Body Composition and Weight Management - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Body Composition and Weight Management


1
Body Composition andWeight Management
2
Unit 5 Body Composition and Weight
ManagementOBJECTIVES FOR THIS UNIT   Students
will
  • 1) Understand the various components of body
    composition.2) Discuss how percent body fat is
    related to overall health.3) Describe healthy
    and unhealthy levels of body fat in high school
    students.4) Describe some methods of assessing
    body fatness, and discuss some "pros" and
    "cons" of each method.5) Understand some health
    hazards of being overweight, and be introduced to
    eating disorders.

3
Assignment List (Optional) Textbook Reading For
Unit 5 Chapter 13 (pages 220-241) At the end of
this lesson you will have completed the following
assignments 05.02 Activity Log 7 05.2.1
Exercising with Weight Added05.3.1 - Determining
Your Healthy Body Weight 05.4.1 Unit 5
quiz 05.4.2 Activity Log 8
4
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults between 1985 and
2009
  • Obesity is having a very high amount of body fat
    in relation to lean body mass, or Body Mass Index
    (BMI) of 30 or higher.
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of an adults
    weight in relation to his or her height,
    specifically the adults weight in kilograms
    divided by the square of his or her height in
    meters.

5
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults between 1985 and
2009
  • The data shown in these maps were collected
    through CDCs Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance
    System (BRFSS). Each year, state health
    departments use standard procedures to collect
    data through a series of monthly telephone
    interviews with U.S. adults.
  • Prevalence estimates generated for the maps may
    vary slightly from those generated for the states
    by BRFSS (http//aps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss) as
    slightly different analytic methods are used.

6
US Body Composition Rates
  • The below slides indicate the rise of obesity
    within the United States from 1985 to 2009. Each
    US state indicates a BMI level of 30 or greater,
    or individuals who are at least 30 lbs.
    overweight in that particular state. BMI levels
    range from
  • (0-No Data to greater than 30) in certain
    states.
  • Obesity is having a BMI of 30 or higher.

The following map images are from the CDC, public
domain
7
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1985
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4
person)
No Data lt10 1014
8
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1991
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4
person)
No Data lt10 1014 1519
9
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1997
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4
person)
No Data lt10 1014 1519
20
10
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2000
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4
person)
No Data lt10 1014 1519
20
11
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2003
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4
person)
No Data lt10 1014 1519
2024 25
12
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2006
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4
person)
No Data lt10 1014 1519
2024 2529 30
13
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2009
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4
person)
No Data lt10 1014 1519
2024 2529 30
14
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1990,
1999, 2009
(BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 54
person)
1999
1990
2009
No Data lt10 1014 1519
2024 2529 30
15
Statistics
America 60.1 of adults are overweight or
obese 23.4 are obese In Utah 58.4 of adults
are overweight or obese 21 percent are obese
103 increase nationally in past 14 years 112
increase in Utah in past 14 years
16
Excess Body Weight and Reduction of Lifespan
Years of diminished lifespan ie, a person with a
BMI of 34 is likely to live five years less than
a person with a BMI of 25
Body Mass Index
Image from Wikimedia Commons Peter Forster,
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
17
Obesity and Diabetes
  • Using the most accurate data available, it is
    estimated that 36 of all children born in the
    year 2000 will become diabetic sometime in their
    lives among Hispanics, 50 will become diabetic.

Image from Wikimedia Commons, Robert Lawton,
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5
Generic
18
Estimated lifetime risk of developing diabetes
for individuals born in the United States in 2000
Narayan et al, JAMA, 2003
19
Image from CDC, public domain
20
Diabetes and Reduction in Lifespan
-14.3 yrs
-11.6 yrs
JAMA 20032901884-1890
21
Body Composition Weight Management
  • Body Composition is the makeup of body tissues,
    including muscle, bone, body fat, and all other
    body tissues.
  • Lean Body Mass is muscle tissue and other
    non-fat tissue such as bones, skin, body organs,
    ligaments and tendons. This is normally about
    75-85 of our weight.
  • Fat Mass is the amount of fat in our body. This
    is normally about 15-25 of our weight.

22
The Term Obesity
  • Obesity is the condition of being very over-fat
    or having a high percentage of body fat (Approx.
    35 for women, 30 for men.)

