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Title: evolution


1
evolution
2
evolution
  • Ch 15 and Ch 16

3
EVOLUTION
  • Change in a population over time.

Does Evolution mean Man comes from Monkey?
4
Charles Robert Darwin (1809 1882)
  • He was the individual who contributed more to our
    understanding of evolution than anyone was else.
  • Grew up amidst wealth, comfort, and country
    sports
  • Unimpressive student, thought of becoming a
    country physician (like his father) or a
    clergyman
  • FYIborn on the same day as Abraham Lincoln

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  • Darwin served as naturalist aboard the H.M.S.
    Beagle on a British science expedition around the
    world
  • Traveld from 1831-1836
  • During his travels, Darwin made numerous
    observations and collected evidence that led him
    to propose a revolutionary hypothesis about the
    way of life changes over time.

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HMS Voyage
10
Galapagos Islands
11
Darwin's Work
  • When the ship would anchor Darwin would collect
    plant and animal specimens.
  • He would study and observe these during travel
    time at sea.
  • His curiosity and analytical nature were
    ultimately the keys to his success as a scientist.

12
Darwin's Work
  • His primary focus was on how and why some animals
    and plant life were found in some specific areas
    but not others that had similar ecosystems..
  • Why are there no rabbits in Australia? Why no
    kangaroos in England? Even though both habitats
    seemed perfect for them!
  • He also began to study preserved remains of
    ancient organisms called fossils.
  • Why had animals changed so drastically? Why had
    some changed very little?

13
Darwin's Work
  • The Galapogos Islands was a port that influenced
    Darwins theories the most.
  • Several islands that although close together had
    very differenct climates.
  • Darwin worked primarily with tortoises, inguanas
    and finches.
  • He made observations about these and other
    animals.
  • He focused on how these animals were similar to
    other species but very unique to the islands.

14
INFLUENCES ON DARWIN
  1. Essay of Population by Thomas Malthus stated
    that human population increases faster than the
    food supply
  2. Principles of Geology by Charles Lyell stated
    that the earth is changing slowly and the forces
    that acted on it in the past are still at work

15
INFLUENCES ON DARWIN
  • 3. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck- He publishes his
    hypothesis of the inheritance of acquired traits.
    The ideas are flawed, but he is one of the first
    to prose a mechanism explain how organism change
    over time.
  • He thought that if an animal somehow altered a
    body structure, it would pass that change on to
    its offsprings. By exampleif you lifted weights
    all the time you could pass on big muscles to
    your children.

16
INFLUENCES ON DARWIN
  • 3. The discovery of fossils in South America
    which were similar in appearance to modern
    armadillos, but their size indicated they were a
    different species.
  • 4. The Galapagos Island discoveries which showed
    the tortoises and finches were slightly different
    from island to island, i.e. variations.

17
INFLUENCES ON DARWIN
  • The use of selective breeding to create new
    varieties
  • Animal and plant breeders were able to create
    new organisms by selectively breeding parents for
    desired traits.

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Alfred Wallace
  • About 20 yrs. after Darwins voyage, another
    young Englishman went on a venture to South
    America and wrote Darwin a letter outlining a
    theory hed been developing
  • Darwin was astonished, Wallace was describing the
    same natural selection that he had been
    contemplating for 20 years, but never had the
    nerve to publish

24
  • 18 months later Darwin went on the write On the
    Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection,
    or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the
    Struggle for Life in 1859
  • The Origin of Species

25
Darwin's Conclusion
  • In his book Darwin proposed the idea of natural
    selection to explain how species evolve.
  • He then presented evidence that evolution has
    been taking place for millions of years and still
    continutes
  • His work caused a sensation!!
  • But what did he actually say.

26
Darwin's Conclusion
  • One of Darwin's important insights was that
    member of each species vary from one another in
    important ways.
  • He focused on how variations of species
    mattersand in fact was used even then.

