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Ancient Rome Etruscan to Byzantine


Ancient Rome Etruscan, Early Roman and Christian, and Byzantine 500 BCE 500 CE In 1453, Constantinople was conquered by the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Rome Etruscan to Byzantine

Ancient Rome Etruscan, Early Roman and
Christian, and Byzantine 500 BCE
500 CE
Ancient History of the Italian Peninsula The
archaeological record indicates direct contact
between the northern and southern parts of the
Italian peninsula, Sicily, and the Lipari
Islands. The Villanovans flourish in the northern
and western parts of the peninsula, the Etruscans
prosper along the coast just north of Rome, and
the Greeks begin to colonize the southern half of
the peninsula and Sicily. The Roman Republic is
established in 509 B.C. and, through conquest and
diplomacy, acquires vast territories as subject
provinces. Political rivalries in the first
century B.C., however, lead to civil wars and the
eventual collapse of the Republic. The principate
of Augustus is established in 27 B.C. and, thus,
begins the Principate or Roman imperial period.
Under the Roman emperors, the Italian peninsula,
particularly Rome and its surrounding areas,
experiences great achievements in literature,
architecture, and the arts. An eventual decline
in imperial power and the threat of invasions
across the Alps to the north of the peninsula,
however, lead to economic and political collapse.
Constantinople replaces Rome as the new capital
in 330 A.D., and the Italian peninsula, as part
of the Western Roman Empire, eventually falls to
the Ostrogoths in 476. During the fifth century,
the papacy at Rome gradually establishes its
ascendancy over the Western Christian Church.
The earliest Roman art is generally associated
with the overthrow of the Etruscan kings and the
establishment of the Republic in 509 BC. The end
of Roman art and the beginning of medieval art is
usually said to occur with the conversion of the
emperor Constantine to Christianity and the
transfer of the capital of the empire from Rome
to Constantinople in AD 330. Roman styles and
even pagan Roman subjects continued, however, for
centuries, often in Christian guise. Roman art is
traditionally divided into two main periods, art
of the Republic and art of the Roman Empire (from
27 BC on), with subdivisions corresponding to the
major emperors or imperial dynasties. When the
Republic was founded, the term Roman art was
virtually synonymous with the art of the city of
Rome, which still bore the stamp of its Etruscan
art during the last two centuries, notably that
of Greece, Roman art shook off its dependence on
Etruscan art during the last two centuries
before Christ a distinctive Roman manner of
building, sculpting, and painting emerged.
Never-the-less, because of the extraordinary
geographical extent of the Roman Empire and the
number of diverse populations encompassed within
its boundaries, the art and architecture of the
Romans was always eclectic and is characterized
by varying styles attributable to differing
regional tastes and the diverse preferences of a
wide range of patrons. Roman art is not just the
art of the emperors, senators, and aristocracy,
but of all the peoples of Rome's vast empire,
including middle-class businessmen, freedmen,
slaves, and soldiers in Italy and the provinces.
Curiously, although examples of Roman
sculptures, paintings, buildings, and decorative
arts survive in great numbers, few names of Roman
artists and architects are recorded. In general,
Roman monuments were designed to serve the needs
of their patrons rather than to express the
artistic temperaments of their makers.
Etruscan Art
Before the days of ancient Rome's greatness,
Italy was the home of a nation called Etruria,
whose people we call the Etruscans. Its
civilization prospered between 950 and 300 BCE.
in northwestern Italy in a region between the
Arno River (which runs through Pisa and Florence)
and the Tiber (which runs through Rome). These
people rose to prosperity and power, then
disappeared, leaving behind many unanswered
questions concerning their origin and their
culture. Because little Etruscan literature
remains and the language of inscriptions on their
monuments has been only partially deciphered,
scholars have gained most of their knowledge of
the Etruscans from studying the remains of their
buildings, monuments, vast tombs, and the objects
they left behind, notably bronze and terra cotta
sculptures and polychrome ceramics. Among
theories about the Etruscans' origins are the
possibilities that they migrated from Greece, or
from somewhere beyond Greece. Perhaps they
traveled down from the Alps. Or, as their
pre-Indo-European language might suggest, they
may have been a people indiginous to today's
Tuscany who suddenly acquired the tools for rapid
development. The uncertainty is held
unresolved. Theirs was not, however, a
centralized society dominated by a single leader
or a single imperial city. Rather, towns and
hill-top villages (many of which survive to this
day, albeit with few traces of their Etruscan
origins) appear to have enjoyed considerable
autonomy. But they spoke the same language, which
also existed in a written form. Further, their
religious rituals, military practices and social
customs were largely similar. For their Greek
contemporaries and Roman successors, the
Etruscans were clearly a different ethnic group.
