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Broadcast Technology RTV 151

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Broadcast Technology RTV 151 Telephony Internet & WWW Broadband etc. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 13 February 2020
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Title: Broadcast Technology RTV 151


1
Broadcast Technology RTV 151
  • Telephony
  • Internet WWW
  • Broadband etc.

2
Internet Review
  • Advanced Research Projects Agency
  • Pentagon / University relationship
  • LANs and WANs
  • Single location / wide geographic area
  • ARPANET combined with LANs and WANs became the
    Internet in 1983
  • TCP/IP protocol (Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf)
  • Packet switching and IP addresses

3
Domain Name System (DNS)
  • IP address 158.135.172.2
  • Text-based DNS translates human language into the
    computers phone number
  • TLD -- .com , .net, .edu
  • ccTLD -- country code -- .ca , .uk (list)
  • Determined by IANA, Internet Assigned Numbers
    Authority
  • Organizational identifier tamuc , google
  • Domain names administered by ICANN -- Internet
    Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
  • Buy domains from registrars (Mad Dog, GoDaddy,
    1and1

4
Programs on the Internet
  • WWW -- Tim Berners-Lee devised HTML language
    which led to Mosaic
  • A browser interprets the HTML
  • Web page creation...
  • XML--extensible markup language
  • SOAP--simple objects access protocol (based on
    XML
  • XHTML--another form of XML
  • VRML
  • App creation

5
Programs on the Internet
  • E-mail
  • Newsgroups / Usenet (link)
  • Chat / IM (AIM, iChat, Meebo)
  • Telnet (link)
  • FTP (Fetch, etc.)
  • Internet Phone (Skype, Google Voice)
  • Web 2.0 (blogs, Second Life, podcasts) Video
    streams (Bittorent, Veoh, Hulu, clicker)

6
Whats going on today
  • Blogs / moblogs / vlogs
  • Journalism / bloggers
  • RSS feeds
  • Podcasts, etc. / newsreader software
  • New economic models -- Google
  • Legal issues -- RIAA, MPAA
  • Other issues
  • Malware, Digital Divide, charging fees to
    Internet sites, net neutrality (Comcast)

7
Web 2.0?
  • Google Docs (YouTube tutorial) / Drive
  • Apple OS X Leopard / Snow Leopard / Lion /
    Mountain Lion
  • What is Digital Media? / New Media -- Canada
    DMS
  • What is Internet 2?
  • Increase speeds
  • Spread technologies and applications
  • Take advantage of digital libraries, virtual
    laboratories, tele-immersion
  • What is Web 2.0?

8
Web 2.0
9
What is
  • Digg?
  • Stumble Upon?
  • Photobucket?
  • Jumpcut?
  • The WayBack Machine?
  • The Machine is using us?
  • Otherwise going on. ?

10
Mobile Computing Devices
  • PDAs (personal digital assistant Newton)
  • Functions / changes through the years
  • GPS
  • Vehicle fixed / portable
  • Satellite connection vs. most others
  • Cell Phones
  • iPhone example (smart phone)
  • Portable Video Games
  • GameBoy, Nintendo DS, Sony PSP / music, movies
  • Ultra Mobile PCs -- Origami / Microsoft (site)
  • CES -- Microsoft focus on touch technologies
  • Wearable Computers?
  • Tablets

11
Broadcasting vs. streaming
  • DTV multicasting
  • DVB-H (digital video broadcasting - handheld)
    standard for broadcasting to handsets
  • DMB (digital multimedia broadcasting) for
    multimedia broadcasting -- not available in North
    America
  • Streaming allows VOD -- ATT Mobile (MediaFlo),
    Verizon (ending 12/2012)
  • Backseat TV

12
Developing Technologies
  • 3G / 4G cell phones -- packet and circuit
    switching
  • Wi-Fi
  • 802.11 and 802.11x refers to a family of
    specifications developed by the IEEE for wireless
    LAN technology.
  • Institute of Electrical and Electronics
    Engineers, pronounced I-triple-E
  • WiMax
  • Also known as IEEE 802.16--intended for wireless
    "metropolitan area networks". Provides
    broadband wireless access (BWA) up to 30 miles
    (50 km) for fixed stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5 -
    15 km) for mobile stations.
  • WiFi/802.11 wireless local area network standard
    is limited in most cases to only 100 - 300 feet
    (30 - 100m).

13
Why 802?
  • The 802 group is the section of the IEEE involved
    in network operations and technologies, including
    mid-sized networks and local networks. Group 15
    deals specifically with wireless networking
    technologies, and includes the now ubiquitous
    802.15.1 working group, which is also known as
    Bluetooth.