27
Artificial Selection
  • Artificial selection- Breeding organisms with
    specific traits in order to produce offspring
    with identical traits.
  • Humans have been doing this for years with both
    plants and animals.

28
Natural Selection
  • Darwin was convinced that artificial selection
    worked in nature.
  • Organisms produce more offspring than can
    survive. For example fish sometime lay millions
    of eggs
  • In any population, individuals have variations.
    (size, color, speed)
  • Individuals, with certain useful variations, such
    as speed or being able to avoid predators, will
    survive in their environment, passing those
    variations to the next generation.
  • This is often referred to as Survival of the
    Fittest.

29
Natural Selection
  • Overtime, offspring with certain variations make
    up most of the population and may look entirely
    different from their ancestors.
  • Darwin proposed this idea of natural selection to
    explain how species change over time.

30
Natural Selection
  • How is one moth better adapted than the other?
  • Which one will survive and pass on its
    characteristics to its ofspring?

31
Natural Selection
  • Mimicry!!

32
Natural Selection
  • Mimicry!!

33
Natural Selection
  • Camouflage!

34
Natural Selection
  • Camouflage!

35
Divergent Evolution
  • Divergent evolution, the pattern of evolution in
    which species that once were similar to an
    ancestral species diverge, or become increasingly
    distinct.
  • Divergent evolution occurs when populations
    adapting to different environmental conditions
    changes becoming less alike as they adapt,
    eventually resulting in a new species.

36
Divergent Evolution
37
Divergent Evolution
38
Convergent Evolution
  • A pattern of evolution in which distantly related
    organism evolve similar traits is called
    Convergent Evolution
  • This occurs when unrelated species occupy similar
    environments indifferent parts of the world
  • Because they share similar environmental
    pressures, they share similar pressures of
    natural selection.

39
Convergent Evolution
40
BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION
If Evolution is realhow can we prove it?
  • 1. The fossil record
  • 2. Anatomical evidence
  • 3. DNA similarities
  • 4. Embryological evidence

41
1. FOSSIL RECORDS
  • A fossil is any preserved part or trace of an
    organism that once lived.
  • Fossils may be formed when all or part of an
    organism is buried before it can be eaten or
    before it decays.

42
FOSSIL RECORDS
  • Fossils are often found in sedimentary rock.
  • Sediments such as mud, silt, and sand have
    deposited layers on top of one another and are
    subjected to great pressure.

43
FOSSIL RECORDS
  • Fossils are important because they provide a
    record of early life and evolutionary history.
  • Fossils are found throughout the world.
  • While many fossil records are incomplete the
    sequences of evolution can become more clear.

44
Categories of Fossils
1. Imprints 2. Molds 3. Casts 4. Petrified
fossils 5. Intact fossils
45
Imprint Fossils
  • An imprint fossil forms when an object is pressed
    into mud, such as a leaf or insect.
  • As it slowly dissolves, the mud surrounding it
    can harden and a space is left.
  • A mold of the original object is formed, which
    fills with sediment and becomes a fossil.

46
Mold Fossils
  • Formed when hard body parts such as teeth,
    shells, or bones form depressions, that are the
    size and shape of the body part, in the rock that
    are shaped like the organisms part
  • The part decomposed and leaves its specific shape
    because the sediment had already hardened around
    the original part

47
Cast Fossils
  • Formed when the original materials decompose and
    the resulting mold is filled with another
    material.
  • Now think of of something like a bone buried in
    sediment. The sediment hardens around the bone,
    and the bone rots away, creating a mold. Over
    time, minerals fill in the mold and harden,
    creating a cast of the bone, or a cast fossil.

48
Petrified Fossils
  • Formed when the hard parts of an organism are
    gradually replaced by minerals

49
Intact Fossils
  • Occur when an entire organism or part of an
    organism is preserved intact
  • Smaller organisms may be trapped in amber, the
    sap of trees
  • Larger animals have been trapped in tar or ice,
    which prevented their decay

50
2. Anatomical Similarities
  • Many evolutionist study the structural
    similarities between organisms to determine their
    common ancestry.

