Introduction to Materials Science - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Introduction to Materials Science PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6a6a7a-ZmVmM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Introduction to Materials Science

Description:

Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering Lesson Objective... Introduce fundamental concepts in MSE You will learn about: material structure – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:44
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 42
Provided by: PeterMA73
Learn more at: http://images.pcmac.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Introduction to Materials Science


1
Introduction to Materials Science Engineering
Lesson Objective...
Introduce fundamental concepts in MSE
You will learn about
material structure
how structure dictates properties
how processing can change structure
This course will help you to
use materials properly
realize new design opportunities
with materials
a
2
Engineered structures are not blackboxes.
They are made from raw materials which have a
processed internal structure.
This internal structure affects the material
and The engineered structure properties...
3
Structure has many dimensions
4
Understanding Size
  • How big (small) are we talking about?
  • Classical systems are macroscopic and nanosystems
    are nanoscopic.

5
Understanding Size
  • 1 meter
  • source Glenn Fishbine - CERN http//microcosm.we
    b.cern.ch/microcosm

6
Understanding Size
  • 10 centimeters
  • source Glenn Fishbine - CERN http//microcosm.we
    b.cern.ch/microcosm

7
Understanding Size
  • 1 centimeter
  • source CERN http//microcosm.web.cern.ch/microco
    sm

8
Understanding Size
  • 100-1000 micrometers
  • source CERN http//microcosm.web.cern.ch/microco
    sm

9
Understanding Size
  • 10 micrometers
  • source CERN http//microcosm.web.cern.ch/microco
    sm

10
Understanding Size
  • 1 micrometer
  • source CERN http//microcosm.web.cern.ch/microco
    sm

11
Understanding Size
  • 100 nanometers
  • source CERN http//microcosm.web.cern.ch/microco
    sm

12
Understanding Size
  • 10 nanometers
  • source CERN http//microcosm.web.cern.ch/microco
    sm

13
Understanding Size
  • 1 nanometer
  • source CERN http//microcosm.web.cern.ch/microco
    sm

14
Size Matters
  • Its not just how big you are
  • Its what you can do with it

15
Understanding Effects
  • Physical processes do not scale uniformly
  • gravity
  • friction
  • combustion
  • electrostatic
  • van der Walls
  • brownian
  • quantum

16
Understanding Effects
  • Gravity

17
Understanding Effects
  • Friction

18
Understanding Effects
  • Combustion

19
Understanding Effects
  • Electrostatic

20
Understanding Effects
  • van der Waals

21
Understanding Effects
  • brownian

22
Understanding Effects
  • Quantum
  • "I don't like it, and I'm sorry I ever had
    anything to do with it. - Erwin Schrodinger
  • "I think that I can safely say that nobody
    understands quantum mechanics. - Richard Feynman

23
Understanding Size of Effects
  • Centimeter Gravity, friction, combustion,
    Newtonian mechanics
  • Millimeter Gravity, friction, combustion,
    electrostatic, magnetic
  • Micrometer Electrostatic, magnetic, van der
    Walls, Brownian
  • Nanometer Electrostatic, magnetic, van der
    Walls, Brownian, Quantum
  • Angstrom Quantum mechanics
  • (1/10,000,000,000 meter)

24
Structure, Processing, Property
Properties depend on structure
ex hardness vs structure of steel
Data obtained from Figs. 10.21(a) and 10.23 with
4wtC composition, and from Fig. 11.13 and
associated discussion, Callister 6e. Micrographs
adapted from (a) Fig. 10.10 (b) Fig. 9.27(c)
Fig. 10.24 and (d) Fig. 10.12, Callister 6e.