14
(No Transcript)
15
Developing Technologies
  • Bluetooth
  • Name comes from Harald Bluetooth, king of Denmark
    in the late 900s
  • There are lots of different ways that electronic
    devices can connect to one another--Component
    cables, Electrical wires, Ethernet cables, WiFi,
    Infrared signals
  • Bluetooth is essentially a networking standard
    that works at two levels
  • It provides agreement at the physical level --
    Bluetooth is a radio-frequency standard
  • AND, it provides agreement at the protocol level,
    where products have to agree on when bits are
    sent, how many will be sent at a time, and how
    the parties in a conversation can be sure that
    the message received is the same as the message
    sent. (cell phone, GPS, PDA--Starfield example)

16
Developing Technologies
  • ZigBee
  • The set of specs built around the IEEE 802.15.4
    wireless protocol.
  • Name "ZigBee" derived from the erratic zigging
    patterns many bees make between flowers when
    collecting pollen. The standard is regulated by a
    group known as the ZigBee Alliance, with over 150
    members worldwide.
  • Bluetooth focuses on connectivity between large
    packet user devices--laptops, phones, major
    peripherals.
  • ZigBee is designed to provide highly efficient
    connectivity between small packet devices.

17
Developing Technologies
  • WPAN
  • Wireless personal area network
  • Bluetooth and Zigbee
  • Personal hotspots
  • RFID
  • IBM Uses RFID to Track Conference Attendees
  • New chip promises to track kids from miles away
  • Tracks things and people
  • DTV? / HD Radio
  • Multicasting channels -- data transmission?
  • Two way interactivity
  • FCC approval

18
Technical changes
  • Copper wires to fiber optic cable
  • Circuit Switching to packet switching
  • Landline to wireless
  • Convergence of technologies and companies

19
Technical examples
  • Fiber Optic Technicians (jobs promotion)
  • Early telephones (women as operators)
  • Early telephones (dialing a rotary phone)
  • (push button phone)
  • Making free phone calls (discussion VoIP)
  • Skype
  • Netzero Voice / Messenger / iChat
  • Jajah.com
  • Google Voice

20
Cell Phones
  • Early -- 2-way radio type service
  • Phone / cells / towers
  • Ugly towers?
  • Connects to Mobile Telephone Switching Office
    (MTSO)
  • Going to another cell phone in same area on same
    service, routed to another tower
  • To another service or a landline, routed to the
    Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

21
Generations
  • two-way radio style
  • cellular process developed by (old) ATT
  • IG -- analog -- 1983 -- AMPS -- advanced mobile
    phone service
  • 2G -- digital introduction -- early 1990s
  • CDMA, TDMA initially in the U.S. (CDMA Sprint,
    Verizon)
  • GSM type adopted first in Europe (ATT / T-Mobile)

22
Generations
  • 3G -- higher data transmission speeds -- switch
    to packet switching (Interim -- 2.5G Edge)
  • Verizon, ATT, Sprint T-Mobile all offer high
    speed 3G wireless networks. All moving to
    4G...but, interim technologies
  • 3G -- about 3 mbps throughput 4G about 10 mbps
    (about 10x faster)
  • Based on phone AND network infrastructure

23
3G vs. 4G
  • Explanation
  • Direct link

24
Cell phone as hybrid medium
  • Delivery of video to cellular phones is becoming
    more widespread voice / data and
  • Verizons V-Cast service (3G EV-DO) MobiTV
    service.
  • Both use the cellular network to deliver the
    content.
  • New service and technology, MediaFlo, developed
    by Qualcomm, uses part of the television
    broadcasting spectrum (channel 55) to send
    multi-media content to mobile phones (as noted
    before).
  • Allows wireless carriers to offer video content
    without taking up much needed bandwidth in their
    cellular network.

25
What is broadband?
  • ITU -- minimum speed of 256 kilobits/second
  • FCC -- 1996 Telecommunications Act 200 Kb/s
    bidirectionally
  • Wired
  • Wireless
  • Satellite
  • Alternate DTV multicast channels (etc.)

26
Broadband delivery -- wired
  • DSL
  • DSLAM / extenders (digital subscriber line access
    multiplexer)
  • IPTV (ATT U-verse, Verizon FiOS)
  • Dedicated line (no slowdown)
  • Cable modem (DOCSIS -- 1.0 / 2.0 / 3.0)
  • Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification
  • Shared down trunk line (slowdown)
  • Information service / no open access
  • Fiber to the home/premises (FTTH/P)
  • FTTN -- fiber to the node (last mile is coaxial
    cable for cable twisted-pair copper for DSL
  • Broadband over power line (BPL)
  • Interference
  • State approval

27
Broadband delivery -- wireless
  • Fixed wireless broadband (FWB) (from MMDS)
  • 3G mobile wireless (4G / pre-4G)
  • Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) (WLAN)
  • Wi-Max (802.16)
  • Satellite
  • HughesNet WildBlue (several now)
  • Latency problem (VoIP, games) a time delay
    between the moment something is initiated, and
    the moment one of its effects begins or becomes
    detectable

