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The American Revolution


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Title: The American Revolution

The American Revolution 1775-1783
The American Revolution
Causes of the Revolution
  • Different Schools of Thought p. 162-163
  • Whig View- championed in George Bancrofts 10
    volume history of the united states published
    between 1830-1870. Basically, the Revolution was
    romanticized as another chapter in the story of
    humanity seeking liberty and fulfillment of
    national destiny
  • Imperial School- Challenged Bancroft and said the
    revolution was a constitutional conflict within
    the British Empire. America was moving towards
    self-government while Britain increasingly
    tightened its grip. Revolution came out of this

Causes of the Revolution
Causes of the Revolution
  • Since 1950s, two school of thoughts dominate
  • 1. Neo-Whig, as promoted by Bernard Bailyn,
    emphasizes the ideological and psychological
    motives for the Revolution. A return to
    Bancrofts theory.
  • 2. Neo-Progressives- Emphasizes the
    socioeconomic struggle and class divisions within
    the colonies as leading cause of the Revolution
    along with provocations from the British

Causes of the Revolution
Causes of the Revolution
On the Eve of the Revolution ?
Britain Americans
Advantages ? ?
Disadvantages ? ?
Second Continental Congress
  • Met for the first time on May 10, 1775.
  • All 13 colonies were present
  • Conservative element was strong and no widespread
    desire for independence- main goal was to
    continue fighting in the hope that the King and
    Parliament would address their grievances
  • Drafted new appeals to Parliament and the King,
    but they were spurned
  • Adopted measures to raise money and to create an
    army and navy. However, did not have the
    authority to tax
  • Most important action was selecting George
    Washington to lead the army besieging Boston and
    to lead the Patriot effort

George Washington (Weaknesses)
-He never rose above the rank of colonel and his
largest command was 1200 soldiers
George Washington (Strengths)
George Washington
  • His selection was largely political. He was a
    wealthy well-known Virginian, he could not be
    accused of seeking fortune.
  • Most importantly, it helped mitigate jealously
    and suspicions due to the large New England force
    being collected around Boston
  • Lastly, as an aristocrat, his peers believed he
    would check the excesses of the masses.

Washingtons Headaches
  • Only 1/3 of the colonists were in favor of a war
    for independence the other third were Loyalists,
    and the final third were neutral.
  • State/colony loyalties.
  • Congress couldnt tax to raise money for the
    Continental Army.
  • Poor training until the arrival of Baron von

Military Strategies
The Americans
The British
  • Attrition the Brits had a long supply line.
  • Guerilla tactics fight an insurgent war ? you
    dont have to win a battle, just wear the British
  • Make an alliance with one of Britains enemies.
  • Break the colonies in half by getting between the
    No. the So.
  • Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods
    and supplies from an ally.
  • Divide and Conquer ? use the Loyalists.

War of Inconsistency
  • From April 1775-July 1776, as the colonists were
    claiming their loyalty to the King and trying to
    patch up their differences, they were engaged in
    fighting and shooting the Kings soldiers.

Bunker Hill
  • May 1775, (three weeks after Lexington and
    Concord) Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold secured
    precious gunpowder and artillery at Ticonderoga
    and Crown Pointe. Also gained foothold on St.
    Lawrence Seaway, allowing the future attack on
  • June 1775, Patriots outshoot British at Bunker
    Hill as patriot sharpshooters mow down British
    soldiers. However, gunpowder ran out and the
    Patriots fled. 1054 British deaths to the
    American 440 deaths. In the end, the Americans
    lose because they had to flee. Proved to British
    that the Americans would not always run when
    faced the professional soldiers of the British
  • However, the British Army was in disarray and
    near defeat.

Bunker Hill
  • Just north of Boston, the British attacked in
    three frontal assaults on entrenchments. They
    suffered over 40 casualty rate due to the
    positioning of the American Sharpshooters.

