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Developmental Psychology

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Title: Developmental Psychology


1
Developmental Psychology
  • Chapter 7
  • Total college-level reading assignment for unit
    (read this over next month) Pages 246 287
    textbook

Prepared byJ. W. Taylor V
2
College level reading HW due
  • Page 247 to 254 (up to Section Summary)

3
Aging Gracefully?
  • Watch this video that shows a familiar face
    changing over the persons lifetime
  • Write down your thoughts about
  • The persons health
  • Apparent mental state
  • Changes that are natural vs elective
  • Lifestyle and occupations effect on appearance

http//www.firecold.com/videos/lindsay-lohans-chan
ging-face-25-years-in-60-seconds-morph
4
How have YOU changed?
  • Look at your school photo taken last year
  • Howve you changed since then?
  • Physically (biologically)
  • Cognitively (your style of thinking, maturity)
  • Socially (friends, romantic relations, family,
    maturity)

5
Developmental psychology unit keywords
6
Key concepts
  • Conception/fertilization
  • Embryo/fetus
  • Prenatal development
  • Nature vs nurture
  • Biological development
  • Cognitive development
  • Social development
  • Moral development
  • 7 stages of human lifespan
  • Infant reflexes
  • Assimilation
  • Accommodation
  • Schema
  • Language acquistion

7
Babies/young kids (pre school age) at home?
  • Please see me would like a class visit if
    possible

8
Developmental Psychology
  • The scientific study of change throughout the
    life span.
  • WRITE one example of your own development in each
    of these areas
  • Biological
  • Cognitive
  • Social
  • Moral
  • Personality

9
  • Nature vs Nurture?

10
Seven Stages of Development
Prenatal Conception to Birth
Infancy Birth to 2 years
Childhood 2 to 12 years
Adolescence 12 to 18 years
Young Adulthood 18 to 40 years
Middle Adulthood 40 to 65 years
Late Adulthood 65 years and over
11
http//learner3.learner.org/series/discoveringpsyc
hology/development/dev_flash.html
  • May use iPad/phone/computer for non-flash version
    or download Flash browser

12
Group assignment
  • Plan and make a hypothetical timeline or
    development display for a family you invent.
  • Include at least one event from each domain of
    development biological, social, cognitive
  • Plan on paper first, then transfer to large sheet
  • Make it pretty (markers, magazines available)

13
Example of a family
  • Mom
  • dad
  • 6 y o son
  • 14 y o daughter,
  • Grandma
  • Describe biological, cognitive and social aspects
    of each person

14
Spare some change?An exploration of my
biological, cognitive and social development over
my lifespan
  • DQ How does my ongoing bio/cog/soc development
    contribute to my identity over my lifetime?
  • Deliverable Personal timeline
  • One month duration

15
Your timeline
  • Due in
  • Create a timeline of your life up till now, and
  • How you predict your life will be until you die
  • See rubric for components
  • Digital version
  • http//www.timetoast.com/timelines/ap-psych-develo
    pment-through-the-lifespan-project-meagan-carr

16
(No Transcript)
17
Prenatal Development and Infancy
18
Homework, all classesParent interview about
your infancy
  • What were you like as a baby? You cant remember,
    but your parents can! Ask them some interesting
    questions (this is a component of your project)
  • Sample questions, make up your own!
  • Mom, what was my birth like for you?
  • What were some of my likes and dislikes as a
    baby/toddler?
  • How was my potty training?
  • Tell me about a time when I really embarrassed
    you/made you laugh

19
College reading quiz on reading next class
  • We will review and then have a short quiz on the
    content. Bring your text book to class.
  • Page 254 265 (from How we think throughout our
    lives to Vygotsky)

20
Prenatal Development DRAW, VID
  • Conception a human begins as a fertilized egg
    (zygote). Combo of genes from mother and father.
  • Prenatal weeks 0 8 Embryo. A bunch of cells
    with some (but not much) definition.
  • Prenatal weeks 8 38 Fetus. Organs and cell
    specialization occurs. Growth.
  • Birth At 9 months.