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Amphora, 600 BCE
Etruscan Kalpis, 6th B.C. (Detail)
Askos, 4th B.C.
The Charinos Female Head-Shaped Rhython, 490 B.C.
Etruscan Perfume Bottles in Animal Shapes
Gorgon Antefix, 6th B.C.
Sarcophagus of the Married Couple from The Bandataccia Necropolis, Cerveteri, 6th B.C.
Sarcophagus of the Married Couple from The Bandataccia Necropolis, Cerveteri, 6th B.C. (Detail)
Sarcophagus of Larthia Seianti from Chiuisi, 2nd B.C.
Canopic Urn, Terracotta Ossuary, 7th B.C.
Canopic Urns, Impasto, 7th B.C
Side view
Tomb Of The Hunting And Fishing, 510 B.C.
Tomb Of The Baron, 510 B.C.
Tomb Of The Typhon, 150 B.C.
Statuette of a Woman, 2nd B.C.

Reminiscent Images in Modern Art Alberto
Giacometti was born into a Swiss family of
artists. His early work was informed by
Surrealism and Cubism, but in 1947 he settled
into producing the kind of expressionist
sculpture for which he is best known. His
characteristic figures are extremely thin and
attenuated, stretched vertically until they are
mere wisps of the human form. Almost without
volume or mass (although anchored with swollen,
oversize feet), these skeletal forms appear
weightless and remote. Their eerie
otherworldliness is accentuated by the matte
shades of gray and beige paint, sometimes
accented with touches of pink or blue, that the
artist applied over the brown patina of the
metal. The rough, eroded, heavily worked surfaces
of "Three Men Walking (II) (at left) typify his
technique. Reduced, as they are, to their very
core, these figures evoke lone trees in winter
that have lost their foliage. Within this style,
Giacometti would rarely deviate from the three
themes that preoccupied himthe walking man the
standing, nude woman and the bustor all three,
combined in various groupings.
Standing Woman
Chimera of Arezzo, 4th B.C.
She-wolf also known as the Capitoline
Wolf bronze ca. 500 B.C.E. (with Renaissance
additionsthe twins Romulus and Remus)
- Early enough to still see the Greco-Roman
influence -notice the weight shift - Sculpture in
the round will decline in importance as the
medieval period progresses. We will see less
emphasis on 3-dimensions until its rebirth in the
late Gothic - Good example of Synthesization -the
popular subject of the calf bearer in Greece and
Rome (see below) is taken up by the Christians,
but the boy is no longer the bearer of a
sacrificial gift, but becomes the symbol of Jesus
Christ, the Good Shepherd who is tending his
flock (human kind) http//
Christ as the Good Shepherd
Early Christian Art
Christianity was a sect of Judaism. Because it is
a messianic offshoot which believes that God came
to earth in the guise of his Son, Jesus, there is
a recognized visual form of God as Man. This
allowed for images of "God" to be made in the
likeness of Jesus. Visual forms became important
in the development of the Christian Church.
pagan ivory diptych, 387-402 Diptych of the
"Christ as the Good Shepherd," mosaic from the mausoleum of Galla Placidia, c.425-450.  Some devices of Roman illusionism are still being used -- shadows, tonality of forms, spatial depth.
Reconstruction of Constantine's church of St. Peter, Rome, c. 400.
Arch of Constantine, Rome, 313-15.
                                                                                           The mosaic to the left, the "Miracle of the Loaves and the Fishes," from the Church of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo. c.504.   Compare the stylistic change from Galla Placidia -- Jesus wears the Imperial purple robe the dimension is more shallow the gold background appears as a 'screen' and there are fewer references to the physical world.
Rome in the East  The Art of Byzantium Royal,
Luxurious, Heavenly, and Spiritual
The art of the Eastern Roman Empire, the
Christian empire whose capital was Constantinople
(now known as Istanbul), which endured from c.
330 CE following the Roman Empire in the east,
until it was conquered by the Turks c.1450. The
term, however, refers more to a style associated
with Byzantium than to its area. Byzantine
paintings and mosaics are characterized by a rich
use of color and figures which seem flat and
stiff. The figures also tend to appear to be
floating, and to have large eyes. Backgrounds
tend to be solidly golden or toned. Intended as
religious lessons, they were presented clearly
and simply in order to be easily learned. Early
Byzantine art is often called "Early Christian
art." Byzantine architects favored the central
plan covered by a huge dome. Making
generalizations about the visual culture of any
group of people is a crude endeavor, especially
with a culture as diverse as Byzantium's. With
this thought in mind, know that this survey, as
any must be, is tremendously limited in its
breadth and depth. http//
In the apse mosaic at Sant'Apollinare in Classe,
Ravenna, Italy, c.549, the change is complete. 