28
Broadband today
  • Survey Says Broadband To Lag TV in 2012. Forget
    About It by Will Richmond
  • This piece in recent Hollywood Reporter about a
    newly-released survey ("Broadband Won't Overtake
    TV, Execs Say") caught my eye because it
    continues a highly speculative, and largely
    irrelevant debate pervasive throughout the
    industry about future video consumption patterns.
  • Why's the debate highly speculative? Because
    truly, none of us has any idea how people will
    consume video in 2012. There are just too many
    variables and too many unknowns to make an
    accurate prediction.
  • BUT mobile media Internet TV

29
Broadband today (cont)
  • Here's a point of comparison
  • let's say 5 years ago, in 2002, you were asked
    what percentage of Americans would consume
    broadband video in a given month?
  • How many (or few!) of us would have predicted a
    whopping 75? (the correct answer according to
    comScore in July '07).
  • Better yet, how many of us would have guessed
    that over 25 of this consumption would be at
    just one site (YouTube) - a site that didn't even
    exist in 2002?
  • Given these examples, who's to predict what 2012
    will bring?

30
Broadband today (3)
  • Sites like Metacafe.com, blip.tv, Veoh.com
    Hulu.com etc. driving a whole new category of
    video that could eventually be a more popular
    format than 30 or 60 min. programs.
  • Consumers themselves are driving this "broadband
    or TV" debate into irrelevance.
  • They're busy accessing programming on demand -
    whether "broadband" or "TV" - through a host of
    devices and services whose popularity is only
    going to skyrocket in the future. These include
    TiVo, Xbox, Netflix, Amazon Unbox and many others.

31
Broadband Today (4)
  • With the proliferation of available broadband
    video comes a massive user navigation challenge.
    Modern Feed launched (4/8/08) (now Clicker) to
    address this.
  • Part search engine, part aggregator, with a
    specific focus on indexing professionally-produced
    programming, not user-generated video. It's also
    focused on actual programs, not promotional
    clips.

32
Broadband Today (5)
  • J.D. Heilprin, Modern Feed's founder/CEO
  • the company is targeting mainstream users
    providing the easiest way to find available,
    high-quality video.
  • It employs a team of "Feeders" charged with
    curating the best videos to include on the site.
    The result is approximately 550 "networks" and
    25,000 pieces of content now indexed
  • Networks" is a loose term ranging from
    traditional broadcasters to indies new entrants
    like Boston Symphony or Architectural Digest.
  • Name changed to Clicker
  • All My Children, One Life to Live examples

33
Home Networks
  • Residential gateway (aka - cable/DSL router)
  • the key device in most home networks
  • Wired (server / hub / router) LAN
  • Wireless (wi-fi / WLAN / 802.11)
  • Interconnects all computers and other IP devices
  • Connects the home network to the broadband
    connection

34
Specs Technical specifications or standards
  • Like all issues establish technical standards
  • HPNA -- Home Phoneline Networking Alliance --
    technology, built on Ethernet, allows all the
    components of a home network to interact over the
    home's existing telephone wiring without
    disturbing the existing voice or fax services
  • IEEE -- Institute of Electrical and Electronics
    Engineers

35
Proprietary or agreed-upon?
  • VHS vs. Beta (home)
  • DVD-R / DVD-RW vs. DVDR / RW vs. RAM
  • SD cards or compact flash cards
  • HD-DVD vs. BluRay
  • WMA vs. RealPlayer vs. Quicktime etc. codecs
  • HDTV (8-VSB / COFDM)

36
Home hot spot Applications?
  • Multiple networked computers
  • Computers share one printer
  • Integration of phone / cable or satellite systems
    / DVR, Slingbox, etc. with IP
  • Security system connections

37
Home hot spot Applications?
  • Control any IP device -- Microsoft has been
    working with Whirlpool to allow users to monitor
    their laundry with their home network, computer,
    TV, and cell phone.
  • Continuing growth in American homes operating a
    wireless network, making the US the leader in
    adoption of wireless home networks.

38
Wireless security
  • Wireless cloud -- public places
  • Encryption types
  • WEP -- Wired Equivalency Privacy
  • easily hacked -- do a Cracking wi-fi or
    cracking WEP search on YouTube Wireless Hacking /
    WEP hacking / Free wi-fi anywhere
  • WPA -- Wi-Fi Protected Access
  • 128 bit encryption
  • WPA Personal -- password protected
  • WPA-Enterprise -- server verified
  • Evil Twins
  • Phony hotspots to steal information

39
What else?
  • RFID (ubiquitous?)
  • Smart Home (video) / robotics
  • Speech recognition
  • Types Discrete, continuous complete
  • Speech recognition gone awry
  • Better success demo (click screen when page
    loads)
  • Ultra HD video (cinema--replace film projection)
  • Electronic paper (Kindle, iPad) (e-paper demo)
  • Wikis
  • GIGO conundrum?
  • LA Times experiment
  • Google docs as collaborative authoring?

40
Virtual / Augmented Reality (RWWW)
  • Second Life (promo/commercial)
  • Google Earth and other competitors
  • Education, Entertainment, etc. in a virtual
    world?
  • Computer speed, power and storage
  • How to simulate touch, smell, taste
  • HMD, haptics, immersive environment
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