51
Homologous Structures
  • Structures with a common evolutionary origin are
    called Homologous Structure.
  • Scientist view organisms with homologous
    structures to evolve from a common ancestor.

52
Homologous Structures
  • Structures that are similar due to evolutionary
    origin, such as the forearm bones of humans,
    birds, porpoises, and elephants, are called
    homologous.

53
Homologous Structures
54
Analogous Structures
  • The body parts of organisms that do NOT have a
    common evolutionary relationships origins but are
    similar in functions are called Analogous
    Structures.

55
Analogous Structures
56
Vestigial Structures
  • Vestigial structures are remnants of once-useful
    structures that are no longer used.
  • Limb bones can be found deep inside the body of a
    whale. This shows they once had use for legs.
  • A snake also has the same type of hind limb bone
    remnants.
  • Humans have a tail bone and an appendix that we
    do not use
  • Horses have toe bones.
  • Examples like these can be found in other species
    as well.

57
Vestigial Structures
58
Embryological Differences
  • An embryo is the earliest stage of growth and
    development of both plants and animals.
  • Similarities among the young embryos suggest
    evolution from a distance common ancestor.

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Embryological Differences
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Embryological Differences
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Embryological Differences
62
BioChemistry Differences
  • Biochemistry also provides evidence for
    evolution.
  • It reveals information between individuals and
    species.
  • Comparisons of the DNA or RNA of different
    species produces biochemical evidence for
    evolution.

63
evolution
  • The great diversity of organisms is the result of
    more than 3.5 billion years of evolution that has
    filled every available niche with life forms.

64
evolution
  • Natural selection and its evolutionary
    consequences provide a scientific explanation for
    the fossil record of ancient life forms, as well
    as for the striking molecular similarities
    observed among the diverse species of living
    organisms.

65
evolution
  • The millions of different species of plants,
    animals, and microorganisms that live on earth
    today are related by descent from common
    ancestors.

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evolution
  • Biological classifications are based on how
    organisms are related.
  • Organisms are classified into a hierarchy of
    groups and subgroups based on similarities which
    reflect their evolutionary relationships.
  • Species is the most fundamental unit of
    classification.

67
EVOLUTION
  • Chapter 16

68
Variation and Gene Pool
  • Lets review just a little.
  • Mendel concluded that traits are controlled by
    alleles and you must have two for every trait.
  • Some plants or animals have several different
    alleles in their gene pool that determine a
    specific trait. (more that 2 choiceslike blood
    type. A, B, or O)

69
Variation and Gene Pool
  • Genetic Variation is studied in populations.
  • Populations are a group of the same species that
    live together
  • Because members of the same population interbreed
    they share a common group of genes.
  • A Gene Pool consists of all genes, including all
    different alleles, that are present in a
    population.
  • The Relative Frequency of an allele is the number
    of times that the allele occurs in a gene pool.
  • Example B (black fur) has a relative gene
    frequency of 40, while b (white fur) has a
    relative gene frequency of 60/

70
Genetic Equilibrium
  • Genetic Equilibrium- When the ratio of genes in
    a population remain constant over a long time.
  • In genetic terms, evolution is any change in the
    relative frequency of alleles in a population.
  • Remember..evolution does NOT happen to
    individuals but rather to populations

71
Genetic Variations
  • Biologist can explain how variation is produced.
  • The two main sources of genetic variation are
  • Mutations.
  • Genetic shuffling that results from sexual
    reproduction. Crossing Over of homologous pairs
    during meiosis.

72
Genetic Drift
  • GENETIC DRIFT When genes in a population change
    due to random chance. Disrupts genetic
    equilibrium. Usually seen in small populations.
  • Example Amish population in Pennsylvania.
  • Very small population.
  • When a young man had a mutation that caused
    multiple fingers and short stature. It spread
    through the population and caused a change in the
    ratios.

