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Living in the environment

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Living in the environment - Laurel County Schools – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Living in the environment


1
Living in the environment
2
Environmental Science
  • Interdisciplinary science ecology,geology,chemist
    ry,
  • politics,engineering,economics,ethics
  • Connections and interactions between humans and
    the rest of nature
  • Validity of data questioned many variables

3
Sustainability
  • Ability of a specified system to survive and
    function over a period of time
  • Our research leads us to believe that in the face
    of drastic environmental changes, there are three
    overachiving themes relating to the long-term
    sustainability of life on this planet.

4
Sustainable living
  • Meeting present needs without preventing future
    generations from meeting theirs

5
Three Principals of Sustanability
  • Reliance on Solar Energy
  • Biodiversity
  • Chemical (Nutrient) Cycling

6
Subthemes of Sustainability
  • Natural Capital Natural Resources Natural
    Services
  • Natural resources- materials and energy in nature
    that are essential or useful to humans
  • Natural Services- process in nature, such as
    purification of air, water and renewal of
    topsoil.
  • Degrading of Natural Capital
  • Solutions

7
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8
Resource
  • Resource- Anything that we can obtain from the
    environment to meet our needs and wants.
  • Perpetual Resource- The Sun
  • Renewable- A resource that takes anywhere from
    several days to several hundred years to be
    replenished, through natural processes.
  • As long as we dont consume if faster than nature
    can renew it.
  • Forest, grasslands, fish populations, freshwater,
    etc.

9
Resource
  • Non-Renewable- A resource that exist in a fixed
    quantity, or stock, in the earths curst.
  • Ex Coal, oil, salt, sand

10
Resources
  • Ecological
  • Renewable
  • Non renewable
  • Potentially renewable

11
Depleting Resources
  • Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle.

12
Depleting Resources
  • Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle.

13
Economic growth
  • Economic Growth- An increase in a nations output
    of goods and services.

14
Economic growth Gross National Product-GNP
  • Gross National Productive- Market value in
    current dollars of all goods and services
    produced by a country
  • Per Capita GNP GNP/Total population

15
Economic growth Gross Domestic Product-GDP
  • Gross Domestic Product- (GDP)-Market value in
    current dollars of all goods and services
    produced WITHIN a country for use during a year

16
Developed Nations
  • 1.2 billion (19)
  • Highly industrialized
  • 85 of world wealth and income
  • Use 88 of world resources
  • Generate 75 of waste
  • US,Canada,Japan,Australia,New Zealand ,most of
    Europe

17
Developing Nations
  • 4.9 billion (81)
  • Low to moderate industrialized
  • 15 of world wealth and income
  • Use 12 of world resources
  • Asia, Latin America, Africa

18
Pollution
  • Pollution- any presence within the environment of
    a chemical or other agent such as noise or heat
    at a level that is harmful to the health,
    survival, or activities of humans or other
    organisms.
  • Natural volcanoes
  • Anthropogenic human activities (burning of coal
    or dumping of chemicals into rivers and oceans.

19
Pollution
  • Point Source Pollution- pollutants that are
    single, identifiable source.
  • Ex smokestack from a coal burning powerplant,
    drainpipe of a factory, exhaust from an
    automobile.
  • Non-point Source Pollution- are dispersed and
    often difficult to identify.
  • Ex Pesticides blown from the land into the
    air, runoff of fertilizers, pesticides, and trash
    from the land into streams and lakes.

20
Pollution Clean Up
  • We have tried to deal with pollution in two very
    different ways
  • Pollution Cleanup- involves cleaning up or
    diluting pollutants AFTER we have produced them.
  • Pollution Prevention- reduces or eliminates the
    production of pollution

21
Tragedy of the Commons- Garrett Hardin
  • Three types of property-
  • Private
  • Common Property (right to certain resources are
    held by a large group of individuals. 1/3 of
    land in US is owned by all US Citizens and run by
    the government. (Parks)
  • Open-Access Renewable- owned by no one and
    available for use for cheap or mostly free.
  • Clean air, open ocean and its fish ,wildlife
    species,

22
Tragedy of the Commons- Garrett Hardin
  • Many common-property and open access and
    renewable resources have been degraded.
  • 1968, Biologist Garrett Hardin (1915-2003) called
    this degradation Tragedy of the Commons
  • Solving Environmental Problems is result of
    struggle between
  • Short term welfare
  • Long term environmental stability and societal
    welfare

23
Tragedy of the Commons- Garrett Hardin
24
Ecological Footprint
  • In less developed countries , the individual use
    of resources and the resulting environmental
    impact is low, where as in more developed
    countries individuals are more affluent (wealthy)
    and consume resources far beyond their basic
    needs.

25
Ecological Footprint
  • The average amount of land, water and ocean
    required to provide that person with all the
    resources they consume.

Earths Productive Land and Water 28.2 billion acres
Amount Each Person is Allotted (divide Productive Land and Water by Human Population) 4.7 acres
Current Global Ecological Footprint of each person 5.7 acres
26
Ecological Footprint Comparison
27
IPAT
  • Ehrlich and Holdren (Scientist in the 1970s)
    developed a simple model showing how population
    size, affluence, beneficial and harmful effect
    help to determine environmental impact
  • I PxAxT
  • I (Impact) P (population) x A (affluence) x T
    (technology)

28
IPAT
29
IPAT
30
Environmental Issues
  • Pollution
  • Environmental Degradation
  • Population growth
  • Wasteful and unsustainable resource use
  • Poverty
  • Pollution

31
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32
Population Growth
  • Exponential Growth quantity increases by a fixed
    percentage of the whole in a given time. (ex 2)
  • This starts of slow but doubles again and again
    and grow to enormous numbers.

