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Cognitive Level of Analysis

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Title: Cognitive Level of Analysis


1
Cognitive Level of Analysis
  • IB Psychology

2
Principles that Define the Cognitive Level of
Analysis
  1. Cognitive psychologists assume that there is an
    important biological basis for all human
    cognitive processing and its resultant behavior
    but focus research on how the brain translates
    into mind.

3
Principles that Define the Cognitive Level of
Analysis
  • Mental processing in the mind can be studied
    scientifically. Theories of cognitive processing
    are studied through various methods.

4
Principles that Define the Cognitive Level of
Analysis
  • Behavior change is explained as a result of
    cognitive processing that goes on in the mind.
    The steps to cognitive processing are as follows
  • Information is acquired from the world.
  • The information is stored.
  • Stored information is represented in the mind.
  • Internal representations direct behavior.

5
Principles that Define the Cognitive Level of
Analysis
  1. Cognitive Processes are influenced by social and
    cultural factors.

6
The Basics of Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Processes
  • Sensation and Perception
  • Schema Theory
  • Memory
  • Language

7
Sensation
  • Vision
  • Hearing
  • Touch
  • Taste
  • Smell

8
Vision
9
Hearing
10
Smell
11
Taste
12
Touch
13
Perception
  • The cognitive process that interprets and
    organizes information from the senses to produce
    some meaningful experience of the world.
  • Video- Discovering Psychology

14
Schema
  • A mental representation of knowledge.
  • Mental representations can refer to
  • Objects
  • Ideas
  • People
  • Mental representations are organized into
    categories and are stored in our memories.

15
Schema Theory
  • A cognitive theory about information processing.
  • A cognitive schema can be defined as networks of
    knowledge, beliefs, and expectations about
    particular aspects of the world.

16
Cognitive Schemas
  • Can be related to form systems
  • Are active recognition devices (pattern
    recognition)
  • Help predict the future events based on what
    happened before
  • Represent general knowledge rather than
    definitions

17
Cognitive Schema
  • We actively process information in our world.
  • If information is missing, the brain fills in the
    blanks.
  • This can result in mistakes--distortions.

18
Evaluation of Schema Theory
  • Lots of research supports schema theory.
  • It is useful in understanding how people
    categorize information, interpret stories, and
    make inferences.
  • Limitations include
  • Not exactly sure how schemas are acquired.
  • Not sure exactly how they actually influence
    cognitive processes.

19
Memory Processes
  • Three main stages of memory.

20
Multi-Store Memory Model
21
Working Memory Model Short Term Memory
22
Working Memory Model
  • Central Executive
  • CEO of Working Memory.
  • Most important job is attention control
  • Automatic level Based on Habits
  • Supervisory Level Deals with new info and
    emergencies.

23
Working Memory Model
  • Episodic Buffer
  • Acts as a temporary and passive display store
    until the information is needed.
  • Like a television screen.
  • Phonological Loop
  • Inner voice which holds information in verbal
    form.
  • Holds information you hear.
  • Visuospatial Sketchpad
  • Inner eye. Deals with visual and spatial
    information.

24
Evaluation of the Working Memory Model
  • Provides a much more satisfactory explanation of
    storage and processing than the STM component of
    the multi-store model.
  • Assumes an active rather than passive process
    which makes more sense.
  • Has been supported through research.

25
Long Term Memory
26
Long Term Memory
  • Explicit/Declarative Memories Fact-based
    information that can be consciously retrieved.
  • Semantic Memory Memory for General Knowledge
    (Facts).
  • Episodic Memory Memory for personal experiences
    and events.

27
Long-Term Memory
  • Implicit/ Non-Declarative Memories Contains
    memories that were not consciously aware of.
  • Procedural Memories non-conscious memory for
    skills, habits, and actions. (HOW to do things)
  • Emotional Memories memories formed via the
    limbic system (HOW emotional states work).

28
Memory and The Brain
  • Hippocampus
  • Forms explicit memories.
  • When it is damaged, you can still form implicit
    memories.
  • Amygdala
  • Has a role in the storage of emotional memories.