21
Prenatal development animations LINKS NO LONGER
WORK
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vNhoU4y0Jt04
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vJjkFL54Uado
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vkHybTthWwn0

22
What determines your personality?
  • Combination of genetics (nature)
  • And experience/environment (nurture)
  • Genes from both parents give you your basic
    biological structures (your body) and some
    aspects of your personality, disposition and
    intelligence
  • Sex chromosomes determine if you are male XY or
    female XX

23
Twins
  • 1 egg, 1 sperm 1 zygote. This divides into 2
    and each forms a baby identical (monozygotic)
    twins
  • 2 eggs, 2 sperm 2 zygotes with diferent genetic
    material forms fraternal (dizygotic) twins

24
Things that influence prenatal development
  • Teratogens are environmental agents (such as
    drugs or viruses or chemicals),
  • Diseases (such as German measles),
  • Physical conditions (such as malnutrition)
  • may impair prenatal development and lead to
    birth defects or even death

25
(No Transcript)
26
How We Develop During Infancy
MotorDevelopment
Sensory-PerceptualDevelopment
27
Motor Development infant reflexes
http//www.youtube.com/watch?v8dI1UOziOgg
  • A reflex is an unlearned response to a specific
    stimulus
  • The Babinski reflex occurs when an infant fans
    her toes upward when her feet are touched
  • The grasping reflex occurs when an infant grasps
    any object that touches their palms
  • The rooting reflex leads an infant to turn its
    mouth toward anything that touches its cheeks and
    search for something to suck
  • The sucking reflex leads an infant to suck
    anything that touches its lips
  • The stepping reflex occurs when an infant is held
    upright, used to learn to walk

28
Infant reflex modeling
  • Pretend youre a baby and perform the basic
    reflexes.
  • How do these reflexes help a baby?
  • Babies have basic survival needs food, physical
    protection
  • Babies cant talk and ask for what they need

29
Sensory-Perceptual DevelopmentVIDEO BELOW
  • Preferential-looking technique is used to study
    vision
  • Two visual stimuli are displayed side by side,
    and the researcher records how long the infant
    looks at each stimulus
  • If the infant looks at one stimulus longer, it is
    inferred he can tell the difference between the
    two stimuli and has a preference
  • Video http//www.youtube.com/watch?v8J-JflThHks

30
Sensory-Perceptual Development
  • Habituation decrease in response to a stimulus
    once it becomes familiar. Getting used to
    something.
  • Infants look longer at novel (new) stimuli
  • This tells us the baby can tell the difference
    between new and old
  • Infants also intensity their sucking of a
    pacifier in their mouths when confronted with a
    novel stimulus

31
Sensory-Perceptual Development
  • Vision is the least-developed sense at birth
  • Newborns visual acuity is 20/400 to 20/800
  • Reaches 20/20 within the first year
  • Color vision develops by 2 to 3 months
  • Such stimulation is necessary for proper
    development of the visual pathways and cortex
    during infancy
  • Newborns need to practice looking to form good
    eyesight

32
Sensory-Perceptual Development
  • Hearing in the newborn is more fully developed
    than vision
  • Can distinguish mothers voice
  • This develops in the womb before birth
  • By 6 months, an infants hearing is comparable to
    that of an adult
  • Steadily declines from there. Never as good again

33
Sensory-Perceptual Development
  • The senses of smell, taste, and touch are also
    fairly well-developed at birth
  • Infants can differentiate the smell of their
    mother
  • Infants have innate understanding of objects and
    movement ex, solids cannot pass through each
    other.

34
Sensory-Perceptual Development
  • The brain contains about 100 billion brain cells
    (neurons) at birth stars in our galaxy!
  • Infants brain is immature, connections between
    neurons need to be formed
  • Without visual experiences, the visual pathways
    do not develop - vision permanently lost
  • During infancy, networks of neurons used become
    stronger. Those not used disappear.