23
What should my body fat be?
  • For men, essential body fat makes up about 3 of
    total body weight. For women, the percentage is
    higher - about 12 - because it includes amounts
    in the breasts, pelvis, hips and thighs believed
    necessary for normal female reproductive
    function.
  • Men should have a body fat of 10-20 to be in a
    healthy range. Men can have less than 10 and
    still be healthy.
  • Women should have a body fat percentage of
    15-25. Girls who are below this range may begin
    to have health issues and may stop menstruation.

24
Ideal Body Weight
  • Ideal body weight is how much you should weigh if
    you had an appropriate amount of body fat.

Runner image from Ookaboo, Wikimedia Commons,
Lepax, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike
2.0 Generic Parade image from Wikimedia
Commons, NARA, public domain
25
Body Fat in Women
  • Women tend to have more body fat than menabout
    5 more. By nature, a woman's body is developed
    to protect her and a potential fetus. As a
    result, women have more enzymes for storing fat
    and fewer enzymes for burning fat. Additionally,
    the estrogen women have activates fat-storing
    enzymes and causes them to multiply.
  • The minimum percent body fat considered safe for
    good health is  12-14 for females. The average
    adult body fat is closer to 22-25 for women.

Image from Wikimedia Commons, Renoir, public
domain
26
Factors that Influence Body Fatness
  • Heredity
  • Metabolism
  • Diet/High sugar intake
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Early fatness Last month of fetal development,
    or 1st year of life.
  • TV / Lifestyle-About 38.2 percent of Utah public
    high school students watch three or more hours of
    television per day on an average school day.

27
How do I Find my Body Fat Percentage?
  • There are several methods one can use to
    determine body fat percentage
  • Underwater/Hydrostatic Weighing
  • BOD POD
  • Electrical Impedance
  • Skin Calipers
  • Girth Measure/Body Circumference
  • Waist to Hip Ratio
  • Body Fat Scale
  • BMI

28
Underwater/Hydrostatic Weighing
  • Underwater weight is the best and most accurate
    measurement for body fat.
  • Advantages Underwater weighing is the most
    widely used test of body density and in the past
    was the criterion measure for other indirect
    measures.
  • Disadvantages The equipment required to do
    underwater weighing is expensive. The tanks are
    mostly located at university or other research
    institutions, and there is generally not easy
    access for the general population.

29
The BOD POD
  • The BOD POD Body Composition Tracking System uses
    patented Air Displacement Plethysmography for
    determining percent fat and fat-free mass in
    adults and children. The simple, five-minute test
    consists of measuring the subject's mass (weight)
    using a very accurate electronic scale, and
    volume, which is determined by sitting inside the
    BOD POD chamber. From these two measurements, the
    subject's body composition is calculated.

30
Electrical Impedance
  • What is the Bioelectrical Impedance Method?
  • Muscles, blood vessels and bones are body
  • tissues having a high water content that conduct
    electricity easily. Body fat is tissue that has
    little electric conductivity. The Analyzer sends
    an extremely weak electrical current of 50 kHz
    and 500µA through your body to determine the
    amount of fat tissue. This weak electrical
    current is not felt while operating the Body Fat
    Analyzer. The Bioelectrical Impedance Method
    safely combines the electric resistance with the
    distance of the electricity conducted.

31
Skin Calipers
  • Calipers work by pulling subcutaneous fat (fat
    directly under the skin) away from the muscle
    with the tongs situated at their ends. Several
    predetermined sites are measured by a gauge that
    records the thickness of the pinch created by the
    tongs. An equation can be used to determine
    body-fat percentage, or the skin-fold
    thicknesses, on their own, can be used to gauge
    progress.
  • Men Chest, Abdomen, Thigh
  • Women Triceps, Waist, Thigh

32
Girth and Body Circumference
  • Girth measurements are circumference measurements
    taken at a specific body site and recorded. They
    are converted to a constant and then entered into
    a formula to predict percent body fat. The sites
    measured differ depending on a person's age and
    gender.
  • For ages 18 to 26 Men measure the right biceps,
    right forearm, and abdomen.
  • Women measure the abdomen, right thigh and right
    forearm.

