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Solar Water Heating Basics

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Solar Water Heating Basics Progress Energy Florida Solar Water Heater Incentive Program Colleen Kettles Florida Solar Energy Research & Education Foundation (FlaSEREF) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Solar Water Heating Basics


1
Solar Water Heating Basics
  • Progress Energy Florida
  • Solar Water Heater Incentive Program
  • Colleen Kettles
  • Florida Solar Energy Research Education
    Foundation (FlaSEREF)

2
Solar Water Heating Basics
  • How It Works
  • How Much Energy It Saves
  • How It Helps the Environment
  • How To Purchase
  • How Much It Costs
  • What Incentives Are Available

3
Types of Systems
  • Active System
  • Direct Pumped
  • Water is the collector fluid
  • Freeze protection provided by drain-back tank or
    freeze valves
  • Indirect Pumped
  • Anti-freeze is the collector fluid
  • Heat exchanger utilized within storage tank

4
Active Solar Water Heater
5
Active Solar Water HeaterDirect Pumped
6
Active Solar Water HeaterDirect PV Pumped
7
Active Solar Water HeaterIndirect Pumped
8
The Collector
  • Active Systems
  • Use flat-plate collector
  • Insulated box with ½ copper piping integrated
    into a black absorber and glass cover
  • Fluid is water or anti-freeze
  • Designed to reach temperatures as high as 160 F

9
The Storage Tank
  • Active System
  • Specially designed, heavily insulated tank (R
    value of 16 or greater)
  • Sizes range from 52 to 120 gallons for
    residential applications
  • Has only a top electric element
  • In a system using antifreeze, the tank will have
    an internal heat exchanger

10
Balance of System Components
  • Active System
  • Pump (ac or dc)
  • Differential Controller, or
  • Photovoltaic Panel
  • Assorted valves and vents
  • Copper Piping
  • Insulation

11
Types of Systems
  • Passive System
  • Integral Collector Storage
  • Collector provides additional water storage
  • No moving parts

12
Passive Solar Water HeaterIntegral Collector
Storage
13
Passive Solar Water HeaterIntegral Collector
Storage
14
The Collector
  • Integral Collector Storage (ICS)
  • The collector is also the storage medium
  • Insulated box with 4 copper tubing welded
    together to serve as the absorber
  • Glass cover
  • Fluid is water
  • Designed to reach temperatures as high as 160 F

15
The Storage Tank
  • Integral Collector Storage (ICS)
  • Collector provides ½ of the storage (32-50
    gallons)
  • Existing or conventional tank provides the
    balance of storage

16
Balance of System Components
  • ICS System
  • Assorted valves and vents
  • Anti-scald valve (optional)
  • Copper piping
  • Insulation

17
Types of Systems
  • Passive System
  • Thermosiphon
  • Tank is roof mounted above collector
  • Uses flat plate collector
  • No moving parts
  • Reminiscent of early solar systems

18
Early Thermosiphon Solar Water Heater
19
Thermosiphon System
20
Passive Solar Water HeaterThermosiphon System
21
The Collector
  • Thermosiphon System
  • Uses flat-plate collector
  • Insulated box with ½ copper piping integrated
    into a black absorber and glass cover
  • Fluid is water or anti-freeze
  • Designed to reach temperatures as high as 160 F

22
The Storage Tank
  • Thermosiphon System
  • The storage tank is specially designed to be
    mounted on the roof above the collector
  • An auxiliary tank with electric element is
    installed in the home

23
Balance of System Components
  • Thermosiphon System
  • Assorted vents and valves
  • Copper piping
  • Insulation

24
Household Hot Water Use
  • 15 20 of total household energy consumption
  • Daily usage is 20 gallons each per day for the
    first two occupants 15 gallons per day for each
    additional occupant
  • Example Four person household will use 70
    gallons of hot water and will need 80 gallons of
    storage

25
Collector BTU Ratings/Solar Fraction
  • Central Florida ambient water temperature is 72
    degrees
  • Solar fraction is the proportion of hot water
    provided by the solar system
  • Optimal solar fraction is 70 and is based upon
    annual performance