35
Brain cell Neuron
36
How We Think Throughout Our Lives
  • How We Learn Language
  • Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development

37
Key concepts
  • Language acquisition
  • Motherese/baby talk
  • Babbling
  • Holophrases
  • Telegraphic speech
  • Overextension
  • Underextention
  • Piaget
  • Sensorimotor stage
  • Preoperational stage
  • Concrete operations
  • Formal operations
  • Object permanence
  • Symbolic representation
  • Conservation

38
How We Learn Language
  • Language unique to humans.
  • Children in different cultures learn to speak
    very different languages, but they all seem to go
    through the same sequence of stages

39
Some brain regions see language (written). Others
hear it. Some interpret language (understanding).
Others generate it (speaking). The right and left
hemispheres perform logical and emotional
functions.
40
Language Stages
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vwxtLhgzntg8
  • Infants communicate through
  • crying, with different cries for hunger and for
    pain,
  • movement
  • facial expressions
  • Prefer baby talk (or motherese) calming,
    melodious speech, short sentences.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?veZclOL7vIQQ

41
Language Stages
  • At about 6 or 7 months, babbling, the rhythmic
    repetition of various syllables, including both
    consonants and vowels, begins
  • At about 1 year of age, the infant begins to
    speak a few words, which usually refer to their
    caregivers and objects in their daily environment
  • Infants use holophrases, words that express
    complete ideas

42
Language Stages
  • Vocabulary grows slowly until about 18 months,
    and then infants learn about 100 words or more
    per month
  • Overextension The application of a newly learned
    word to objects that are not included in the
    meaning of the word (e.g., calling any female
    person mama)
  • Underextension The failure to apply the new word
    more generally to objects that are included
    within the meaning of the new word (e.g., not
    extending the category of dog to include dogs
    that are not the family pet)

43
Language Stages
  • Between 18 and 24 months, children experience a
    vocabulary-acquisition spurt and words are
    combined into sentences
  • Telegraphic speech is the use of 2-word sentences
    with mainly nouns and verbs (e.g., Dada eat for
    Dad is having dinner)
  • These 2-word statements begin to be expanded and
    between the ages of 2 and 5 years, the child
    implicitly acquires grammar of the native language

44
Language Stages
  • Language development is a genetically programmed
    ability
  • However, this ability is not developed without
    exposure to human speech
  • Thus, both nature and nurture are vital to
    language development

45
JEAN PIAGET studied childrens cognitive
abilitiesBorn August 9, 1896 Neuchâtel,
Switzerland Died September 17, 1980 Geneva,
Switzerland 
46
What age and stage can a kid
  • start doing algebra (which uses abstract
    thinking)?
  • learn and use many new words?
  • block your view of the TV without realizing it?
  • understand the concept of money and can count it?
  • understand the idea of justice?
  • forget about the existence of a person when they
    hide behind a corner?
  • realize that a clump of clay broken into two
    smaller clumps is still the same amount of clay?
  • discuss the existence of God and argue for and
    against it?

47
Real live observations!
  • What life stage are these kids in?
  • Observe their
  • Reflexes
  • Motor/sensory coordination
  • Language capability/level
  • Walking
  • Personality/social self
  • Piaget level sensory motor? preoperational?
    Concrete operational?
  • Formal operational?

48
Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Piaget posed problems for children to solve,
    observed their actions carefully, and questioned
    them about their solutions
  • Interested in childrens error, thought
    processes
  • Assumed that a child is an active seeker of
    knowledge and gains an understanding of the world
    by operating on it
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vTRF27F2bn-A

49
Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor Birth to 2 years
Preoperational 2 to 6 years
Concrete operational 6 to 12 years
Formal operational 12 years
50
Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development
51
Sensorimotor Stage
  • Infant learns about the world through their
    sensory and motor interactions (including
    reflexes)
  • Lack object permanence, the knowledge than an
    object exists independent of perceptual contact
  • Symbolic representation of objects and events
    starts to develop during the latter part of the
    sensorimotor stage (e.g., use of telegraphic
    speech)

52
Preoperational Stage
  • Egocentrism is the inability to distinguish ones
    own perceptions, thoughts, and feelings from
    those of others
  • The child, however, can pretend, imagine, and
    engage in make-believe play

53
Preoperational Stage
  • Preoperational children LACK Conservation the
    knowledge that the quantitative properties of an
    object (such as mass, volume, and number) remain
    the same despite changes in appearance
  • Fail the liquid in a tall/wide glass test

