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Cold War Political Division of Europe

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Cold War Political Division of Europe – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cold War Political Division of Europe


1
Cold WarPolitical Division of Europe
2
1945
  • What is Europe now? A rubble heap, a charnel
    house, a breeding ground of pestilence and hate.
  • -- Winston Churchill

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Western Perspective
  • US demands free elections in Europe (to no
    effect)
  • Truman doctrine US will support free people
    who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed
    minorities or by outside pressure
  • US offers military aid to Turkey and Greece in
    the hopes of stopping Communism
  • US establishes the Marshall Plan -- 13 BILLION
    in aid to Europe
  • Western sectors of Germany unified in 1949

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US Philosophy of Containment
  • Like apples in a barrel infected by disease, the
    corruption of Greece would infect Iran and all
    the east. . . likewise Africa. . . Italy. . .
    France. . . .Not since Rome and Carthage had
    there been such a polarization of power on this
    earth
  • -- U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson

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1947
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Soviet Perspective
  • Stalin resumes antagonism to the West and
    dictatorial rule
  • The war on fascism ends, the war on capitalism
    begins.
  • War is inevitable as long as capitalism exists
  • Purges and forced labor camps reinstated
  • USSR had been invaded by Germany twice in the
    20th century, Stalin felt he deserved friendly
    neighbors (so the USSR set up Communist parties
    to dominate eastern European countries)

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Soviet Perspective
  • USSR devastated by WW II, needed to improve its
    industrial capacity (so it took 380 factories out
    of the Soviet zone in Berlin)
  • USSR refused Marshall Plan money (sees the
    Marshall Plan as a way to make European countries
    beholden to the US)

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NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)1949
Warsaw Pact (Council for Mutual Economic
Assistance COMECON) 1955
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US increasingly concerned about the spread of
Communism
  • 1948 Berlin blockade
  • 1949 Communists win the civil war in China
  • 1949 USSR explodes its first atomic bomb
  • 1950 Communist North Korea attacks South Korea,
    US leads a UN force to save South Korea, North
    Korea is assisted by the Chinese (country divided
    in half in 1953 still a militarized border)
  • 1961 Berlin Wall

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Overcoming the Berlin Blockade
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