Notice the different arrangement in the human
figure and sheep between this image and the Good
Shepherd image in the Galla Placidia tomb. 
Notice, too, the gold background and the
abstraction of landscape elements.
The beauty and the richness of early Christian
churches can still be found in several 5th and
6th century buildings in Ravenna, Italy
Emperor Justinian and Attendants, Byzantine tile
mosaic, 540-547A.D. Mosaic from San Vitale in
Ravenna, showing the Emperor Justinian and Bishop
Maximian of Ravenna surruonded by clerics and
Leaf from an ivory diptych of Areobindus, consul
in Constantinople, 506. Areobindus is shown
above, presiding over the games in the
Hippodrome, depicted beneath.
Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia Greek ???a S?f?a Holy Wisdom,
Turkish Ayasofya) is a former patriarchal
basilica and mosque, now a museum, in Istanbul,
Turkey. Famous in particular for its massive
dome, it is considered the epitome of Byzantine
architecture and one of the most beautiful
buildings in the world. The building was
originally constructed as a Church between 532
and 537 on the orders of the Byzantine Emperor
Justinian, and was in fact the third Church of
the Holy Wisdom to occupy the site (the previous
two had both been destroyed by riots).
In 1453, Constantinople was conquered by the
Ottoman Turks and Sultan Mehmed II ordered the
building to be converted into a mosque. The
bells, altar, iconostasis, and sacrificial
vessels were removed, and many of the mosaics
were eventually plastered over. The Islamic
features - such as the four minarets outside, the
mihrab and minbar - were added over the course of
the Ottoman Empire It remained as a mosque until
1935, when it was converted into a museum by the
secular Republic of Turkey.
The dome is supported by pendentives which had
never been used before the building of this
structure. The pendentive enables the round dome
to transition gracefully into the square shape of
the piers below. The pendentives not only achieve
a pleasing aesthetic quality, but they also
restrain the lateral forces of the dome and allow
the weight of the dome to flow downward.
Another interesting fact about the original
structure of the dome was how the architects were
able to place forty windows around the base of
the dome. Hagia Sophia is famous for the mystical
quality of light that reflects everywhere in the
interior of the nave, which gives the dome the
appearance of hovering above the nave. This
design is possible because the dome is shaped
like a scalloped shell or the inside of an
umbrella with ribs that extend from the top of
the dome down to the base. These ribs allow the
weight of the dome to flow between the windows,
down the pendentives, and ultimately to the
foundation. The anomalies in the design of Hagia
Sophia show how this structure is one of the most
advanced and ambitious monuments of late
Interior of Early Medieval cathedral Old Saint
Peters, Rome, c. 320-327 atrium added in later
4th century. - A good example of the
synthesization of Roman style and Christian
ideas. -The Roman basilica was converted to the
Early medieval cathedral - Early Medieval
cathedral utilized post and lintel
construction. - The identifiable parts -atrium -
(added at Old St. Peter's) space for convert
instruction or offices -narthex - vestibule where
purification must take place before entrance into
the church proper -nave - church proper, where
the congregation stood -transept - (added at Old
St. Peter's) -apse - framed the alter and
contained seats for the clergy -triforium -
vertical element which was decorated by splendid
mosaics -clerestory - vertical element which held
small windows
  • Sarcophagus of Archbishop Theodore, 6th century
  • Wonderful example of medieval Symbolism and
    synthesis of Roman and Christian ideas in this
    Early medieval period
  • small doves eating grapes from the vine
    reference to communion the peacocks paradise
    alpha and omega reference to Jesus as "the
    beginning and the end" of all things (because of
    the context, this could also symbolize the end of
    this earthly life and the beginning of eternal
    life in heaven.) the laurels on the cover in
    Roman times associated with the immortality of
    the emperors who wore them, now symbolize the
    immortality of the Christian soul.
  • This is the sarcophagus of Archbishop Theodore of
    Ravenna. Figurative Sarcophgi, are from 4th to
    mid 6th c., and show the human figure. Figurative
    Sarcophagi give way to Symbolic Sarcophagi such
    as this one with its design of peacocks and
    medallions, perhaps influenced by Sassanid silks
    imported from Egypt with peacocks in a surround