54
Tests of Conservation
55
Concrete Operational Stage
  • Children gain a fuller understanding of
    conservation and other mental operations that
    allow them to think logically, but only about
    concrete events
  • Conservation for liquids, numbers, and matter
    acquired early, but conservation of length
    acquired later in the stage
  • Develops logic
  • The reasoning of concrete operational children is
    tied to immediate reality
  • Cannot think abstractedly and break rules they
    know to be true (glass-hammer vs feather-hammer)

56
Formal Operational Stage
  • The child gains the capacity for
    hypothetical-deductive thought
  • Can engage testing of hypotheses
  • Abstract problem solving
  • Can break known logical rules and
    imagine/think abstractedly

57
Formal Operational Stage
  • In one scientific thinking task, the child is
    shown several flasks of what appear to be the
    same clear liquid and is told one combination of
    two of these liquids would produce a clear liquid
  • The task is to determine which combination would
    produce the blue liquid
  • The concrete operational child just starts mixing
    different clear liquids together haphazardly
  • The formal operational child develops a
    systematic plan for deducing what the correct
    combination must be by determining all of the
    possible combinations and then systematically
    testing each one

58
Formal Operational Stage
  • The formal operational child can evaluate the
    logic of verbal statements without referring to
    concrete situations
  • For example, the formal operational child would
    judge the statement If mice are bigger than
    horses, and horses are bigger than cats, then
    mice are bigger than cats to be true, even
    though in real life mice are not bigger than
    cats

59
Evaluation of Piagets Theory
  • 1. Not all people reach formal operational
    thought
  • 2. The theory may be biased in favor of Western
    culture
  • 3. There is no real theory of what occurs after
    the onset of adolescence
  • 4. Despite refinements, recent research has
    indeed shown that cognitive development seems to
    proceed in the general sequence of stages that
    Piaget proposed

60
Schemas
  • Organized units of knowledge about objects,
    events, and actions
  • Cognitive adaptation
  • A useful framework for viewing the world

61
Describe the process of clothes shopping
62
Describe your earliest impression of school
(playschool/kindergarten)
  • Your age?
  • People?
  • Setting?
  • Classes?
  • Feelings?
  • School was a place where

63
First day of middle school (junior high)
  • Age
  • People
  • Setting
  • Classes
  • Feelings
  • School was a place where

64
First day of high school
  • Age
  • People
  • Setting
  • Classes
  • Feelings
  • School was a place where

65
Schemas
  • involve two processes
  • Assimilation is the interpretation of new
  • experiences in terms of present schemes
  • Accommodation is the
  • modification of present schemes to fit with
    new experiences

66
Schemas
  • For example, a child may call all four-legged
    creatures doggie
  • The child learns he needs to accommodate (change)
    his schemes, as only one type of four-legged
    creature is dog
  • Schema gets smaller, more specific
  • Accommodation is learning

67
Assimilation or accommodation?
  • Suzy is 3 and knows how to use a spoon. Shes
    given a fork for the first time, and immediately
    figures out how to use it.
  • Tom is 4 and believes that all cars have 4 doors.
    When his aunt shows up in a 2 door sports car, he
    realizes that car door numbers vary. He changes
    his idea about car door numbers.
  • Mandy calls all men Dada. Eventuall she learns
    that nly one man is her dada. She changes her
    schema to reflect this.
  • Think of a personal example of
  • Assimilation
  • Accommodation

68
Santa Schema at different Piaget cognitive
stages!
  • Sensory motor stage - key concepts developing
    object permanence, developing senses and motor
    control

69
Preoperational
  • Key concepts egocentrism, no conservation,
    increased vocabulary, fantasy/imaginative thinking

70
Concrete operational child
  • Developing logic, understands conservation

71
Formal operations child
  • Logical hypothetical thinker, can break rules
    in logic and suspend imagination

72
Homework reminder parent infancy interview (part
C) due next class
73
Project time
  • Think of a time you felt
  • Embarrassed
  • Angry
  • Sad
  • Love
  • Fear
  • How old were you? What happened? Who was
    involved? Where were you? How did you reflect on
    this experience? How did it change you?