Death of General Warren at Bunker Hill by John
Olive Branch Petition
  • In July 1775, the Continental Congress adopted
    the Olive Branch Petition.
  • Professed loyalty to the crown and begged the
    King to prevent further hostilities
  • King slammed door on reconciliation due to the
    victory at Bunker Hill
  • August 1775, King George III formally claimed the
    colonies to be in rebellion

  • After declaring colonies in rebellion of the
    crown, King George III made arrangements to hire
    German mercenaries
  • This shocked the colonists who thought it was an
    affair within the family.
  • Many became Hessian Flies, in search of booty
    and American land

Phase I The Northern Campaign 1775-1776
The Canada Campaign
The Canada Campaign
Death of General Montgomery John Trumbull
Evacuation Day
  • March 1776, the British were finally forced to
    evacuate Boston.
  • Evacuation Day is still celebrated today in
    Boston, feted on March 17.

  • As late as January 1776, colonists were still
    denying the desire for independence. Why?
  • Loyalty to the empire was deeply engrained
  • Many believed they were part of a transatlantic
    community with Mother England as the leading role
  • Colonial Unity was poor
  • Open rebellion was dangerous, just ask the Irish
  • Even as late as January 1776, Washingtons
    officers were making toasts to the King
  • But the hiring of Hessians and the burning of
    colonial towns of Norfolk and Falmouth shocked
    the colonists into seeing the benefits of

Common Sense
  • Thomas Paine
  • Came to the colonies in 1775
  • Was a impoverished corset-maker
  • Wrote the influential pamphlet Common Sense,
    which became a best seller
  • Said that the colonists lack of desire for
    independence was against common sense since
    nowhere in the universe did the smaller heavenly
    body control the larger one.
  • Also called the king a Brute.

Thomas Paine
Common Sense
  • Called for a republic, where power came from the
    people themselves
  • Popular in colonies because they viewed the royal
    acts over the past decade as a sign that the
    monarch was trying to strip them of their rights
    as British subjects

Common Sense
  • Colonies prepared for Paines form of government
    due their experiences
  • Town hall meetings
  • Annual elections
  • Committees of correspondence
  • Absence of hereditary aristocracy

Common Sense
  • Civic virtue or citizen virtue-
  • Since power not with the king, people had to
    sacrifice their own personal self-interest to the
    public good
  • Collective good of the people mattered more than
    the private rights and interests of the
  • Paine argued the colonies were ripe for this type
    of civic or citizen virtue

Push towards Independence
  • These United colonies are, and of right ought to
    be, free and independent states.
  • Richard Henry Lee made this speech to Congress on
    June 7, 1776.
  • Motion was passed, after much debate on June 2,

Push towards Independence
  • Lees resolution was the formal declaration of
    independence and all that was officially needed
    to cut ties with Britain, but.
  • More was needed, an epochal rupture, to give a
    formal explanation
  • Also, it needed to be an appeal to enlist other
    British colonies into the fight, to enlist
    foreign assistance, and to rally resistance to
    the crown at home.

Declaration of Independence
  • Task of drafting it given to Thomas Jefferson-
  • He was tall, freckled, sand-haired Virginian
    lawyer of 33 years of age.
  • Recognized as a brilliant writer and lawyer
    despite his young age (he was younger than me
    when he drafted the Declaration)
  • Formally approved on July 4, 1776 (fireworks on
    the 4th, not the 2nd, as John Adams predicted)

Declaration of Independence
  • Youtube of Declaration
  • http//
  • As we listen, follow along with your version of
    the Declaration.

