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Topic: The Cold War (1945-1991)

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Unit 5 Topic: The Cold War (1945-1991) The United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) emerged as the two strongest powers in international affairs. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Topic: The Cold War (1945-1991)


1
Unit 5
  • Topic The Cold War (1945-1991)
  • The United States and the Union of Soviet
    Socialist Republics (USSR) emerged as the two
    strongest powers in international affairs.
    Ideologically opposed, they challenged one
    another in a series of confrontations known as
    the Cold War. The costs of this prolonged
    contest weakened the USSR so that it collapsed
    due to internal upheavals as well as American
    pressure. The Cold War had social and political
    implications in the United States.

2
Chapter 1 Atomic Bombs
  • Content Statement The use of atomic weapons
    changed the nature of war, altered the balance of
    power and began the nuclear age.
  • Expectations for Learning Summarize how atomic
    weapons have changed the nature of war, altered
    the balance of power and started the nuclear age.

3
Section 1 Dropping of Atomic Bombs Begins
Nuclear Age
  • Content Elaboration The dropping of the atomic
    bombs on Japan hastened the end of World War II
    and is considered the beginning of the nuclear
    age. The use of these bombs introduced a new
    type of weapon capable of mass destruction.

4
Cold War Defined
  • intense economic, political, military, and
    ideological rivalry between nations, short of
    military conflict sustained hostile political
    policies and an atmosphere of strain between
    opposed countries
  • OR, a war with no fighting!
  • US/SU Cold War 1945-1991

5
Splitting the Atom
  • A. The best from around the world came to the
    US 1. Albert Einstein--Jew from Germany
  • 2. Enrico Fermi--Italy
  • 3. Others from Austria, Czech, and Denmark
  • B. Atomic bomb
  • 1. split atoms
  • 2. catastrophic weapon
  • C. December 2. 1942 at 345pm
  • 1. successful in splitting uranium atoms
  • 2. university of Chicago

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7
The Atomic Bomb
  • A. Manhattan Project this is what the U.S.
    called the secret plan to build the atomic bomb
  • 1. FDR set it up to prepare to build the bomb
  • 2. took 3 more years to develop the bomb
  • 3. cost 2 billion
  • B. July 16, 1945 at 530am
  • 1. test
  • 2. Alamogordo, New Mexico
  • 3. first mushroom cloud
  • C. Germany and Italy already surrendered

8
The Atomic Bomb, continued
  • D. Warned Japan
  • 1. they still didnt give up
  • E. Should we drop bomb
  • 1. If yes--thousands of innocent people killed
  • 2. If no--thousands of Americans killed
  • F. U.S. dropped 1st bomb on August 6, 1945
  • 1. Hiroshima
  • 2. 75,000 killed immediately
  • 3. Thousands more died of radiation
  • G. U.S. dropped 2nd bomb on August 14, 1945
  • 1. Nagasaki

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15
The Cost of World War II
  • A. U.S.--lost 292,000. (four times more than
    WWI)
  • B. Russia--27 million
  • C. Germans--4 million
  • D. Japanese--2 million
  • E. Chinese--22 million
  • F. Jews--6 million killed in concentration
    camps

16
  • WAR IS OVER. NOW, A WHOLE NEW SET OF
    PROBLEMS!THE UNITED STATES AND THE SOVIET UNION
    BECOME THE 2 SUPERPOWERS ON THE PLANET. THESE 2
    COUNTRIES WILL BE INVOLVED IN A COLD WAR FOR
    THE NEXT 50 YEARS.

17
OGT Multiple Choice
  • Which is FALSE about the Manhattan project?
  • A. FDR set it up to prepare to build the atomic
    bomb.
  • B. This project took 3 years to develop the
    atomic bomb.
  • C. This project cost 2 billion.
  • D. The project was not kept secret, and the
    American public knew about it.

18
OGT Multiple Choice
  • The United States lost how many people in World
    War II?
  • A. About 300,000
  • B. About 1,000,000
  • C. About 4,000,000
  • D. About 10,000,000

19
OGT Multiple Choice
  • On August 14, 1945 the U.S. dropped the second
    atomic bomb on which city?
  • A. Tokyo
  • B. Hiroshima
  • C. Nagasaki
  • D. Kyoto

20
OGT Multiple Choice
  • Where was the first test of an atomic bomb?
  • A. Denver, Colorado
  • B. Alamogordo, New Mexico
  • C. Truth or Consequences, New Mexico
  • D. Phoenix, Arizona

21
OGT Multiple Choice
  • On August 6, 1945 the U.S. dropped the first
    atomic bomb on which city?
  • A. Tokyo
  • B. Hiroshima
  • C. Nagasaki
  • D. Kyoto

22
OGT Multiple Choice
  • At which university were uranium atoms first
    split?
  • A. University of Chicago
  • B. University of Ohio State
  • C. University of Michigan
  • D. University of Indiana

23
OGT Short Answer
  • When World War II ended, this began a new world
    order. There were now two superpowers in the
    world. (2 points)
  • Who were the two superpowers? (1 point)
  • What is the name given to the relationship
    between these two countries over the next 50
    years? (1 point)

24
OGT Extended Response
  • (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The United States
    dropping the two atom bombs on Japan remains a
    controversial issue. If you were an advisor to
    President Truman, what advice would you give?
    Explain why you would give him this advice. (4
    points)

25
Section 2 United States is the Sole Superpower
  • Content Elaboration In the four-year period
    following World War II, the United Stgates was
    the only country in possession of atomic bombs
    and this contributed to its status as a
    superpower. The threat of using this weapon was
    seen as a deterrent to the ambitions of the
    Soviet Union.