74
Vygotsky - Born November 17, 1896, OrshaDied Ju
ne 11, 1934, MoscowTheory that people develop
through socio-cultural experience and supported
learning
75
Vygotskys Sociocultural Approach to Development
  • Stressed that cognitive abilities develop through
    interactions with others knowledge of ones
    culture
  • Kids learn by experience
  • People support kids with their learning
    experiences

76
  • The zone of proximal development is the
    difference between what a child can do alone and
    what the child could do with the help of others
  • Actual development vs potential development
  • In scaffolding, the parent or teacher adjusts the
    level of help in relation to the childs level of
    performance
  • Different amount of scaffolding needed for
    different individuals

77
Scaffolding and Zone of Prox dev
  • http//www.puzzle.dse.nl/table/index_us.htmltrick
    y_sticks
  • Can you do the puzzles alone? Can you do them
    with some help/clues? Does each of you need the
    same amount of help?

78
Are babies born good, or blank slates?
  • http//www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id50135408n
  • Why do the researches use puppets for the baby
    research?
  • Why use such young babies?
  • After watching puppets be helpful or unhelpful,
    babies later chose the
  • When did babies choose the Unhelpful puppet?
  • How is this research changing our ideas of baby
    cognition and moral development?

79
Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Reasoning
  • stories that involve moral dilemmas to assess a
    persons level of moral reasoning
  • Heinz and the pharmacist
  • Discerned three levels of moral reasoning

80
Kohlbergs Levels of Moral Reasoning
  • 1. At the preconventional level of moral
    reasoning, the emphasis is on avoiding punishment
    and looking out for your own welfare and needs
  • Moral reasoning is self-oriented
  • Dont get caught!
  • 2. At the conventional level of moral reasoning,
    moral reasoning is based on social rules and laws
  • Social approval and being a dutiful citizen are
    important
  • Do what other people tell you is right
  • 3. At the highest level, the postconventional
    level of moral reasoning, moral reasoning is
    based on self-chosen ethical principles
  • Human rights taking precedent over laws the
    avoidance of self-condemnation for violating such
    principles
  • Even if everyone thinks its normal to own
    slaves, I think its wrong and I will stand up
    against it

81
Heinz and the druggist dilemma
  • A woman was near death from a special kind
    of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors
    thought might save her. It was a form
    of radium that a druggist in the same town had
    recently discovered. The drug was expensive to
    make, but the druggist was charging ten times
    what the drug cost him to produce. He paid 200
    for the radium and charged 2,000 for a small
    dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband,
    Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the
    money, but he could only get together about
    1,000, which is half of what it cost. He told the
    druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to
    sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the
    druggist said, "No, I discovered the drug and I'm
    going to make money from it." So Heinz got
    desperate and broke into the man's store to steal
    the drug for his wife. Should Heinz have broken
    into the laboratory to steal the drug for his
    wife? Why or why not?

82
Kohlbergs levels of moral reasoning applied to
the Heinz/druggist dilemma
  • Stage one (obedience) Heinz should not steal the
    medicine because he would consequently be put in
    prison, which would mean he is a bad person. Or
    Heinz should steal the medicine because it is
    only worth 200, not how much the druggist wanted
    for it. Heinz had even offered to pay for it and
    was not stealing anything else.
  • Stage two (self-interest) Heinz should steal the
    medicine because he will be much happier if he
    saves his wife, even if he will have to serve a
    prison sentence. Or Heinz should not steal the
    medicine because prison is an awful place, and he
    would probably experience anguish over a jail
    cell more than his wife's death.
  • Stage three (conformity) Heinz should steal the
    medicine because his wife expects it he wants to
    be a good husband. Or Heinz should not steal the
    drug because stealing is bad and he is not a
    criminal he tried to do everything he could
    without breaking the law, you cannot blame him.
  • Stage four (law-and-order) Heinz should not
    steal the medicine because the law prohibits
    stealing, making it illegal. Or Heinz should
    steal the drug for his wife but also take the
    prescribed punishment for the crime as well as
    paying the druggist what he is owed. Criminals
    cannot just run around without regard for the
    law actions have consequences.
  • Stage five (human rights) Heinz should steal the
    medicine because everyone has a right to choose
    life, regardless of the law. Or Heinz should not
    steal the medicine because the scientist has a
    right to compensation. Even if his wife is sick,
    it does not make his actions right.
  • Stage six (universal human ethics, personal
    conscious) Heinz should steal the medicine,
    because saving a human life is a more fundamental
    value than the property rights of another person.
    Or Heinz should not steal the medicine, because
    others may need the medicine just as badly, and
    their lives are equally significant.