Declaration of Independence
  • Grievances filed against King George III
  • Imposing taxes without consent
  • Dispensing with trial by jury
  • Abolishing valued laws
  • Establishing a military dictatorship
  • Maintaining standing armies in peacetime
  • Cutting off trade
  • Burning towns
  • Hiring mercenaries
  • And inciting hostility among the Indians

Declaration of Independence
  • Contradictory because All men created equal was
    a fallacy, Jefferson himself owned slaves as well
    as many of the men who signed the document
  • Nevertheless, the document has stood the test of
    time as numerous revolutionary movements have
    used its language against arbitrary authority.
  • Lafayette himself hung one on his wall with room
    for a future French Declaration of the Rights of
    Man- born 13 years later

  • War within in a war, Colonials loyal to the
    fought the American Patriots who also fought the
  • Loyalists also called Tories, after the dominant
    political faction in Britain. Patriots called
    Whigs, after the opposition factions in Britain.
  • In reality, the American Revolution was a
    minority movement, with many Colonists apathetic
    (did not care) or neutral

  • Loyalists, British, and Patriots not only fought
    each other, but also for the allegiance and
    support from the neutral civilian population
  • Patriots proved to be more effective in this
  • Loaded with Political zeal and the ability to
    convince neutral colonials that their fate lied
    with the Revolution and not the Redcoats and

  • Loyalists numbered around 16 of the colonial
  • Considered tragic figures because for centuries
    the colonials were taught loyalty to the king and
    country, which is usually regarded as an
    honorable thing. However, in the Revolutionary
    War, they are considered less favorably.
  • Loyalists were usually members of the wealthy and
    educated classes and who generally were happy
    with their status within colonial society. They
    had more to lose with a revolution than to
    possibly gain. Also, they tended to be amongst
    the older generation
  • Loyalists also were agents of the crown and
    officials in the Anglican Church and their

  • Loyalists were most numerous where the Anglican
    Church was most prevalent, except for in
  • Also in New York City, Charleston, New Jersey,
    and Quaker Pennsylvania.
  • Loyalists least numerous in New England and also
    where the Congregational and Presbyterian Church
    was strong. The rebels tended to live in these

  • After Declaration of Independence, many Loyalists
    were treated harshly by the rebels
  • Imprisoned
  • Handled roughly (tar and feathered etc)
  • Some were hanged
  • Overall, though, there was no reign of terror
    like in France or Russia. Leading Loyalists fled
    to British lines and safety.
  • 80,000 of the most loyal were either driven out
    or fled
  • 50,000 or so at one time or another during the
    war bore arms for the cause or acted as spies for
    the crown.

Loyalist Strongholds
Phase II NY PA 1776-1778
New York and Middle Colonies Campaign
  • After Boston was evacuated, British used New York
    as their base of operations (Loyalists present,
    centrally located, and great harbor)
  • July, 1776, a huge British fleet of five hundred
    ships arrived with 35,000 men.

New York City in Flames (September, 1776)
New York and other Battles
  • Summer and Fall of 1776, disaster occurred for
    the Americans as they lost the Battle of Long
  • Washington and troops narrowly escaped to
    Manhattan Island, and crossed Hudson river to New
    Jersey. Made his way to Delaware River
  • General Howe failed to recognize the American
    forces were prime for defeat and he stopped the
    pursuit of Washington and the rebels

Washington Crossing the Delaware
Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851
Crossing the Delaware
  • December 26, 1776, Washington stealthily crossed
    the icy Delaware River at Trenton
  • Attacked and captured over 1,000 Hessians who
    were sleeping off their Christmas celebration
  • Week later, defeated a small detachment at
    Princeton in New Jersey
  • The two New Jersey victories showed Washington at
    his best and helped save morale for the American

Hudson River Valley and Burgoynes Blunder
  • British officials develop a complex scheme to
    capture Hudson River Valley in hope of cutting of
    New England from the other colonies
  • Chose actor-playwright-soldier to lead the
    campaign General Burgoyne
  • Fall 1776. Plan called for Burgoyne to push down
    Lake Champlain from Canada, Howes troops would
    push up from New York to meet in Albany, and
    General Barry St. Leger and his troops would come
    from the west from the Mohawk River

