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Economic Recovery and European Unity

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Economic Recovery and European Unity 1945-2001 Chapter 31-2 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Economic Recovery and European Unity


1
Economic Recovery and European Unity
  • 1945-2001
  • Chapter 31-2

2
The Impact of the Economy on 1970s Society
  • Led to the collapse of communism in the 1980s
  • Pessimism replaced optimism
  • BUT the welfare state prevented mass suffering
  • Total government spending rose in most countries
    in the 1970s and 1980s

3
A Resurgence of Conservatism
  • By the late 1970s conservatives used austerity
    measures to slow the growth of public spending
    and the welfare state

4
Great Britain
  • PM Margaret Thatcher (1979-1990)
  • Increased privatization
  • Cut government spending
  • Encouraged the working class and lower middle
    class renters in state-controlled housing to
    purchase their own apartments at very low prices
  • a whole new class of property-owners

5
France
  • Francois Mitterand (1981-1995) led his socialist
    party and his communist allies in a huge program
    of nationalization and public investment
  • Tried to SPEND France out of the depressed
    economy
  • By 1993 the effort had failed and austerity
    measures were used
  • By 1993 conservatives and Moderates controlled
    the government

6
Post WWII European Society
  • Science During WWII and for the first time
    purely theoretical science merged with practical
    technology
  • British developed radar
  • Germans developed jet aircraft
  • Computers improved (had been around since 1939)

7
Science
  • The Manhattan Project (U.S. many European
    scientists) resulted in the creation of the
    Atomic Bomb
  • Big Science post WWII
  • Massive government funding
  • 25 of all post-war research went into defense
  • Space Race was a product of Big Science

8
The Space Race
  • 1957 USSR launched the Space Race with Sputnik
  • Fear of nukes from space caused the development
    of ICBMs( Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles)
  • In the U.SNASA and increased funding for
    education

9
Space
  • 1961 Yuri Gagarin (Soviet Cosmonaut) first man in
    orbit
  • 1969 U.S. Apollo program put the first men on
    the moon

10
Brain Drain
  • The U.S. attracted many of Europes best
    scientists during the 1950s and 1960s
  • Was seen as The American Challenge
  • Europeans feared that Europe was falling behind

11
Science in Europe
  • Four times as many scientists in Europe and the
    U.S. in 1975 as in 1945
  • Modern scientists began working in
    teamssomething new

12
Class Structure
  • The rise of the middle class was mostly due to
    the increased availability of higher education
  • European society became more mobile and more
    democratic
  • A trend toward a less-rigid class structure

13
Causes for the change in the Middle Class
  • Demand for scientists and managers increased due
    to rapid industrial and technological growth
  • After WWII the old, propertied middle class had
    lost many family-owned businesses
  • The new middle class well-paid, highly-trained
    salaried specialists top managers and civil
    servants
  • Passed on their zeal for education to their
    children

14
The Lower Classes
  • Also more flexible and open
  • Millions of rural workers continued to move to
    cities
  • drastic decline in Europes least mobile group
  • Industrial working class little growth
  • BUT more opportunities for white-collar and
    service workers

15
Consumerism
  • Rising standard of living and more disposable
    income
  • Rapid growth of the auto industry
  • The Gadget revolution washers, dryers, vacuum
    cleaners, refrigerators, TVs, Stereos
  • New methods of credit (installment buying, credit
    cards)
  • Increased social welfare less need to save

16
Leisure and Recreation became major industries
  • Increased attendance at cultural events
  • Increased attendance and participation in
    sporting events
  • Dramatic expansion of the travel industry
  • Before WWII only the aristocracy traveled for
    pleasure
  • Paid vacations now required by law in most
    countries

17
The Youth Movement and Counterculture
  • Counter-Culture Rebellion against parents
    authority
  • Baby Boom after WWII had a distinctive and
    international youth culture
  • Many were raised in times of economic prosperity
    and held more democratic views
  • The new generation was influenced by the left

18
The Youth Movement
  • American Youth led the way
  • Rebellion against authority boredom of the
    suburbs
  • Rock music tied the culture together
  • The Beatles, etc
  • Increased sexual behavior at earlier ages
  • Many more began to live together outside of
    marriage

19
Causes of the Rise of the Youth Culture
  • Mass communication and youth travel made the
    world a bit smaller
  • Baby boomers represented a very large segment of
    the population and had more influence on society
  • Post-war prosperity and greater equality meant
    more purchasing power for youth

