments ()
36
INDUSTRY LIFE CYCLE
Market Size
Time
Embryonic
Growing
Mature
In Decline
Source Adapted from K. Rangan and G. Bowman,
Beating the Commodity Magnet, Industrial
Marketing Management 21 (1992), 215-224 P.
Kotler, Managing Products through their Product
Life Cycle, in Marketing Management Planning,
Implementation, and Control, 7th ed (Upper
Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall, 1991)
37
WHEN INDUSTRIES DIVIDE OR COLLIDE
Industries Collide
Industries Divide
3-Com
Modems
38
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39
TECHNOLOGICAL DISCONTINUITIES
Example
In disk-drive industry, virtually every new
generation of technology led to demise of market
leader
Southwest airlines radically changed the airline
business model by adopting new processes (e.g., a
point-to-point model)
40
SCENARIO PLANNING
An understanding of the big picture and a plan to
manage uncertainty
Assess the strategic implications of each
scenario
6
Specify indicators that can signal which scenario
is unfolding
5
Flesh out the picture
4
Develop the framework by defining two specific
axes
3
Brainstorm key drivers, decision factors, and
possible scenario departure or divergence points
2
1
Define target issue, time frame, and scope for
scenarios
41
HOW WOULD YOU DO THAT? CREDIT UNION INDUSTRY
Changes in the playing field
Minor
Major
Gradual
Technological Change
Radical
Source Adapted from Credit Union Society, 2005
Scenarios for Credit Unions, an Executive Report
(Madison, WI Credit Union Executives Society,
1999)
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