26
Postwar
  • United States
  • Lost thousands during the war
  • stronger than ever after the war
  • Capitalism economic system based on a free
    market, open competition, profit motive and
    private ownership of the means of production
  • believed the rest of the world should model us
  • want free elections, free trade, and business
    expansion all around the world

Old world order gone. U.S. could no longer be
isolated. U.S. now relied on world trade to
prosper!
27
Postwar
  • B. Soviet Union
  • 1. Lost over 7 million during the war
  • 2. torn apart after the war. Wanted to build a
    strong country
  • 3. communism a theory or system of social
    organization based on the holding of all property
    in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the
    community as a whole or to the state
  • 4. believed the rest of the world should be
    communist

Old world order gone. U.S. could no longer be
isolated. U.S. now relied on world trade to
prosper!
28
1 Superpower
  • For 4 years after end of WWII
  • U.S. is only superpower
  • Why? We have atomic bomb!
  • This deterred the S.U. from expanding their
    influence over other countries

29
President Harry S Truman
  • A. Took over after FDR died
  • B. Important decisions
  • 1. Drop atomic bombs
  • 2. United Nations

30
Harry S Truman
31
The United Nations
  • 1st met April 12, 1944 (50 nations) in San
    Francisco, California
  • Similar to League of Nations after WWI
  • US joins the UN
  • Goal Prevent another World War!
  • Collective security an attack on one is an
    attack on all

32
http//www.un.org/ - http//www.un.org/
  • Click on the link below to get a great detailed
    chart of the United Nations.

33
UN Headquarters in New York
34
OGT Multiple Choice
  • (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The international
    organization created to preserve the peace after
    World War II was the
  • A. United Nations
  • B. League of Nations
  • C. Organization of American States
  • D. North Atlantic Treaty Organization

35
OGT Multiple Choice
  • Which is true about the involvement of the United
    States in the League of Nations (after World War
    I) and the United Nations (after World War II)?
  • A. The United States joined the United Nations,
    but not the League of Nations
  • B. The United States joined the League of
    Nations, but not the United Nations
  • C. The United States joined both organizations
  • D. The United States did NOT join either
    organization

36
Section 3 Soviet Union Becomes a Superpower
  • Content Elaboration The testing of the atomic
    bomb by the Soviets in 1949 established the
    Soviet Union as a second superpower. It also
    began a nuclear arms race that continued for
    decades and threatened world peace.

37
Beginning of the Cold War
  • 1. Cold War War with no fighting. Instead,
    used military threats, espionage, propaganda, and
    politics.
  • 2. NUCLEAR WEAPONS DEVELOPED!!!
  • 3. The period right after World War II will
    begin 50 years of Cold War between the US/SU.
  • 4. U.S. and G.B. allies with S.U. for one
    reason--to beat Adolf Hitler
  • 5. We did not trust Stalin. Did not tell him of
    the atomic bomb
  • 6. Stalin expected entire world to become
    communist
  • 7. U.S. and S.U. had very different views of the
    future

38
Soviet Union Tests Atomic Bomb
  • 1949
  • Soviet Union tests and explodes atomic bomb
  • This makes Soviet Union the 2nd superpower

39
Joseph Stalin
  • A Soviet political leader of the twentieth
    century. He ruled the Soviet Union, often with
    extreme brutality, from the death of Lenin in the
    early 1920s until his own death in the early
    1950s. His policies of collectivization, which
    abolished private ownership, were followed by
    political purges in which thousands of Communist
    party officials were killed, usually on
    trumped-up charges of treason

40
Joseph Stalin
41
Arms Race
  • A. Arms race between US/SU
  • 1. occurred throughout Cold War
  • 2. guarantee security
  • 3. the two sides competed with each other to
    make the most and best weapons for the next 50
    years

42
OGT Multiple Choice
  • (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The period after
    World War II is referred to as the Cold War.
    It is called this because the two superpowers,
    the United States and the Soviet Union
  • A. had several conflicts that never escalated
    into a full-scale war
  • B. used nuclear weapons that lowered the
    temperature as they exploded
  • C. has chilly but friendly relations during the
    is time period
  • D. fought a war in Siberia to determine control
    of East Asia

43
OGT Multiple Choice
  • During World War II, the United States was an
    ally of this country. After World War II, the
    United States became enemies with this country.
  • A. France
  • B. Great Britain
  • C. Soviet Union
  • D. Spain

44
OGT Multiple Choice
  • The term Cold War refers to
  • A. A war with a lot of battles.
  • B. Another name for the Korean War
  • C. A war with no fighting.
  • D. Another name given to World War II.

45
OGT Multiple Choice
  • (Practice Test Booklet 2005) As World War II was
    nearing an end and it was clear that the Allies
    would be victorious, relations between the United
    States and the Soviet Union could be described as
  • A. becoming increasingly suspicious of each
    others motives
  • B. good as both Harry Truman and Joseph Stalin
    trusted each other
  • C. never better as the two nations agreed on
    postwar issues
  • D. on the brink of going to war against each
    other

46
OGT Multiple Choice
  • (2005 Practice Test) Which factor helped lead to
    the Cold War between the United States and the
    Soviet Union?
  • A. the lack of U.S. aid to the Soviet Union
    under the Lend-Lease Program during World War II
  • B. differing intentions between the two nations
    for the political and economic rebuilding of
    Eastern Europe after World War II
  • C. both nations being members of the United
    Nations Security Council after World War II
  • D. uneven prosperity between the two nations
    after the Great Depression
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