26
Collector Btu Ratings/Solar Fraction
  • 38,000 Btus will be needed to raise 80 gallons of
    cold water to 122 degrees
  • A 32 square foot ICS system is rated at 28,700
    Btu/day and will provide a 77 solar fraction
  • A 40 square foot active collector is rated at
    34,400 Btu/day and will provide a 92 solar
    fraction

27
Savings
  • The kWh equivalent of 38,000 Btu/day is 11.13
    kWh per day x 365 days 4,063 kWh/year (electric
    load)
  • A solar fraction of 70 will offset 2,844 kWh
  • A solar fraction of 77 (28,700 Btu/day) 8.4
    kWh/day x 365 days, saves (or produces) 3,066
    kWh/year
  • A solar fraction of 92 (34,400 Btu/day) 10
    kWh/day x 365 days, saves (or produces) 3,650
    kWh/year

28
Savings
  • At an average residential rate of .115 per kWh
  • A solar fraction of 70 will save 325/year
  • A solar fraction of 77 will save 350/year
  • A solar fraction of 92 will save 420/year

29
Back-up Hot Water
  • All solar water heaters will have a conventional
    energy back-up
  • No consumer action is required to activate the
    back-up
  • Back-up is needed for periods of excessive hot
    water use or inadequate solar resource

30
How It Helps the Environment
  • Emission Reductions (One Solar Water Heater Saves
    Annually)
  • Carbon Dioxide (5,000 lb)
  • Sulfur Dioxide (20 lb)
  • Nitrogen Oxide (12 lb)
  • Renewable Energy Credits
  • The environmental attributes of solar energy
    are a commodity

31
How to Purchase
  • Contact reputable solar companies
  • www.flaseia.org
  • www.findsolar.com
  • Verify contractor licenses www.myfloridalicense.co
    m
  • Voice 850-487-1395
  • Solar contractor (CV)
  • Specialty solar (CW)
  • Plumbing contractor (CF)
  • Local solar license (RX)

32
How to Purchase
  • Get more than one estimate, and get them in
    writing
  • Avoid high pressure sales tactics
  • Compare system types, sizes, prices and
    warranties
  • Ask for FSEC system certification
  • Ask for local references

33
How to Purchase
  • A local building permit should be obtained prior
    to installation (although some jurisdictions no
    longer require)
  • Contractor, not the homeowner, is responsible for
    the permit
  • If in doubt, homeowner should contact the local
    building department
  • Deed restricted communities will typically
    require prior approval (which cannot be denied)

34
How Much It Costs
  • Cost of a system varies depending upon the type
    of system and the size of system
  • Prices range from 3,000 to 5,000 in general
  • Rising material costs and the cost of doing
    business (gasoline, insurance, etc.) have
    resulted in price increases

35
Financial Incentives
  • Incentives are designed to lower the cost to the
    consumer
  • Sales Tax Exemption (6-7)
  • Florida Solar Rebate (500)
  • Progress Energy Rebate (450)
  • Federal Tax Credit (30 with cap of 2,000)

36
Interaction of Incentives
  • Rebates should be deducted from the cost of the
    system before the federal tax credit is
    calculated
  • IRS has not issued regulations under this tax
    credit law
  • Exception would be if rebates are included as
    gross income

37
Interaction of Incentives
  • Example
  • System cost 4,000
  • State rebate - 500
  • PEF rebate - 450
  • Actual cost 3,050
  • Federal tax credit (.30 x 3,050) 915
  • Net system cost 2,135

38
Impact of Incentives on Consumer Savings
  • Net System Price of 2,135
  • Annual Savings of 325 6.5 year payback
  • Annual Savings of 350 6.1 year payback
  • Annual Savings of 420 5 year payback

39
For More Information
  • www.flaseref.org
  • www.flaseia.org
  • www.fsec.ucf.edu
  • www.floridaenergy.org
  • 800-59SOLAR
  • THANK YOU
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