Personality - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Personality PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6a6f8b-NDNjO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Personality

Description:

Chapter 10 Personality – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:27
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 33
Provided by: BenahJ
Learn more at: http://central.d127.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Personality


1
Chapter 10
  • Personality

2
Personality
  • Personality Psychological qualities that bring
    continuity to an individuals behavior in
    different situations and at different times
  • Theories help understand the causes of
    similarities and differences among people

3
Psychodynamic Theory
  • Psychoanalytic theory focuses on early
    childhood experiences, unconscious
    motives/conflicts, and methods used to cope with
    sexual aggressive urges

4
Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Unconscious thoughts, memories, desires well
    below the surface of conscious awareness, but
    still exert great influence on behavior
  • Sexual aggressive impulses major source of
    conflict
  • Ambiguous social norms inconsistent messages
    about what is appropriate
  • Thwarted more often than other urges

5
Drives and Instincts
  • Eros (life instincts) drives people towards
    acts that are life giving
  • Libido (energy behind eros) drives people to
    experience sensual pleasure
  • Thanatos (death instincts) drives people toward
    aggressive and destructive behaviors

6
Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory
Id
Primitive, unconscious portion of personality
houses most basic drives and stores repressed
memories
Superego
Ego
7
Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory
Id
Minds storehouse of values, moral attitudes
learned from parents and society same as common
notion of conscience
Superego
Ego
8
Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory
Id
Conscious, rational part of personality charged
with keeping peace between superego and id
Superego
Ego
9
Freuds Model of the Mind
10
Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Psychosexual stages Successive, developmental
    periods with a characteristic sexual focus that
    leave their mark on adult personality

Oral Stage
Anal Stage
Phallic Stage
Latency
Genital Stage
11
Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Ego defense mechanisms Largely unconscious
    mental strategies employed to reduce the
    experience of anxiety or guilt
  • Repression keeping distressing thought/feelings
    in the unconscious
  • Projection attributing ones own thoughts,
    feelings, or motives to another
  • Regression reversion to immature patterns of
    behavior
  • Denial arguing against an anxiety by stating
    that it doesnt exist
  • Undoing attempt to take back thoughts/
    behaviors that are unacceptable

12
More Defense Mechanisms
  • Displacement diverting emotional feelings from
    their original source to a substitute target
  • Reaction Formation acting in a way opposite of
    ones true feelings
  • Sublimation acting out unacceptable impulses in
    a socially acceptable way
  • Rationalization creating false, but plausible
    excuses to justify unacceptable behavior

13
Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Projective tests Personality assessment
    instruments based on Freuds concept of
    projecting hidden motives, interests, conflicts
  • Rorschach inkblot technique
  • Sentence completion
  • Free association
  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

14
Rorschach Inkblot
15
Thematic Apperception Test
16
Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Psychic determinism Freuds assumption that all
    mental and behavioral reactions are caused by
    unconscious traumas desires or conflicts
  • Nothing is accidental

17
Carl Jung Extending the Unconscious
  • Believed that Freud overemphasized sexuality at
    the expense of other unconscious needs and
    desires
  • Disputed the structure of the unconscious
  • Personal unconscious Portion of the unconscious
    corresponding roughly to Freuds id
  • Collective unconscious Jungs addition to the
    unconscious, involving a reservoir for
    instinctive memories including the archetypes,
    which exist in all people

18
Carl Jung Extending the Unconscious
  • Archetypes

Animus
The male archetype
Anima
The female archetype
Shadow
19
Carl Jung Extending the Unconscious
Animus
Archetype representing the destructive and
aggressive tendencies we dont want to recognize
in ourselves
Anima
Shadow
20
Humanistic Theories
  • Third Force
  • Focus on mental capabilities that set humans
    apart
  • Innate drive to grow and fulfill potential
  • How people view the world and respond
  • Humanistic Theories include
  • Gordon Allports trait theory
  • Abraham Maslows self-actualizing personality
  • Carl Rogers fully functioning person

21
Gordon Allport and the Beginnings of Humanistic
  • Traits Stable personality characteristics that
    are presumed to exist within the individual and
    guide his or her thoughts and actions under
    various conditions
  • Central traits form the basis of personality
  • Secondary traits include preferences and
    attitudes
  • Cardinal traits define peoples lives

22
Abraham Maslow and the Healthy Personality
  • Self-actualizing personalities Healthy
    individuals who have met their basic needs and
    are free to be creative and fulfill their
    potentials

23
Carl Rogerss Fully Functioning Person
  • Fully functioning person Term for a healthy,
    self-actualizing individual, who has a
    self-concept that is both positive and congruent
    with reality

24
Carl Rogerss Fully Functioning Person
  • Phenomenal field Our psychological reality,
    composed of ones perceptions and feelings
  • Unconditional positive regard Love or caring
    without conditions attached

25
Evaluating Humanistic Theories
  • Positive psychology Movement within psychology
    focusing on the desirable aspects of human
    functioning, as opposed to an emphasis on
    psychopathology

26
Social-Cognitive Theories
  • More scientific driven by expectations, too
  • Based on principles of learning (Bandura)
  • Observational learning Process of learning new
    responses by watching the behavior of others
  • Personality is a collection of learned behavior
    patterns (skills, attitudes, beliefs, fears)
  • Reciprocal determinism Process in which the
    person, situation and environment mutually
    influence each other

27
Reciprocal Determinism
28
What Persistent Patterns are Found in Personality?
29
Patterns in Personality
  • The Big Five (McCrae) - handout
  • Type Clusters of traits that are not only
    central to a persons personality but are found
    with essentially the same pattern in many people
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
  • Person-situation controversy Theoretical
    dispute concerning the relative contribution of
    personality factors and situational factors in
    controlling behavior (criticizes trait theory)

30
Assessing Traits
  • NEO-PI (Big Five Inventory)
  • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
    (MMPI-2)
  • Must be valid and reliable!!!
  • Measure what it is supposed to and be consistent!

31
What Theories Do People Use to Understand Each
Other?
32
Implicit Personality Theories
  • Implicit personality theories Assumptions about
    personality that are held by people to simplify
    the task of understanding others
  • Fundamental attribution error Assumption that
    another persons behavior (especially undesirable
    behavior) is the result of a flaw in the
    personality, rather than in the situation
About PowerShow.com