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Byzantine Empire Orthodox Christianity

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Byzantine Empire Orthodox Christianity Chapter 9 * * * * * * * Vocabulary: 1. Justinian 2. Hagia Sophia 3. Bulgaria 4. Icons 5. Iconoclasm 6. Kiev 7. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Byzantine Empire Orthodox Christianity


1
Byzantine EmpireOrthodox Christianity
  • Chapter 9

2
  • Vocabulary
  • 1. Justinian
  • 2. Hagia Sophia
  • 3. Bulgaria
  • 4. Icons
  • 5. Iconoclasm
  • 6. Kiev
  • 7. Vladimir I
  • 8. Russian Orthodoxy
  • 9. Boyars
  • 10. Tatars

11. Byzantine Empire 12. Constantinople 13.
Orthodox Christian Church 14. Constantine 15.
Huns 16. Hellenistic culture 17. Greek fire 18.
Tsar 19. Cyrillic alphabet
3
  • I. The Byzantine Empire
  • A. How it started
  • 1. Emperor Constantine 4th Century C.E.
  • a. Constantinople built replaced Byzantium
  • b. Empire divided (originally by Diocletian)
  • --Capitals at Rome and Constantinople
  • c. Greek, not Latin,
    became the official
    language in the
    6th century

Why was this necessary?
The Eastern Empire flourished economically as the
western empire faded.
4
  • B. Justinian Theodora
  • 1. Attempts reconquest of Italy
  • a. Ultimately failsweakens the east
    militarily economically
  • 2. Rebuilds Constantinople
  • a. Hagia Sophia
  • 3. Legal codification foundation of
    later European law
    --Justinians code

Emperor Justinian and Theodora
5
The Byzantine Empire under Justinian
6
  • C. Defending the Empire
  • 1. Center of empire shifts to east Emperors
    realized that expanding wasnt possibleneeded
    to defend the east
  • 2. Constant external threats
  • a. Arab Muslims
  • --Attacks took almost half of Byzantine
    territory
  • --Were still unable to conquer Constantinople
  • b. Sassanid Empire
  • c. Huns
  • d. Germanic tribes
  • e. Venice

7
  • D. The End of the Byzantine Empire
  • 1. Beginning in the mid 9th century the
    Byzantines were prosperous and militarily
    successful. However, in the 11th century the
    empire lost lands in Asia and effective control
    over much of the Balkan peninsula
  • 2. Seljuk Turks take most of Asian provinces in
    Anatolia after defeating the Byzantines

The Byzantine Empire, 1000-1100
8
  • 3. The Crusades
  • a. Call to West for help against Seljuk
    Turksagree to use Constantinople as a base
    for operations
  • b. 1204, crusaders sack Constantinople during
    the 4th Crusade
  • --Done at the request of traders from Venice
  • --Eventually Constantinople is brought back
    under Byzantine control
  • 4. Territories lost to Ottoman Turks
  • 5. Commerce dominated by Italian city-states of
    Venice Genoa
  • a. Hurt the Byzantines economically
  • 6. The Black Death in 1300s weakened the empire
  • 7. Constantinople taken by Ottoman Turks in
    1453the end of the Byzantine Empire

9
Byzantine Empire
10
  • The Byzantine Empire

11
  • E. Byzantine Society and Politics
  • 1. Emperors resemble Chinese rulers
  • a. Court ritual rulers have blessing of
    Godsimilar to the mandate of heaven in
    classical China
  • b. Head of church statewasnt the case in
    the west
  • 2. Imperial Senateadvised the emperor and
    provided a pool for higher appointments
  • 3. Sophisticated bureaucracy Open to all
    classes
  • a. Trained in Hellenistic (Greek) knowledge
  • 4. Provincial governors
  • a. Byzantine ambassadors spied on the nations
    to which they were posted
  • b. Bribes were used to buy off enemies and pay
    enemies of friendly states to keep those
    states off-balance
  • c. What does the word byzantine mean today?
    Why?

12
What would this be called today?
  • 5. Economic control
  • a. Government regulated food prices, trade
  • --Peasants provided food most of the taxes
  • b. Silk production allowed economic expansion
  • --State regulated silk trade (silkworms stolen
    from China)
  • 6. Trade network Asia (Silk Roads), Russia,
    Scandinavia, Europe, Africalocation along
    major trade routes
  • a. Trade concessions to foreigners
  • b. Trade competition with Venice and
    other Italian city-states
  • 7. Arts Architecture (domed buildings),
    art (mosaics)

13
  • F. The Family
  • 1. Oldest male dominated the householdpatriarcha
    l
  • 2. Parents were required by law to find spouses
    for children
  • a. Childlessness was viewed by society as a
    disaster
  • 3. Upper-class children were educated, while
    lower-class children received little to no
    education
  • 4. The primary duty of a woman was to marry,
    bear children, and run the household
  • 5. Marriage contracts agreed upon disposition of
    property
  • 6. Women could inherit and dispose of property
    in any way they wished
  • 7. Upper-class females were secluded and veiled
  • 8. Very few women were educated

14
  • G. Christianity Splits East and West
  • 1. Churches held many different beliefscould
    not come to agreement
  • a. Roman Catholicism didnt like the influence
    of secular leaders in church affairs
  • 2. Patriarch Michael
  • a. 1054, attacks Catholic practices communion
    bread, celibacy, church leadership (Pope vs.
    Patriarch)
  • 3. Mutual excommunication leads to final split
  • a. Created Roman Catholic and Eastern
    Orthodox Churches
  • 4. Orthodox missionaries converted Slavs in
    Balkans, Ukraine, and Russia
  • 5. Saint Cyril developed Cyrillic alphabet
    for Slavsalmost all Slavic languages,
    including Russian, use this alphabet

Vernacular?
Saint Cyril
15
(No Transcript)
16
Catholic vs. Orthodox
17
  • II. Byzantine Civilization Spreads
  • A. Eastern Europe
  • 1. Catholic vs. Orthodox
  • a. Ideologies battle for converts
  • 2. Catholics win in some areas
  • a. Czechs, Hungary, Poland
  • b. Latin dominates
  • 3. Jews from western Europe
  • a. Come to escape persecuti
    on

Spreads through conquest, conversion,
trade! Orthodox Church allowed the use of the
vernacular!
18
  • B. The Kievan RusThe Beginning of Russia
  • 1. Slavscombine with previous settlers
  • --Animistic religion
  • 2. Scandinavian merchants trade with the
    Byzantine empire (6th 7th Centuries)
  • 3. Monarchy forms at Kiev
  • 4. Vladimir I (980-1015)
  • a. Converts to Orthodoxy
  • b. Controls church state

19
  • C. Culture in Kievan Rus
  • 1. Influenced by Byzantine patterns
  • a. Rulers powerful in both religious
    political matters
  • 2. Orthodox influence
  • a. Ornate churches, icons, saints entered
    Russian culture
  • b. Monasticism grew in Russia
  • 3. Boyars Land-owning
    nobles
  • a. Less powerful than nobles in
    Western Europe

20
  • D. Kievan Decline
  • 1. Asian invaders seized territory from the Rus
  • 2. Mongols
  • a. 13th century, take Russian cities
  • b. Were allowed to keep traditional culture as
    long as tribute was paid to the Mongols
  • E. The End of an Era in Eastern Europe
  • 1. Mongol invasions usher in new period
  • a. Russia declined, Byzantines suffered
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