Hardness (BHN)




Processing can change structure
ex structure vs cooling rate of steel
2
25
The Materials Selection Process
1.
Pick Application
Determine required Properties
Properties mechanical, electrical,
thermal, magnetic, optical, environment tolerance
corrosion resistance.
2.
Properties
Identify candidate Material(s)
Material structure, composition.
3.
Material
Identify required Processing
Processing changes structure and overall
shape ex casting, sintering, vapor deposition,
doping forming, joining, annealing.
3
26
ELECTRICAL
Electrical Resistivity of Copper
Adapted from Fig. 18.8, Callister 6e. (Fig. 18.8
adapted from J.O. Linde, Ann Physik 5, 219
(1932) and C.A. Wert and R.M. Thomson, Physics
of Solids, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill Company, New
York, 1970.)
Adding impurity atoms to Cu increases
resistivity.
Deforming Cu increases resistivity.
4
27
THERMAL
Space Shuttle Tiles --Silica fiber
insulation offers low heat conduction.
Thermal Conductivity of Copper --It
decreases when you add zinc!
Fig. 19.0, Callister 6e. (Courtesy of
Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc.)
Adapted from Fig. 19.4W, Callister 6e. (Courtesy
of Lockheed Aerospace Ceramics Systems,
Sunnyvale, CA) (Note "W" denotes fig. is on
CD-ROM.)
Adapted from Fig. 19.4, Callister 6e. (Fig. 19.4
is adapted from Metals Handbook Properties and
Selection Nonferrous alloys and Pure Metals,
Vol. 2, 9th ed., H. Baker, (Managing Editor),
American Society for Metals, 1979, p. 315.)
5
28
MAGNETIC
Magnetic Permeability vs. Composition
--Adding 3 atomic Si makes Fe a
better recording medium!
Magnetic Storage --Recording medium
is magnetized by recording head.
  • Adapted from C.R. Barrett, W.D. Nix, and
  • A.S. Tetelman, The Principles of
  • Engineering Materials, Fig. 1-7(a), p. 9,
  • Electronically reproduced
  • by permission of Pearson Education, Inc.,
  • Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Fig. 20.18, Callister 6e. (Fig. 20.18 is from
J.U. Lemke, MRS Bulletin, Vol. XV, No. 3, p. 31,
1990.)
6
29
OPTICAL
Transmittance --Aluminum oxide may be
transparent, translucent, or opaque
depending on the material structure.
polycrystal low porosity
polycrystal high porosity
single crystal
Adapted from Fig. 1.2, Callister 6e. (Specimen
preparation, P.A. Lessing photo by J. Telford.)
7
30
Enviromental Tolerance
Stress Saltwater... --causes cracks!
Heat treatment slows crack speed in salt
water!
Adapted from Fig. 11.20(b), R.W. Hertzberg,
"Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of
Engineering Materials" (4th ed.), p. 505, John
Wiley and Sons, 1996. (Original source Markus
O. Speidel, Brown Boveri Co.)
Adapted from Fig. 17.0, Callister 6e. (Fig. 17.0
is from Marine Corrosion, Causes, and Prevention,
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1975.)
4mm
--material 7150-T651 Al "alloy"
(Zn,Cu,Mg,Zr)
Adapted from Fig. 11.24, Callister 6e. (Fig.
11.24 provided courtesy of G.H. Narayanan and
A.G. Miller, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company.)
8
31
Review Mechanical Properties
  • Stress vs. strain
  • Hookes law s E e

?F
TS
?y
E
32
Tensile stress
33
Shear stress
34
Shear deformation
35
Stress and Strain
Stress Force per unit area arising from
applied load.
Tension, compression, shear, torsion or any
combination.
Stress s force/area
Strain e physical deformation response of
a material to stress, e.g., elongation.
36
Common States of Stress
Simple tension cable
Ski lift (photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)
Simple shear drive shaft
Note t M/AcR here.
37
Common States of Stress
Simple compression
(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)
Note compressive structural member (s lt 0).
(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)
38
Elastic Deformation
Elastic means reversible!
39
Plastic Deformation of Metals
Plastic means permanent!
40
Strain Testing
Tensile test machine
Tensile specimen
Often 12.8 mm x 60 mm
Adapted from Fig. 7.2, Callister Rethwisch 3e.
Other types -compression brittle
materials (e.g., concrete) -torsion
cylindrical tubes, shafts.
41
SUMMARY
Lesson Goals
Use the right material for the job.
Understand the relation between structure,
properties, and processing.
Recognize new design opportunities offered
by materials selection.
9
About PowerShow.com