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Cardiovascular system

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Cardiovascular system * The circulatory system * The function is to transport O2 and nutrients to the cells of the body and to carry away CO2 and other wastes. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cardiovascular system


1
Cardiovascular system
2
The circulatory system
The function is to transport O2 and nutrients to
the cells of the body and to carry away CO2 and
other wastes. To do this, the system must keep
blood constantly circulating.
3
The circulatory system
All vertebrates have a closed circulatory system
where blood is transported in vessels, separate
from the interstitial fluid. In an open
circulatory system (as in arthropods) fluids
return to the heart through ostia or open vessels.
4
Single-loop circulation
Fish have a single-loop circulatory pathway the
heart has a single atrium and a single ventricle.
5
Two-circuits circulation
Amphibians and most reptiles have a two-circuits
circulatory pathway, with the heart divided into
two atria and one ventricle.
6
Two-circuits circulation
Birds and mammals have a two-circuits circulatory
pathway with the heart divided into two atria and
two ventricles.
7
The cardiovascular system
A circulatory system consists of a pump (the
heart), a fluid (the blood) and a series of blood
vessels (the vascular system). All together
those elements form the cardiovascular system.
8
The heart
The heart has four chambers two atria and two
ventricles. A cardiac septum separates the heart
into right and left halves.
9
An artery carries blood away from the heart while
a vein takes the blood to the heart. Cardiac
valves keep blood moving in the correct direction.
10
The heartbeat
Electric rhythmic impulse move the heart. The
contraction is called systole, the relaxation of
the chambers is diastole.
11
The cardiac conduction system
The heartbeat starts from the sinoatrial node
(SA), the impulse-generating (pacemaker) tissue.
The atrioventricular node (AV) causes the
ventricle contraction.
12
Blood vessels
Arteries Blood pressure in arteries and
arterioles carries blood away from the heart.
13
Blood vessels
Veins Skeletal muscle contractions return blood
in veins and venules to the heart.
14
Blood vessels
Capillaries Thin-walled capillaries permit
exchange of materials and gas with the tissues.
15
Pulmonary and systemic circuits
  • Cardiovascular systems includes two circuits.
  • Pulmonary circuit pulmonary arteries take
    O2-poor blood to lungs while pulmonary veins
    return O2-rich blood to the heart.
  • Systemic circuit left ventricles send O2-rich
    blood to aorta vena cava takes O2-poor blood
    back to the right atrium.

16
Pulmonary and systemic circuits
17
Blood pressure
Blood velocity depends on pressure and on
capillaries area. Systolic pressure is the
pressure in arteries during ventricular systole.
Diastolic pressure is the pressure in arteries
during ventricular diastole.
18
Vascular diseases
A stroke (or cerebral ictus) occurs when a small
cranial arteriole bursts or is blocked by an
embolus. A heart attack occurs when a coronary
artery (the artery that brings O2-rich blood to
capillaries of the heart) is completely blocked.
19
Vascular diseases
  • Healthy life style can help to prevent vascular
    diseases
  • refraining from smoking
  • no drugs
  • controlling weight
  • healthy diet
  • monitoring cholesterol
  • exercising

20
Vascular diseases
Cholesterol is an essential component of cell
membranes and is carried by plasmic proteins (LDL
and HDL). Anomalies in quantities of LDL or HDL
can lead to the formation of cholesterol plaque
in blood vessels.
21
Blood functions
  • Transports substances to and from capillaries
    where exchanges occur.
  • Helps the organism defend against pathogens.
  • Helps regulate body temperature.
  • Forms clots to prevent hemorrhages.

22
Blood composition
Blood is composed of a liquid portion called
plasma and formed elements red and white blood
cells, and platelets.
23
Clotting
Blood clotting involves platelets that release
clotting factors at the site of the blood vessel
damage. Fibrin threads provide a meshwork for a
blood clot.
24
Blood stem cells
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), are multipotent
stem cells, found in the bone marrow of adults,
that can produce all the blood cell types. HSCs
can be easily transplanted from pelvic bone.
25
Capillary exchange
  • Between the arterial end and the venus end,
    substances diffuse according to the concentration
    gradient
  • CO2 and waste produced by the cells move in
  • C6H12O6, amino acids and O2 spread out.

26
Capillary exchange
Lymphatic capillaries collect excess tissue fluid
(called lymph) and return it to the vascular
system.
27
AB0 classification system
RBC membranes carry specific carbohydrates and
proteins that behave as antigens when
transplanted in incompatible organisms. Those
antigens are classified as A and B and determine
the type of blood.
RH factor is another important antigen in
matching blood types.
28
AB0 classification system
Agglutination clumping of RBC in the presence of
an antibody that binds multiple antigens and
joins the cells.
Agglutination
No agglutination
29
Online resources
  • http//www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/
    add_ocr_gateway/living_growing/circulatoryrev1.sht
    ml
  • http//www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/
    21c/keeping_healthy/heartdiseaserev1.shtml (pages
    3, 4, 5)
  • http//www.abpischools.org.uk/page/modules/heartan
    dcirculation/index.cfm?coSiteNavigation_allTopic1

30
Animations
  • http//media.wwnorton.com/college/biology/discover
    bio5/full/28_01/start.html
  • http//media.wwnorton.com/college/biology/discover
    bio5/full/28_02/start.html
  • http//media.wwnorton.com/college/biology/discover
    bio5/full/28_03/start.html
  • http//highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/s
    tudent_view0/chapter21/animation__cytotoxic__type_
    ii_hypersensitivity_.html
  • http//highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/s
    tudent_view0/chapter21/animation__hemoglobin_break
    down.html
  • http//highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/s
    tudent_view0/chapter22/animation__conducting_syste
    m_of_the_heart.html
  • http//highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/s
    tudent_view0/chapter22/animation__the_cardiac_cycl
    e__quiz_1_.html
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