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Qualitative Research Tools

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Title: Business Research Methods William G. Zikmund Subject: Chapter 7 Author: zikmund Last modified by: USER Created Date: 9/24/2001 10:13:25 AM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Qualitative Research Tools


1
  • Chapter 7
  • Qualitative Research Tools

2
  • What is Qualitative Business Research ?
  • Research that address business objectives through
    techniques that allow the researcher to provide
    elaborate interpretations of phenomena without
    depending on numerical measurement its focus is
    on discovering true inner meanings and new
    insights.

3
  • Uses of Qualitative Research
  • Generally, the less specific the research
    objectives, the more likely that qualitative
    research tools will be appropriate.
  • When the emphasis is on a deeper understanding of
    innovations or developing novel concepts,
    qualitative research is very appropriate.
  • How a phenomenon occurs in a natural setting

4
  • Quantitative Research
  • Business research that addresses research
    objectives through empirical assessment that
    involve numerical measurement and analysis.

5
Qualitative versus Quantitative Research
  • Purpose
  • Exploratory versus descriptive and conclusive
  • Small versus large samples
  • Broad range of questioning versus structured
    questions
  • Subjective interpretation versus statistical
    analysis

6
Exploratory research
  • Secondary data
  • Experience survey
  • Pilot studies

7
Exploratory Research
  • Initial research conducted to clarify and define
    the nature of a problem
  • Does not provide conclusive evidence
  • Subsequent research expected

8
What is Exploratory Research?
QUANTITATIVE DATA
QUALITATIVE DATA
9
Why Conduct Exploratory Research?
Diagnose a situation Screening of
alternatives Discover new ideas
10
  • Orientation to Qualitative Research
  • Phenomenology -Originating in philosophy and
    psychology
  • Ethnography - Originating in Anthropology
  • Grounded Theory - Originating in sociology
  • Case Studies - Originating in psychology and in
    business

11
Case Study Method
  • Case studies refer to the documented history of a
    particular person, group, organization or event.
  • Intensely investigates one or a few situations
    similar to the problem
  • Investigate in depth
  • Careful study
  • May require cooperation

12
Common Techniques Used in Qualitative Research
  • Focus group
  • Depth Interviews
  • Conversation
  • Semi-structured Interview
  • Word association / Sentence completion
  • Observation
  • Projective Techniques
  • Thematic Apperception Test (T.A.T)

13
Focus Group Interviews
  • Unstructured
  • Free flowing
  • Group interview
  • Start with broad topic and focus in on specific
    issues
  • Led by a trained moderator who follows a
    flexible format encouraging dialog among
    respondents.

14
Group Composition
  • 6 to 10 people
  • Relatively homogeneous
  • Similar lifestyles and experiences

15
Outline for a Focus Group
  • Establish a rapport
  • Begin with broad topic
  • Focus in on specific topic
  • Generate discussion and interaction

16
The Moderator
  • Develops rapport - helps people relax
  • Interacts
  • Listens to what people have to say
  • Everyone gets a chance to speak

17
The Moderator
  • Maintains loose control and focuses discussion
  • Stimulates spontaneous responses

18
Advantages of Online Focus Groups
  • Fast
  • Inexpensive
  • Bring together many participants from wide-spread
    geographical areas
  • Respondent anonymity
  • Transcript automatically recorded

19
Disadvantages of Online Focus Groups
  • Less group interaction
  • Absence of tactile stimulation
  • Absence of facial expression and body language
  • Moderators job is difficult

20
A man is least himself when he talks in his own
person when given a mask he will tell the
truth. --Oscar Wilde
21
Depth interviews
  • A one-one-one interview between a professional
    researcher and a respondent conducted about some
    relevant business or social topic.

22
Conversations
  • An informal data gathering approach in which the
    researcher engages a respondent in a discussion
    of the relevant subject matter.

23
Semi-structured Interview
  • Social Networking

24
Word Association/ Free-association
  • Subject is presented with a list of words
  • Asked to respond with first word that comes to
    mind
  • Or, respondents view an ambiguous figure and are
    asked to say the first thing that comes to their
    mind.

25
Sentence Completion People who drink beer are
______________________ A man who drinks light
beer is ___________________ Imported beer is
most liked by ___________________ A woman will
drink beer when____________________
26
Projective Techniques
  • Word association tests
  • Sentence completion method
  • Third-person technique
  • Role playing
  • T.A.T.
  • Picture frustration version of T.A.T.

27
Observation
  • Can be a very important qualitative tool
  • It is keenly advantageous for gaining insight
    into things that respondents can not or will not
    verbalize.