Hudson River Valley and Burgoynes Blunder
  • British officials forgot about Arnold.
  • Arnold kept a tattered army together and made a
    makeshift navy to fight the British in Lake
  • Arnolds tiny navy was defeated, but he gained
    time for the Rebels.
  • British retired to Canada and had to launch the
    campaign the following year, from Montreal and
    not Fort Ticonderoga

Hudson River Valley and Burgoynes Blunder
  • Invasion started with 7,000 soldiers, who had to
    cut their way through the forest. Progress was
  • Howe, not following the plan, decides to attack
    Philadelphia, the rebel capital. Hoped to
    destroy Washingtons army to give Burgoyne an
    easier path. Washington will lose two battles at
    Brandywine Creek and Germantown. However, when
    Howe took Philadelphia, he decided to relax.

Valley Forge
  • Washington and his troops retired to Valley
    Forge, 20 some miles northwest of Philadelphia.
    It was a hilly position.
  • Misery, low supplies, terrible conditions, but
    Von Steuben whips them into a professional army

Saratoga Turning Point of the War?
A modern-day re-enactment
  • France was looking for revenge after their loss
    in the Seven Years War
  • Damage British prestige if they lose their
    American colonies
  • Also, France hoped to possibly regain some of
    the land they had lost

Colonial Diplomacy
  • Americans held some rebellious views on
    international relations and diplomacy
  • End colonialism and mercantilism
  • Free trade and freedom of the seas
  • Rule of law should trump the rule of power
  • Model Treaty, chief author was John Adams, who
    drafted it to guide the American diplomats in
    France. It stated
  • No political connection
  • No military connection
  • Only a commercial connection

Colonial Diplomacy
  • International diplomacy and relations influenced
    by enlightenment views that stated
  • Military conflict would be abandoned for the
    mutual beneficial ties of commercial interests
  • Obviously, this view was naïve and utopian, but
    it does help one understand the ideological
    aspect of American Diplomacy in its early years

Benjamin Franklin
  • His clothing and persona deliberately violated
    the norms of diplomacy
  • No ceremonial sword, a plain white walking stick
  • Avoided regal outfits and wigs and wore homespun
    garments and a simple hat
  • His appearance shocked the court of France with
    all their pomp and ceremony
  • But he was admired by the Parisians because he
    represented a new social order devoid of pretense
    and nobility

Home Rule?
  • After Saratoga, Parliament, in 1777,offered the
    colonies Home Rule. (a little too late perhaps)
  • Franklin used this as bait to get the French to
    sign a treaty of alliance. Signed on Feb 6, 1778.
  • Americas first entangling military alliance and
    against many of the protocols described in the
    Model treaty.
  • Acknowledged American Independence and also gave
    very important military aid to the cause and
    France pledged to wage war until America secured
    its freedom

World War
  • Catherine the Greats Armed Neutrality
  • All remaining European neutrals aligned together
    in passive hostility against the British
  • Spain and Holland also joined the American side.
    So France, America, Spain, and Holland aligned

American Independence
  • Independence does not really occur until the
    French enter the fight from 1778-1783
  • Americans deserve credit for hanging on until
    1778, but they garner victory when the war
    becomes too big to handle for the British
  • French forced British to change strategy and the
    French warships helped eliminate the British
  • The British decided to leave Philadelphia and
    focus their strength on New York City

Arnold Turned Traitor
  • Plotted to sell out West Point, for 6,300 pounds
    and an officers position
  • Felt his skills were not appreciated by the
    Colonial Army
  • The news devasted Washington

Phase III The Southern Strategy
1780-1781 Roll up the colonies
Britains Southern Strategy
  • Britain thought that there were more Loyalists in
    the South.
  • Southern resources were more valuable/worth
  • The British win a number of small victories, but
    cannot pacify the countryside (led by Cornwallis)
  • Good US General Nathanial Greene (standing and
    retreating, wore out his foe