20
The Youth Culture
  • The Youth set mass trends and fads
  • Common patterns of consumption a kind of
    generational loyalty
  • Good jobs were readily available so
    unconventional behavior more acceptableemployers
    needed workers

21
Student Revolts in the late 1960s Due to
  • Opposition to the Vietnam War belief that the
    older generation was immoral and imperialistic
  • Influence of Marxism in French universities and
    the New Left in the U.S.
  • Students in U.S. and Europe rejected materialism

22
Student Revolts in Universities due to
  • Overcrowded university classrooms
  • Little contact with actual professors
  • Intense competition for grades
  • Demand for more practical areas of study

23
1968 French Student Revolt
  • Students in violent clashes with police
  • Students took over university
  • Most wanted changes in curriculum and a voice in
    running the university
  • Students appealed to industrial workers for help
  • A general strike resulted
  • Looked like the French Fifth Republic might
    collapse

24
French University Rebellion
  • De Gaulle called in the troops and the student
    revolution collapsed.

25
Women
  • 1906 Women got the vote in Finland and Norway
  • After WWI Women got the vote in England, Russia,
    Germany
  • After WWII Womens Suffrage in France and Italy
  • Switzerland in 1980!

26
Marriage and Motherhood
  • Earlier marriages after WWII
  • The Domestic role was emphasized
  • Most in W. Europe, Canada the U.S. had children
    quickly after marriage
  • Generally limited to 2
  • Due to the increased use and kinds of birth
    control

27
Women went to Work
  • Opportunities for women to work from home to make
    a little extra decreased after WWII
  • So in Canada, W. Europe and U.S. more married
    entered the workforce part and full time
  • More women working more women calling for
    equality
  • Rising employment became a factor in the falling
    birthrate

28
The Modern Womens Rights Movement
  • 1949 Simone de Beauvoir The Second Sex
  • Argued that women were in essence free but had
    almost always been trapped by inflexible and
    limiting conditions
  • Only by being assertive could women become free
    and escape their inferior role
  • Inspired others

29
Womens Rights Movement
  • Betty Friedan (American) The Feminine Mystique
    influenced by Beauvior
  • Argued that women were expected to conform to a
    false pattern of femininity and live for their
    husbands and children
  • Founded NOW The National Organization for Women
  • Inspired European groups

30
Goals of the Womens Movements
  • Equal pay for equal work
  • Laws against discrimination
  • Maternity leave
  • Affordable day care
  • Protection from rape and violence
  • Right to divorce (Catholic countries)
  • The effort to legalize abortion inspired the
    womens movement in many European states

31
Women and Reform Movements
  • Many women worked for environmentalism, gay
    rights, anti-poverty programs
  • Critical of beauty pageants, male chauvinism
  • Burned bras (cultural oppressors)

32
Religion
  • 1962-1965 The Second Vatican Council the most
    important council of the Catholic Church since
    the Council of Trent (mid-16th Century)
  • Allowed for the use of the vernacular in the
    liturgy
  • Scripture became the Foundation of the Catholic
    Church
  • Declared that (though the Catholic Church was the
    true Church) other Christian groups were to be
    respected

33
Secularism
  • By the 21st Century Europe tended toward
    secularism
  • 2005 poll indicated that only 25 of Europeans
    considered religion to be important (59 in the
    U.S)
  • In 2004 only 15 attended Church regularly 44
    Americans)
  • NOTE percentages varied from country to country

34
Catholics in the 21st C.
  • In countries where Catholicism was dominant,
    there was a higher rate of Church attendance
    EXCEPT FOR FRANCE
  • Congrats! You made it to the end of the notes.
    Next slide has terms for Chapter 31

35
Terms for Chapter 31
  • Bretton Woods Conference GATT
  • The Six EEC
  • Common Market IMF
  • World Bank UN
  • Treaty of Rome Euratom
  • Security Council EU
  • General Assembly Euro
  • De Gaulle OPEC

36
More Terms for Chapter 31
  • French 4th Republic French 5th Republic
  • Christian Democrats Maastricht Treaty
  • Catholic Party Clement Atlee
  • Labour Party Stagflation
  • Conrad Adenaur Francois Mitterand
  • Economic Miracle Big Science
  • Keynesian Economics Sputnik
  • Jean Monnet Space Race

37
Even more terms for 31
  • Ludwig Erhard Yuri Gagarin
  • Welfare State Brian Drain
  • Mixed economy Margaret Thatcher
  • Counter Culture Guest Workers
  • Council of Europe Simone de Beauvoir
  • ECSC Vatican II
  • Schuman Plan
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