29
Theories of Cognitive Development
  • Piaget (biologically driven model)
  • Vygotsky (social driven model)

30
Piaget
  • Piaget believed that the driving force behind
    intellectual development is our biological
    development amidst experiences with the
    environment. Our cognitive development is shaped
    by errors we make.

31
Cognitive Schemas
  • Schema is a term used by Piaget to describe the
    models, or mental structures, that we create to
    represent ,organize, and interpret our
    experiences.

32
Piagets Cognitive Processes
  • Organization is the process by which children
    combine existing schemes into new and more
    complex intellectual structures.
  • Adaptation is an inborn tendency to adjust to the
    demands of the environment.
  • The goal of adaptation is to adjust to the
    environment this occurs through assimilation and
    accommodation.
  • Assimilation is the process of interpreting new
    experiences by incorporating them into existing
    schemes.
  • Accommodation is the process of modifying
    existing schemes in order to incorporate or adapt
    to new experiences.

33
Example of Piagets Process
Piagetian Concept Example
Equilibrium Toddler who has never seen anything fly but birds thinks that all flying objects are birds
Assimilation Start Seeing an airplane flying prompts the child to call it a birdie
Accommodation Child experiences conflict upon realizing that the new birdie has no feathers. Concludes it is not a bird and asks for the proper term or invents a name. Equilibrium restored
Organization Finish Forms hierarchal scheme consisting of a superordinate class (flying objects) and two subordinate classes (birdies and airplanes).
34
Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development
  • According to Piaget, a childs development
    progresses through 4 qualitative stages and an
    invariant developmental sequence-universal
    pattern of development, which are
  • The Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 Years)
  • The Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 Years)
  • The Concrete-Operational Stage (7 to 11 Years)
  • The Formal-Operational Stage (11-12 Years and
    Beyond)

35
Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 years)
  • Experiencing the world through senses and
    actions.
  • Object Permanence
  • Stranger Anxiety

36
Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 years)
  • There is an increase in their use of mental
    symbols to represent objects and events they
    encounter
  • The Preconceptual Period is the early substage of
    preoperations, from age 2 to age 4, characterized
    by the appearance of primitive ideas, concepts,
    and methods of reasoning. Marked by the
    appearance of symbolic function and play.
  • The Intuitive Period is the later substage of
    preoperations, from age 4 to age 7, when the
    childs thinking about objects and events is
    dominated by salient perceptual features.

37
Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 years)
  • Emergence of Symbolic thought
  • Symbolic function
  • Ability to use symbols to represent objects or
    experiences
  • Symbolic play
  • Play where one object, action, or actor
    symbolizes another

38
Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 years)
  • Deficits in Reasoning
  • Animism- attributing lifelike qualities to
    inanimate objects
  • Egocentrism- viewing the world from only ones
    perspective
  • Appearance/Reality distinction- inability to
    distinguish deceptive appearances from reality

39
Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 years)
  • Intuitive Period
  • Here cognition is described as
  • Centered a tendency to focus on one aspect of a
    situation and not on others due to their
    inability to understand
  • Conservation- recognition that the properties of
    an object or substance do not change when its
    appearance is altered in some superficial way.
  • Reversibility- ability to reverse or negate an
    action by mentally performing the opposite action

40
Concrete Operational Period (7 to 11 years)
  • Here children are said to think more logically
    about real objects and experiences
  • Some examples of operational thought
  • Conservation
  • Reversibility
  • Logic
  • Classification
  • ability to create relationships between things.
  • Relational Logic
  • Mental seriation
  • Transitivity
  • The sequencing of concrete operations
  • Horizontal decalage- different levels of
    understanding conservation tasks that seem to
    require the same mental operations

41
Formal Operational Stage (11-12 years)
  • Ability to reason logically about hypothetical
    process and events that may have no basis in
    reality
  • Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning
  • a formal operational ability to think
    hypothetically.
  • Thinking Like a Scientist
  • Inductive reasoning- type of thinking where
    hypotheses are generated and then systematically
    tested in experiments.
  • Personal and Social Implications
  • The formal operation stage paves the way for
  • Identity formation
  • Richer understanding of other peoples
    psychological perspectives
  • The ability to way options in decision making

42
An Evaluation of Piagets Theory
  • Piagets Contributions
  • Founded the discipline we know today as cognitive
    development.
  • Convinced us that children are curious, active
    explorers who play an important role in their own
    development.
  • His theory was one of the first to explain, and
    not just describe, the process of development.
  • His description of broad sequences of
    intellectual development provides a reasonably
    accurate overview of how children of different
    ages think.
  • Piagets ideas have had a major influence on
    thinking about social and emotional development
    as well as many practical implications for
    educators.
  • Piaget asked important questions and drew
    literally thousands of researchers to the study
    of cognitive development.