Dark Period of the War
  • 1780-1781 were some of the darkest periods of the
  • Inflation was at its height (repay debts at 2.5
    cents on the dollar)
  • Despair prevailed, sense if unity withered, and
    mutinous sentiments infected the army
  • But Cornwallis was falling into a trap in the

  • After an unsuccessful Virginian campaign,
    Cornwallis settles in Yorktown awaiting much
    needed supplies
  • But the British had been blockaded by the French,
    no supplies coming
  • De Grasse joins the fight with his naval
    bombardment, Washington and Rochambeau pinch
    Cornwallis in at Yorktown

The Battle of Yorktown (1781)
Count de Rochambeau
Admiral De Grasse
Cornwallis Surrender at Yorktown
The World Turned Upside Down!
Painted by John Trumbull, 1797
Peace Treaty
  • Problems in Britain
  • Loses in India and West Indies
  • Minorca in Mediterranean had fallen
  • Gibraltar ready to be taken over
  • Lord Norths ministry collapsed
  • A Whig ministry replaced the Tory regime
  • Basically, they were ready for peace

Peace Treaty
  • Three negotiators for the Americans
  • Benjamin Franklin
  • John Adams (New England)
  • John Jay (New York)
  • Told to make no separate peace and to
    negotiate/consult only with the French

Peace Treaty
  • France
  • Wanted to weaken Britain
  • An independent America (kinda)
  • Wanted to keep them cooped up east of the
  • Spain
  • Wanted Gibralter, but this seemed harder than
  • Land west of the Allegheny
  • France caught between aiding Spain and American,
    John Jay saw this

Peace Treaty
  • Secretly negotiates with Britain who wanted to
    entice one of their enemies from the alliance
  • Treaty of Paris 1783
  • United States recognized as independent
  • Mississippi to the west, Great lakes in North,
    Spanish Florida in South

Peace Treaty
  • Americans had to do the following
  • No more persecution of loyalists
  • Confiscated loyalist property was to be returned,
    or recommended to state legislatures to return it
  • States vowed to put no lawful obstacles in the
    way of collecting debt owed to British creditors

North America After the Treaty of Paris, 1783
Why so Kind?
  • Trying to Seduce America from the French alliance
  • Whigs more friendly to the Americans than the
  • Stop the bleeding, open up old trade channels,
    and prevent further wars over the
    trans-applachian area

Articles of Confederation Government 1781-1789
Egalitarian Ideas
  • With the loss of 80,000 Loyalists, the
    conservative ballast was lost and paved the way
    for the Patriot élites to emerge.
  • Also allowed for more egalitarian ideas to come
    to the forefront

Egalitarian Ideas
  • Property requirements for voting reduced
  • Everyone was a Mr. or Mrs, usually reserved for
    wealthy and highborn
  • Indentured servitude essentially eliminated by
  • Society of Cincinnati ridiculed for their
    exclusive hierarchy order
  • Trade organizations emerge for artisans and

Egalitarian Ideas
  • Fight for separation of church and state
  • Anglican Church was disestablished and
    reorganized as the Protestant Episcopal Church.
  • Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
  • Argued for by Jefferson and passed in 1786
  • Congregationalist church remained established

Egalitarian Ideas
  • Views towards slavery change
  • Philadelphia Quakers found first anti-slavery
    society in 1775
  • Continental Congress in 1774 called for the
    abolition of slavery
  • Several Northern States abolished slavery
    completely or provided gradual emancipation of
  • However, many just paper laws. No state south of
    Pennsylvania abolished slavery, and in both he
    north and south, laws discriminated against freed
    blacks (barred from purchasing certain products,
    certain jobs, and educating their children.
    Interracial marriage also banned.