73
Hardy Weinburg Equilibrium
  • This is a condition where there is always balance
    in the frequency of genes in a population.
  • It states that allele frequency in a population
    will remain constant unless one or more factors
    cause those frequencies to change. (add this)
  • That means there is never any evolution.
  • It has a complicated equation.

74
Hardy Weinburg Equilibrium
  • In order for the principal to remain constant 5
    conditions must be meet
  • Random Mating
  • Large Population
  • No immigration or emigration
  • No Mutations
  • No Natural Selection

75
Process of Speciation
  • We realized that these 5 conditions cannot always
    be metbut when do these lead to the formation of
    new species or speciation.
  • The gene pools for two populations must become
    separated for them to become new species.
  • When the members of two population cannot
    interbreed and produce fertile offspring
    Reproductive Isolation has occurred.

76
Process of Speciation
  • Another type of isolating mechanism, Behavioral
    Isolation, occurs when two populations are
    capable of interbreeding but have differences in
    courtship rituals or other reproductive
    strategies that involve behavior.

77
Process of Speciation
  • Geographic Isolation- Two populations are
    separated by geographic barriers such as rivers,
    mountains, or bodies of water.
  • Temporal Isolation- Two or more species reproduce
    at different times.

78
Natural Selection on Polygenic Traits
  • Natural selection can affect the distribution of
    phenotypes in any of three ways directional
    selection, stabilizing selection, or disruptive
    selection

79
Directional Selection
  • Directional Selection- Favors the extremewhen
    individuals at one end of the curve have higher
    fitness than individuals in the middle or at the
    other end.

80
Stabilizing Selection
  • Stabilizing Selection- favors the average
    Individuals near the center of the curve have
    higher fitness than individuals at either end of
    the curve.

81
Disruptive Selection
  • Disruptive Selction- small or large are most
    successful individuals at the upper and lower
    ends of the curve have higher fitness than those
    in the center.

82
EVOLUTION IN TENNESSEE HISTORY
83
The Monkey Trial(Tennessee v. John Scopes)
  • The Roaring 20s
  • Younger modernists no longer asked whether
    society would approve their behavior
  • Alcoholic prohibition
  • Jazz Age
  • Babe Ruth

84
1925
  • Worst tornadoes in U.S. history
  • Hitler published Volume 1 of Mein Kampf founds
    the SS
  • Capone takes control of Chicago mob
  • Pres. Calvin Coolidge takes the Oath of Offfice
  • B.B. King, Malcom X, and Paul Newman are born
  • In Tennessee

85
The Butler Law
  • Feb. 1925, Gov. Austin Peay signs The Butler
    Law (introduced by John Butler)
  • making it unlawful to teach any theory that
    denies the story of divine creation as taught by
    the Bible and to teach instead that man was
    descended from a lower order of animals

86
Dayton, Tennessee
Above downtown Dayton Right Rhea Co. High School
87
Robinson Drug Store
  • ACLU advertised to offer services
  • to anyone willing to challenge the
  • new law
  • local group of men saw an
  • opportunity to put town on the map

88
John Scopes
  • 24 yrs. old, from Illinois
  • Part-time teacher football coach
  • Assigned readings on evolution from Hunters
    Civic Biology

89
The Case
  • Group at drug store (including school
    superintendent) summoned Scopes
  • Scopes showed the men the book he used (drug
    store also sold textbooks) and the assigned
    reading
  • Asked Scopes if he would be willing to be part of
    test trial Scopes agreed

90
The Case
  • Friends of Scopes agreed to prosecute, local
    attorneys Herbert Sue Hicks
  • John Neal, law school dean from Knoxville drove
    to Dayton, volunteered to defend Scopes
  • William Jennings Bryan heard about the case and
    went to assist prosecution
  • Clarence Darrow heard about case and Bryan, so he
    went to assist defense