83
Which stage?
  • Its wrong to drive over the speed limit because
    its against the law
  • I wont steal the teachers candy because if I
    get caught it will be embarrassing
  • I will snitch on the kid who cheated so the
    teacher approves of me
  • I must speak out against the gang violence in my
    community even if it makes me look weak
  • Im mad that my classmates cheated but I cant
    snitch because it will make me un popular
  • If I cheat on a test, there will be no academic
    standard upheld in my school and thus no point in
    doing anything correctly

84
Kohlbergs Levels of Moral Reasoning
A Preconventional Morality Preconventional Morality
Stage 1 Punishment orientation Compliance with rules to avoid punishment
Stage 2 Reward orientation Compliance with rules to obtain rewards and satisfy own needs

85
Kohlbergs Levels of Moral Reasoning
Level 2 Conventional Morality Conventional Morality
Stage 3 Good-girl/ good-boy orientation Engages in behavior to get approval of others
Stage 4 Law and order orientation Behavior is guided by duty to uphold laws and rules for their own sake
86
Kohlbergs Levels of Moral Reasoning
Level 3 Postconventional Morality Postconventional Morality
Stage 5 Social contract orientation Obeys rules because they are necessary for social order but understands rules are relative
Stage 6 Universal ethical principles orientation Concerned about self-condemnation for violating universal ethical principles based on human rights
87
  • Arguments AGAINST U.S. Involvement in War in the
    Gulf
  • "We shouldn't consider war...
  • "because we'll have more money for domestic
    issues..."
  • "although atrocities have been committed, it
    would be an even greater atrocity to wage war..."
  • "because we don' t want to appear too
    militaristic..."
  • "because it would hurt our economy..."
  • "even though the situation is bad, war is
    damaging to people and property and society
    agrees that is bad..."
  • "because war is killing and killing is against
    the law..."

88
  • Arguments FOR U.S. Involvement in War in the
    Gulf. We should consider war
  • "because we can gain security of the oil
    supply..."
  • "because our oil is threatened...."
  • "evil is on the march, and it would be morally
    wrong to allow it to continue...."
  • "because we don't want the world to see us as
    weak...."
  • "because the U.N. has laid down written
    resolutions which should be upheld..."
  • "the situation is extreme enough that society's
    rights are threatened and need to be defended..."

89
Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Reasoning
  • Kohlberg proposed that we all start at the
    preconventional level as children and as we
    develop, especially cognitively, we move up the
    ladder of moral reasoning
  • The sequence is uniform however, not everyone
    reaches the postconventional level

90
Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Reasoning
  • Shortcomings of Kohlbergs theory
  • Studied moral reasoning and not moral behavior
  • May not have adequately represented the morality
    of women
  • The higher stages may be biased toward Western
    cultures

91
Stuff you gotta know for quiz
  • Biological development
  • Twins (mono and diygotic)
  • Teratogens
  • Infant reflexes (sucking grasping rooting
    stepping babinski)n
  • Language acquision
  • Babbling, holophrases, telegraphic speech,
    motherese
  • Schemas, assimilation and accommodation
  • Piaget, 4 stages (sensory motor, preoperational,
    concrete operational, formal opereational)
  • Vygotsky and zone of proximal development
    (sociocultural approach to cognitive development)
  • Kohlberg and moral development (6 stages)

92
Attachment and Parenting Styles
  • Attachment is the lifelong emotional bond that
    exists between the infants and their mothers or
    other caregivers, formed during the first six
    months of life

93
Attachment and Harlows Monkeys
  • Harry Harlow separated infant monkeys from their
    mothers at birth and put them in cages containing
    two inanimate surrogate mothers, one made of wire
    and one made of terry cloth

94
Attachment and Harlows Monkeys
95
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vhsA5Sec6dAI
96
Attachment and Harlows Monkeys
  • Half of the monkeys received their nourishment
    from a milk dispenser in the wire and half from a
    dispenser in the terry cloth mother
  • All of the monkeys preferred the cloth monkey
    regardless of which monkey provided their
    nourishment
  • The monkeys being fed by the wire mother would
    only go to the wire mother to eat and then return
    to the cloth mother
  • Thus, contact comfort, not reinforcement from
    nourishment, was the crucial element for
    attachment formation