Why no fight against slavery?
  • Many believe that the Founding Fathers pushed the
    slavery issue to the side in fear that it would
    fracture an already fragile union
  • Great as the evil of slavery is, a
    dismemberment of the union would be worse.
    James Madison in 1787

Republican Motherhood
  • Recently, this was a DBQ question on the test.
  • Central to republicanism was civic virtue.
  • So women concluded that they could serve the new
    nation and republic by being great wives and
  • Elevates women to a new prestigious role of
    keepers of the national conscience.
  • As a result, educational opportunities expand for
    woman with the idea they will be better equipped
    to educate their children and nurture republican
    ideas in their husbands and children.
  • Ultimately, it gave an important role to women in
    the new Nation

State Constitutions
  • States asked to write new constitutions that
    would give authority to the people
  • Massachusetts, they had a special convention in
    which the people directly voted to ratify the
  • Only could be changed by a constitutional
  • These concepts used when drafting and ratifying
    the federal Constitution

State Constitutions
  • Similarities
  • Power came from the people, not the King
  • Contracts that defined the powers of government
  • Most had a bill of rights
  • All created weak judicial and executive branches
  • Legislature given sweeping powers, because
    believed to be the most democratic
  • Also, in many states, the power of the western
    settlements was growing, as noted by many
    capitals moving to the interior of the states
    such as New Hampshire, New York, Virginia, ,
    North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.

State Constitutions
  • Republicanism.
  • Most had strong governors with veto power.
  • Most had bicameral legislatures.
  • Property required for voting.
  • Some had universal white male suffrage.
  • Most had bills of rights.
  • Many had a continuation of state-established
    religions while others disestablished religion.

Occupational Composition of Several State
Assemblies in the 1780s
Economic Changes
  • Large loyalist or royal lands carved up and
    turned into small farms
  • Nonimportation acts helped create an emerging
    manufacturing society
  • However, American ships barred from Britain and
    the West Indies
  • Ingenious Yankees found new markets for their
    goods, such as the Baltic seas and China seas.

Economic Changes
  • Overall, the economic climate was not great
  • Country was bankrupt and so were many states.
    They were unable to pay off loans
  • Horrible inflation
  • In reality, most probably worse off than before
    the war

Wholesale Price Index 1770-1789
  • Tough to set up a new government, but more
    difficult to set up a new type of government
  • Economic challenges such as debt, inflation, and
    cheap goods from Britain made growth difficult
  • Natural disposition to distrust authority
  • No war meant no common cause to create unity
  • Worst of the post-war years was 1786

Any Hope?
  • Despite challenges, hope still was present that a
    new nation could be created.
  • 13 sovereign states were basically alike in
    government and also with similar states
  • Rich tradition of democracy from inherited
    British institutions and from years of home rule
    through salutary neglect
  • Great political leaders with men like Washington,
    Madison, John Adams, Jefferson, and Hamilton

Articles of Confederation
  • Adopted by Second Continental Congress in 1777
  • After Saratoga, translated to French in hope of
    proving to the French that America had a real
  • Not ratified by all 13 states until 1781

State Claims to Western Lands
Articles of Confederation
  • Main argument against ratification had to do with
    western lands
  • Six land- hungry states including Maryland and
    Pennsylvania had no holdings beyond Allegheny
    Mountains, while 7 states like New York and
    Virginia had huge amounts of acreage.
  • Land-hungry states argued that all the states
    fought for independence and that the land
    fortunate states have the land thanks to everyone
  • Many believed the land fortunate states could
    sell off lands to pay war debts while land-hungry
    were not so lucky and would need to tax more
  • So, why not turn all this land over to the
    central/federal government?