91
William Jennings Bryan
  • The Great Commoner
  • 3-time Democratic Pres. candidate
  • Sec. of State under Woodrow Wilson
  • Had been leading crusade to banish Darwin from
    American classrooms

92
Clarence Darrow
  • Perhaps the most famous American lawyer of 20th
    century
  • Well known for defending labor leaders and
    radicals, as well as high-profile murderers
  • Leopold-Loeb wealthy Chicago teens murdered
    schoolmate Darrow helped them escape death
    penalty
  • agnostic

93
TRIAL HIGHLIGHTS
  • Town had carnival-like atmosphere
  • 6 blocks around courthouse became Monkeysville
    - - preachers, carnival games, live monkeys

94
  • watched world-wide by radio and newspapers
    (WGN)

95
  • Nearly 1,000 people (300 standing) packed
    courtroom on 1st day, July 10

96
Above Rhea Co. courthouse
Top right Judge John T. Raulston
Right judge jury
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http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/monkeytrial/index.htm
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  • The monkey trial also inspired music -- humorous
    songs like "You Can't Make a Monkey Out of Me,"
    "Monkey Business Down in Tennessee" and serious
    folk songs. Tom Morgan, who lives in the hills
    above Dayton, performs songs inspired by the
    trial, like this song about John Scopes
  • Then to Dayton came a manWith his ideas new and
    grandAnd they said we came from monkeys long
    ago.But in teaching his beliefMr. Scopes found
    only griefFor they would not let their old
    religion go.
  • You may find a new beliefIt will only bring you
    griefFor a house that's built on sand is sure to
    fall.And wherever you may turnThere's a lesson
    you will learnThat the old religion's better
    after all.

108
GOAL OF DEFENSE
  • Not win acquittal, but rather to obtain a
    decleration by higher court, preferably U.S.
    Supreme Court, that laws forbidding teaching of
    evolution were unconstitutional
  • L-R Dudley Field Malone (international divorce
    attorney), Scopes, Darrow

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From left John Scopes, defense attorney Dr. John
R. Neal, and George Rappleyea, manager of the
Cumberland Coal and Iron Co. and one of the
original organizers of events leading up to the
trial.
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GOAL OF PROSECUTION
  • Uphold the Butler Law
  • Moral victory for fundamentalism
  • Right Bryan

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Trial Highlights
  • On Thurs. July 16, trial was moved outdoors due
    to heat, to accommodate crowds, and fear of
    courtroom on 2nd floor collapsing
  • Crowd of 5,000

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VERDICT
  • Jury deliberated for 9 minutes
  • GUILTY
  • Judge Raulston fined Scopes 100

117
RESULTS
  • A year later, the Tennessee Supreme Court
    reversed the decision on a technicality the fine
    should have been set by the jury, not Judge
    Raulston
  • Rather than send the case back for further
    action, TN Supreme Court dismissed the case
  • Court commented, Nothing is to be gained by
    prolonging the life of this bizarre case.

118
RESULTS
  • The Butler Act remained on the books for another
    40 years, until the legislature repealed it in
    1967.
  • What happened in the 1960s (related to science)?

119
What happened to Scopes?
  • Left Dayton and became a petroleum engineer
  • Died in 1970

120
William Jennings Bryan
  • Died 5 days after the trial in Dayton
  • After eating an enormous dinner, he lay down to
    take a nap and died in his sleep
  • Darrows comment when told he died of a broken
    heart, Broken heart nothing he died of a busted
    belly.

Buried in Arlington Natl.Cemetery
121
Clarence Darrow
  • Practiced law for another 13 years
  • Died in Chicago in 1938, at age 80

122
  • Inherit the Wind starring Spencer Tracy
    released in 1960 based on successful Broadway
    play received 4 academy nominations, however no
    Oscars were won
  • Based on the trial with names changed
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