33
Population Growth Doubling Time
  • Rule of 70 70/ percentage of growth rate
    Doubling Time
  • Ex If the growth rate is 3 what is the
    doubling time?
  • 70/3 23.3 yrs, it will take that population
    23.3 years to double its population
  • At the current rates of exponential growth, the
    human population will reach 8 billion by 2025.

34
Population Growth
35
Root causes
  • Rapid population growth
  • Wasteful use of resources
  • Poverty
  • Failure to encourage earth sustaining economic
    development
  • Failure to include overall economic cost

36
Carrying capacity
  • Maximum number of organisms an environment can
    support over a specified period of time

37
Carrying capacity
38
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39
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40
Globalization
  • Social, economic and environmental change that
    leads to an increasingly integrated world
  • economic, information and communication,environmen
    tal effects

41
Poverty
  • Poverty is defined as people who are unable to
    fulfill their basic needs for adequate food,
    water, shelter, health, and education.
  • 2008 Study- 1/5 people on this planet live in
    extreme poverty. (Live on less than 1.25 a day)

42
Poverty
  • Those that live in poverty do degrade potentially
    renewable forests, soils, grasslands, etcthey do
    not have the luxury of worrying about long term.
  • But many time the converse is true. Pollution
    and environmental degradation have a severe
    impact on the poor and can increase their
    poverty.

43
Poverty
44
Poverty
  • Most of the world's desperately poor die
    prematurely from 4 preventable disease. All of
    which are made worse by degrading environmental
    issues.
  • Malnutrition
  • Increased susceptibility to normally nonfatal
    infectious diseases (diarrhea and measles.)
  • Lace of clean drinking water
  • Severe Respiratory disease. (breathing smoke
    from open fires, poorly vented stoves, etc)

45
Environmental Worldview
  • Planetary Management or (ANTHROPOCENTRIC-) we
    are in charge of nature, always more to use, all
    economic growth is good
  • The Stewardship Worldview- holds that we should
    manage the earth for our benefits, but that we
    have an ethical responsibility to be caring and
    responsible managers, or stawards of the earth.
  • Earth Wisdom nature for all of earths species,
    not always more to use, make a judgment call
    about economic growth

46
Information Revolution and globalization
  • International trade of goods increased
  • Transnational
  • corporations from 7,000 to 53,000
  • Phones from 89 to 850 million
  • Passenger kilometers from 28 million to 2.6
    trillion
  • Infectious microbes transported

47
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48
Cultural changes
  • Hunter gatherers 12,000 years ago
  • Agricultural revolution 10,000-12,000-
  • Industrial revolution-275 years ago
  • Technological revolution 50 years ago

49
Hunting and Gathering Societies
  • nomadic, living in small bands,
  • population in balance with food supply
  • high infant mortality,life expectancy 30-40 yr.
  • 3 energy sources - sun, fire, muscle power

50
Agricultural Societies
  • settled communities
  • slash and burn cultivation to fertilize nutrient
    poor field by ashes
  • shifting cultivation
  • subsistence farming

51
Effects and Environmental Impact
  • Urbanization and agricultural expansion, cut down
    forests, destroyed habitats, soil erosion and
    desertification
  • birth rate faster than death- population increase

52
Early Industrial societies(mid 1700s)
  • wood used up - coal usage
  • steam generation
  • fossil fuel powered farm machinery- less farmers
    needed- moved to cities
  • The Industrial Societies began many of the
    environmental problems we still see today.

53
Advanced Industrial societies (1914 ---)
  • increase in agricultural products
  • lower infant mortality
  • improved health
  • increase in longevity
  • net population increase

54
Resource Conservation
  • 1903-Theodore Roosevelt, Pelican Island,Florida
    to save the Brown Pelican
  • 1905- Gifford Pinchot - US Forest Service
  • resources should be saved to be used for the
    greatest good, for the greatest number, for the
    longest time

55
Moral / Aesthetic Nature Conservation
  • John Muir , Sierra Club
  • fundamental right of organisms to exist for its
    own sake

56
US Environmental Movement - 1960s
  • 1962- , Rachel Carson Silent Spring, threats of
    pollution and toxic chemicals
  • David Brower and Barry Commoner,Paul
    Ehrlich,Garret Hardin -relationship between
    population growth, resource use,pollution

57
Events - Increased Awareness
  • 1963 - air pollution in New York
  • Laundry detergent in water
  • 1969- Cuyahoga in Ohio
  • Love Canal , New York
  • pollution of Lake Erie
  • Extinction -grizzly,bald eagle,whooping
    crane,falcon

58
Environmental events- 1970s
  • 1972-UN- Human development
  • 1973 - OPEC oil embargo
  • Roland and Molina - CFCs cause ozone depletion
  • Carter creates Superfund to clean hazardous waste
    sites(Love Canal)
  • Three Mile Island

59
Environmental events - 1980s
  • 1981 - Ronald Reagan - sagebrush philosophy
  • 1986-Chernobyl disaster
  • 1987-Montreal Protocol - fade out CFCs
  • Exxon Valdez disaster

60
Environmental Events - 1990
  • 1991-Persian Gulf war - protect oil
  • 1992 - UN Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 1994 - UN Conference on Population and
    Development, Cairo, Egypt.
  • 1995- US Congress,reduce environmental spending -
    vetoed by Clinton
  • 1997 - Kyoto- global warming

61
Environmental events - 2000
  • Clinton protects large areas in national forests
    from roads and logging - designated as national
    monuments

62
Sagebrush Revolution
  • remove most lands from federal ownership and turn
    over to States
  • great supporter - Ronald Reagan

63
Environmental Revolution .shift from
  • pollution cleanup to prevention
  • waste disposal to waste reduction
  • species protection to habitat protection
  • increased resource use to conservation
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