43
Challenges to Piagets cognitive developmental
theory
  • Underestimated developing minds
  • Failed to distinguish competence from performance
  • It is believed by some that Cognitive development
    does not evolve in a qualitative and stage like
    manner- it tends to develop gradually
  • Provides a vague explanation on cognitive
    maturation
  • Devoted little attention to social and cultural
    influences

44
Vygotskys Sociocultural Perspective of Cognitive
Development
  • Sociocultural theory states that
  • Cognitive development occurs in a sociocultural
    context that influences the form it takes
  • Most of a childs cognitive skills evolve from
    social interactions with parents, teachers, and
    other more competent associates

45
The role of culture in intellectual development
  • Vygotsky proposed that we should evaluate human
    development from four interrelated perspectives
  • Microgenetic-changes that occur over brief
    periods of time-minutes and seconds
  • Ontogenetic-development over a lifetime
  • Phylogenetic-development over evolutionary time
  • Sociohistorical- changes that have occurred in
    one's culture and the values, norms and
    technologies such a history has generated

46
Cognitive Development
  • Vygotsky (1930-1935/1978) proposed that infants
    are born with a few elementary mental functions
    attention, sensation, perception and memory
    that are eventually transformed by the culture
    into new and more sophisticated mental processes
    he called higher mental functions.

47
Vygotskys Theory
  • Cultures create mental tools which transform our
    mental work just like physical tools transform
    our physical work.
  • As we internalize these tools we become smarter
    (i.e., we develop higher psychological
    processes).
  • Language is the mother of all mental tools.
  • We internalize these tools as we work in our Zone
    of Proximal Development (ZPD).

48
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
  • Zone of Proximal Development range of tasks that
    are too complex to be mastered alone but can be
    accomplished with guidance and encouragement from
    a more skillful partner

49
ZPD
50
ZPD
Tasks I cannot do even with help
ZPD
Tasks I can do only with help
Tasks I can do all by myself
51
ZPD Concepts
  • Scaffolding- the expert participant carefully
    tailors their support to the novice learner to
    assure their understanding.
  • guided participation, adult-child interactions in
    which childrens cognitions and modes of thinking
    are shaped as they participate with or observe
    adults engaged in culturally relevant activities.

52
Vygotsky in a Nutshell
  • The mental tools of our culture are what make us
    smart. We acquire these mental tools best
    through meaningful participation in authentic,
    social activities. The ZPD describes how we
    learn from others as we participate in social
    activity.
  • Overall, learning is a process of enculturation.
  • Human learning presupposes a specific social
    nature and a process by which children grow into
    the intellectual life of those around them
    (Vygotsky, Mind in Society, p. 88)

53
Vygotskys Contributions to Learning Theory
  • Looked at how culture and society affected
    development and language.
  • Looked at the importance of play in cognitive
    development
  • Looked at learning in the context of real-world
    based development (ZPD).

54
Criticisms of Vygotskys Theory
  • Vagueness of ZPD.
  • Insufficient Attention to Developmental Issues
  • No Major Tasks Associated with the Theory

55
Theories of Cognitive DevelopmentVygotsky vs.
Piaget
Vygotskys sociocultural theory Piagets cognitive developmental theory
Cognitive development varies across cultures Cognitive development is mostly universal across cultures
Stems from social interactions Stems from independent explorations
Social processes become individual-physiological processes Individual (egocentric) processes become social processes
Adults are important as change agents Peers are important as change agents
56
Language
  1. Language is the most fundamental of all the
    cognitive processes and is responsible for the
    development of other human cognitive processes.
  2. Language is the vehicle of cultural and social
    learning.
  3. Language separates humans and animals.
  4. Language is the most important and sophisticated
    cognitive process. It allowed humans to evolve
    to live together in cultures.

57
Basics of Language
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