97
Attachment and Harlows Monkeys
  • When confronted with a strange situation (e.g.,
    an unfamiliar room with toys) without the
    surrogate mother the infant monkey would be.?
  • Fearful
  • When mother was brought into the strange
    situation, the infant monkey would initially
    cling to her to reduce its fear.
  • but then begin to explore the new environment and
    eventually play with toys

98
Types of Attachment
  • Devised by Mary Ainsworth, an infants behavior
    is observed in an unfamiliar room with toys,
    while the their mother and a stranger move in and
    out of the room

Secure
Insecure-avoidant
Insecure-ambivalent
Insecure-disorganized
99
Mary Ainsworth Strange Situation research
known for her work in early emotional attachment
with "The Strange Situation" as well as her work
in the development of Attachment
Theory. Wikipedia
Born December 1, 1913, Glendale Died March 21, 1999, Charlottesville Known for her work in early emotional attachment with "The Strange Situation and development of Attachment Theory
100
How are these kids attachments to their mothers
being tested?
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vDH1m_ZMO7GU
    (secure and I- avoidant/ I- ambivalent)
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vQTsewNrHUHU (2
    separations, secure attachment)
  • WHO is involved in the research?
  • WHAT is the experimental setting?
  • WHAT are researchers measuring?

101
Types of Attachment
  • Secure attachment is when infant explores the
    situation freely in the presence of the mother,
  • displays distress when the mother leaves
  • responds enthusiastically when mother returns
  • Caregivers who are sensitive and responsive to an
    infants needs are more likely to develop a
    secure attachment with the infant
  • Insecure-avoidant attachment is indicated by
    exploration
  • but minimal interest in the mother
  • infant showing little distress when the mother
    leaves
  • and avoiding her when she returns

102
Types of Attachment
  • Insecure-ambivalent attachment the infant seeks
    closeness to the mother
  • does not explore the situation
  • high level of distress when the mother leaves
  • ambivalent behavior when she returns by
    alternately clinging to and pushing away from her
  • Insecure-disorganized (disoriented) attachment
    infants confusion when the mother leaves and
    when she returns
  • The infant acts disoriented, seems overwhelmed by
    the situation
  • does not demonstrate a consistent way of coping
    with it

103
The role of genetics (nature vs nurture)
  • Infant temperament, a set of innate tendencies or
    dispositions also play a role (genetics)
  • Secure attachments have been linked to higher
    levels of cognitive
  • and social function
  • Daycare does not appear to be detrimental to the
    formation of secure attachments

104
What type of parents do these kids have?
  • Describe the way these kids have been raised.
    Include a description of how the parents manage
  • Household rules
  • Strictness vs permissiveness
  • Food at home
  • School performance expectations
  • Amount of affection
  • Friends and boy/girlfriend allowances
  • Money

105
Kid profile Alex
  • Alex loves trying new things. He has already
    mastered bike riding and playing video games!
  • Has a messy bedroom full of toys, books, school
    stuff
  • Always does his homework on time
  • Has lots of friends in the neighborhood

106
Kid profile Lexi
  • Lexi loves hanging with her tight-knit group of
    friends at the mall, their houses, the beach
  • She has a boyfriend who is 20, shes 15
  • She sometimes misses school, but is passing most
    classes
  • Lexi gets into trouble for violating the dress
    code often oops!

107
Kid profile Gordon
  • Gordon only opens up to his closest friend
  • Hes shy, quiet, anxious
  • He has bad posture, hangs his head a lot, very
    flinchy and skittish
  • Gordon is doing well at school never misses
    homework or skips class

108
Kid profile Terrance
  • Terrance has a lot of toys, clothes and gadgets
  • Hes generally a friendly, happy kid but has a
    temper and can be bossy and bratty
  • Terrances parents sleep in a smaller bedroom
    than he does
  • Last year he went to a really expensive summer
    camp with his rich friend, even though his
    parents struggled to afford it
  • Hes a fussy eater.. Broccoli Yuck!