Articles of Confederation
  • To ratify, all 13 states needed to approve the
  • Maryland holds out until 1781 when New York
    surrendered its western claims
  • Congress decided they would take care of these
    vast areas for the common good
  • Also stated these areas would eventually become
  • Lands in the hands of the federal government
    meant that a union or bond was made, because if a
    state wanted to reap the rewards of these lands,
    they needed to be committed to the Union

Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
  • A unicameral Congress 9 of 13 votes to pass a
  • 13 out of 13 to amend.
  • Representatives were frequently absent.
  • Could not tax or raise armies.
  • No executive or judicial branches.
  • Articles of Confusion
  • Could not regulate commerce, which meant each
    state acted independently

Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
  • Congress hobbled by fact each state had one vote.
    So Rhode Island as powerful as Virginia
  • Congress, even though the strongest, was weak.
    The States had no interest in giving up any
    sovereignty over taxation and commerce.
    Remember, they just fought a war to win these
    things from Britain

  • As weak as they were, important steps in
  • Loose model of what a confederation could be
  • Comparing to Europe, for Jefferson, Articles were
    heaven to hell.
  • Important stepping stone towards Constitution
  • Kept alive the idea of a union and confederation

Old Northwest
  • Land acquired by central government from the
    states. Articles were weak, but legislation in
    regards to Old North West was sound governance.
  • Land Ordinance of 1785
  • Acreage of Old Northwest would be sold and
    proceeds used to pay off national debt
  • Townships of six square miles and into thirty-six
    1 mile square miles parcels
  • 16th section/parcel set aside for public schools
  • Allowed for peaceful and organized settling of

Land Ordinance of 1785
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
  • One of the major accomplishments of the
    Confederation Congress!
  • Statehood achieved in three stages
  • Congress appointed 3 judges a governor to
    govern the territory.
  • When population reached 5,000 adult male
    landowners ? elect territorial legislature.
  • When population reached 60,000 ? elect delegates
    to a state constitutional convention.

The United States in 1787
Foreign Relations
  • Relations with Britain difficult under the
    Articles and no minister for 8 years. Britain
    joked they would need to send 13 anyways.
  • Britain also declined to make any commercial
    treaties or to repeal Navigation Laws
  • Lord Sheffield (member of Parliament) wrote a
    pamphlet stating that trade would eventually
    follow old channels, so why go to the Americans
    hat in hand?
  • West Indies ports and trade closed off to the
    United States

Foreign Relations
  • British misdeeds
  • Scheming agents tried to annex Vermont
  • Redcoats, along northern border, had trading
    posts on U.S. soil
  • Perhaps because states did not hold up their side
    of the treaty in regards to debt and loyalists
  • Many wanted Congress to force British into line,
    but without the ability to enforce commerce under
    the articles, they were handcuffed. Some states
    deliberately lowered tariffs to attract more
    British trade

American Exports, To From Britain 1783-1789
Disputed Territorial Claims Between Spain the
U. S. 1783-1796
Foreign Relations
  • Spain
  • Even though Spain was an ally during the war,
    relations were sour after
  • Spain controlled New Orleans and western farmers
    and merchants had to use the Mississippi to
    transport goods. In 1784, Spain closed off the
    Mississippi to American commerce
  • Claimed land north of the gulf of mexico as their
    own even though Britain granted it to the United
    States. Spain controlled a fort in this area
  • Schemed with Native Americans in an attempt to
    keep the Americans east of the Appalachians.

Foreign Relations
  • France even had cooled off
  • Restricted trade with the French West Indies
  • Demanded payment of loans given to US throughout
    the war
  • Pirates in North Africa, including Dey of
    Algiers, were ravaging trade in the Mediterranean
    for American merchants.
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Shays Rebellion 1786-7
  • Daniel Shays
  • Western MA
  • Small farmers angered by crushing debts and taxes.

Shays Rebellion 1786-7
Shays Rebellion 1786-7
There could be no stronger evidence of the want
of energy in our governments than these disorders.
-- George Washington
Annapolis Convention (1786)
  • 12 representatives from 5 states NY, NJ, PA, DE,
  • GOAL ? address barriers that limited trade and
    commerce between the states.
  • Not enough states were represented to make any
    real progress.
  • Sent a report to the Congress to call a meeting
    of all the states to meet in Philadelphia to
    examine areas broader than just trade and

Federalist vs. Anti-Federalist Strongholds at the
End of the War