28
  • Chapter 9
  • Survey Research An Overview

29
Surveys
  • Surveys ask respondents for information using
    verbal or written questioning

30
Respondents
  • Respondents are a representative sample of people

31
Gathering Information via Surveys
  • Quick
  • Inexpensive
  • Efficient
  • Accurate
  • Flexible

32
Problems
  • Poor Design
  • Improper Execution

33
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Random sampling error
Total error
Systematic error (bias)
34
Random Sampling Error
  • A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of
    change variation in the elements selected for the
    sample

35
Systematic Error
  • Systematic error results from some imperfect
    aspect of the research design or from a mistake
    in the execution of the research

36
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Administrative error
Systematic error (bias)
Respondent error
37
Sample Bias
  • Sample bias - when the results of a sample show a
    persistent tendency to deviate in one direction
    from the true value of the population parameter

38
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Nonresponse error
Respondent error
Response bias
39
Respondent Error
  • A classification of sample bias resulting from
    some respondent action or inaction
  • Nonresponse bias
  • Response bias

40
Nonresponse Error
  • Nonrespondents - people who refuse to cooperate
  • Not-at-homes
  • Self-selection bias
  • Over-represents extreme positions
  • Under-represents indifference

41
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Deliberate falsification
Response bias
Unconscious misrepresentation
42
Response Bias
  • A bias that occurs when respondents tend to
    answer questions with a certain slant that
    consciously or unconsciously misrepresents the
    truth

43
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Acquiescence bias
Extremity bias
Interviewer bias
Auspices bias
Social desirability bias
44
Acquiescence Bias
  • A category of response bias that results because
    some individuals tend to agree with all questions
    or to concur with a particular position.

45
Extremity Bias
  • A category of response bias that results because
    response styles vary from person to person some
    individuals tend to use extremes when responding
    to questions.

46
Interviewer Bias
  • A response bias that occurs because the presence
    of the interviewer influences answers.

47
Auspices Bias
  • Bias in the responses of subjects caused by the
    respondents being influenced by the organization
    conducting the study.

48
Social Desirability Bias
  • Bias in responses caused by respondents desire,
    either conscious or unconscious, to gain prestige
    or appear in a different social role.

49
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Administrative error
Systematic error (bias)
Respondent error
50
Administrative Error
  • Improper administration of the research task
  • Blunders
  • Confusion
  • Neglect
  • Omission

51
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Data processing error
Sample selection error
Interviewer error
Interviewer cheating
52
Administrative Error
  • Interviewer cheating - filling in fake answers or
    falsifying interviewers
  • Data processing error - incorrect data entry,
    computer programming, or other procedural errors
    during the analysis stage.
  • Sample selection error -improper sample design or
    sampling procedure execution.
  • Interviewer error - field mistakes

53

54
Classifying Surveys by Degree of Structure and
Degree of Disguise
Structured Unstructured
Undisguised Disguised
55
Time Period for Surveys
  • Cross-sectional
  • Longitudinal

56
Cross-Sectional Study
  • A study in which various segments of a population
    are sampled
  • Data are collected at a single moment in time.

57
Longitudinal Study
  • A survey of respondents at different times, thus
    allowing analysis of changes over time.
  • Tracking study use successive samples, compare
    trends and identify changes in variables such as
    consumer satisfaction

58
Consumer Panel
  • A longitudinal survey of the same sample of
    individuals or households to record (in a diary)
    their attitudes, behavior, or purchasing habits
    over time.

59
Total Quality Management and Customer
Satisfaction Surveys
  • Total quality management - A business philosophy
    that emphasizes market-driven quality as a top
    organizational priority.

60
Stages in Tracking Quality Improvement
Initial quality improve- ment
Continuous Quality Improvement
Commitment and Exploration
Bench- marking
61
Commitment and Exploration Stage
  • Management makes a commitment to total quality
    assurance
  • Business researchers explore external customers
    needs and problems.
  • Business researchers explore internal customers
    needs, beliefs, and motivations.

62
Benchmarking Stage
  • Research establishes quantitative measures as
    benchmarks or points of comparison
  • Overall satisfaction and quality ratings of
    specific attributes
  • Employees actual performance and perceptions

63
Initial Quality Improvement Stage
  • Tracking wave 1 measures trends
  • Establishes a quality improvement process within
    the organization.
  • Translate quality issues into the internal
    vocabulary of the organization.
  • Establish performance standards and expectations
    for improvement.

64
Continuous Quality Improvement
  • Consists of many consecutive waves with the same
    purposeto improve over the previous period.
  • Quality improvement management continues.

65
Determinants of the Quality of Goods
  • Performance
  • Features
  • Conformance with specifications
  • Reliability
  • Durability
  • Serviceability
  • Aesthetic design

66
Determinants of Service Quality
  • Access
  • Communication
  • Competence
  • Courtesy
  • Reliability
  • Credibility
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