109
Parenting Styles
Authoritarian Military style Parents are demanding, expect unquestioned obedience, are not responsive to their childrens desires, and communicate poorly with their children
Authoritative strict but fair and loving Parents are demanding but set rational limits for their children and communicate well with their children
Permissive Hippy dippy, anything goes Parents make few demands and are overly responsive to their childs desires, letting their children do pretty much as they please
Uninvolved whatever Parents minimize both the time they spend with the children and their emotional involvement with them, doing little more than providing for basic needs
110
Kid profile you design
  • Write 3 bullet points that describe Lisas
    personality.
  • Explain what type of parenting she receives at
    home and how this contributes.
  • Include any genetic temperament factors.

111
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112
4 parenting styles research
  • Diana Baumrind
  • BornAugust 23, 1927 (age 85)New York City, USA
  • Alma Mater UC Berkeley (go bears!)

113
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114
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115
Parenting Styles
  • An authoritative parenting style seems to have
    the most positive effect on cognitive and social
    development
  • Children are the most independent, happy,
    self-reliant, and academically successful

116
Now, and homework
  • Check worksheet for points (collect).
  • Friday homework bring in evidence (photos baby
    stuff, old art work, diplomas earned, baby
    teeth)!!!

117
Death
  • What is death?
  • Write 5 keywords/phrases that relate to death, in
    your mind.
  • What are some emotions that surround death?
  • How do you want to die? When?
  • What do we do with our dead here in the US?
  • Are we same or different to other cultures in
    dealing with death? Examples?

118
  • I want to die peacefully, in my sleep, like my
    grandfather
  • .not panicking, like his passengers

119
  • how different religions view death. christians,
    jews, buddists, hindus...
  •  http//www.youtube.com/watch?vUfoBPMKwnb0

120
  • embalming - what is it, why do we do it?
    preservation and appearance 
  • Embalming video... http//www.youtube.com/watch?v
    rc_QSyWl-GA

121
  • interview about handling of death in west vs
    other cultures - start after introductions... http
    //www.youtube.com/watch?vIETCvpUxxVk

122
  • Timeline - 10 dates of significance throughout
    your life. Include your death (when, how, after).

123
Eriksons Psychosocial Stage Theory of
Development
  • Emphasized the impact of society and culture upon
    development
  • Lead to an increase in research on life-span
    development
  • Criticized for the lack of solid experimental
    data to support it
  • Eight stages of development, each with a major
    issue or crisis that has to be resolved
  • Each stage is named after the two sides of the
    issue relevant in that stage

124
Eriksons Psychosocial Stages
1 Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 1 year) Infants learn that they can or cannot trust others to take care of their basic needs
2 Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1 to 2 years) Children learn to be self-sufficient in many activities such as toilet training, walking, and exploring if restrained too much they learn to doubt their abilities and feel shame
125
Eriksons Psychosocial Stages
3 Initiative vs. Guilt (3 to 5 years) Children learn to assume more responsibility by taking the initiative but will feel guilty if they overstep limits set by parents
4 Industry vs. Inferiority (5 years to puberty) Children learn to be competent by mastering new intellectual, social, and physical skills or feel inferior if they fail to develop these skills
126
Eriksons Psychosocial Stages
5 Identity vs. Role Confusion (adolescence) Adolescents develop a sense of identity by experimenting with different roles no role experimentation may result in role confusion
6 Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood) Young adults form intimate relationships with others or become isolated because of failure to do so
127
Eriksons Psychosocial Stages
7 Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood) Middle-aged adults feel they are helping the next generation though their work and child rearing, or they stagnate because they feel that they are not helping
8 Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood) Older adults assess their lives and develop sense of integrity if they find lives have been meaningful develop sense of despair if not meaningful
128
Eriksons Psychosocial Theory of Development
  • Probably the greatest impact of Eriksons theory
    is that it expanded the study of developmental
    psychology past adolescence into the stages of
    adulthood (young, middle, and late)
  • The sequence in the theory (intimacy issues
    followed by identity issues) turns out to be the
    most applicable to men and career-oriented women
  • Many women may solve these issues in reverse
    order or simultaneously
  • For example, a woman may marry and have children
    and then confront the identity issues when the
    children become adults
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