Image from Wikimedia Commons, Ron Mahon, Creative
Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported
33
Waist Circumference
  • Measuring waist circumference helps screen for
    possible health risks that come with overweight
    and obesity. If most of your fat is around your
    waist rather than at your hips, youre at a
    higher risk for heart disease and type 2
    diabetes. This risk goes up with a waist size
    that is greater than 35 inches for women or
    greater than 40 inches for men.

Image from Wikimedia Commons, Aspen04, Public
domain
34
Waist to Hip Ratio
  • Waist to Hip Ratio is one way to determine your
    health risk. In addition to measuring your
    waist, measure your hips at the widest part.
    Divide your waist measurement by your hip
    measurement.
  • For women a ratio of 0.80 is safe.
  • For men a ratio of 0.90 is safe.
  • For both men and women, a 1.0 or higher is
    considered at risk, or in the danger zone for
    undesirable health consequences, such as heart
    disease.

35
Body Fat Scale
  • Professional body fat monitors measure weight,
    body fat percentage, hydration level, lean body
    mass, BMI (body mass index) and more. A
    convenient printer, available with most
    professional body composition analyzers, makes it
    simple to update patient or client records with
    current data.

36
BMI Body Mass Index
  • Obesity and overweight are commonly defined in
    terms of the body mass index (BMI). BMI is
    calculated using a persons height and weight.
  • BMI weight (lbs) x 703/height squared (in2)
  • (In Adults)
  • BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 is considered to be ideal,
    and anything above this is defined as overweight.
    A BMI greater than or equal to 30 is defined as
    obese.
  • Visit the website below to calculate your BMI
  • http//www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/

37
Health Hazards and Obesity
  • Breathing Difficulties
  • Diabetes
  • Cancer (many types)
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Heart Disease/Stroke
  • Kidney Disorders
  • Shorter Life Span
  • Pregnancy Problems in women
  • Arthritis
  • Hypertension
  • High Cholesterol
  • Sleep Apnea
  • Respiratory Problems
  • Surgical Risk
  • Prone to infections
  • Social Discrimination

38
Healthy Weight Loss
  • One should try to lose weight by doing it in a
    healthy way. Exercise and a healthy diet are the
    best way to reduce body fat.
  • Include a weight training program to help
    stimulate the metabolism.

39
Can you lose fat in just one area?
  • There is no such thing as spot reduction. You
    cant just lose fat on your hips, back, or
    stomach. As you exercise and eat right, fat will
    decrease all over your body, not just in one
    particular spot.

40
Fad Diets and Weight Loss Gimmicks Dont Work!!!
  • The world has an unhealthy obsession with 'fad'
    diets. This is due to the American culture's need
    for a magic bullet or solution that provides
    immediate gratification. Technically, a diet
    simply refers to what you eat each day. In the
    truest sense, we are all on a diet daily - the
    question is, is it healthy or not?
  • Another drawback of fad diets is that many of
    them don't work at all. Some, such as those based
    on diuretic herbs, simply cause a loss of water
    rather than fat. This water is simply regained
    back by the body and is then retained with a
    vengeance after you are off the diet. This is
    known as rebound weight gain.
  • Diets fail because they offer no long-term
    solution.

  • http//www.healthstatus.com/articles/Weight_Loss_F
    ads_that_Don_t_Work.html

41
Image SusanLesch, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
Unported
42
Set Goals, Eat Healthy and Exercise
  • No matter what the reason, successful weight loss
    and healthy weight management depend on sensible
    goals and expectations. If you set realistic
    goals for yourself, chances are you'll be more
    likely to meet them and have a better chance of
    keeping the weight off. In fact, losing even 5 to
    10 percent of your weight is the kind of goal
    that can help improve your health.
  • Most overweight people should lose weight
    gradually. For safe and healthy weight loss, try
    not to exceed a rate of
  • 2 pounds per week. Sometimes, people with
    serious health problems associated with obesity
    may have legitimate reasons for losing weight
    rapidly.

43
Key Vocabulary
  • Bioelectric Impedence Analysis (BIA) is a
    technique based upon the principle that
    electrical currents travel faster through water.
      Therefore, if a person receives a small
    electrical current in their arms or legs
    (cylinder-shaped areas of the body), individuals
    with more muscle will have faster conductance (or
    current travel) rates.  
  • Bod Pod is a very new device that uses air
    displacement to estimate percent body fat. Body
    Composition is defined as the various fat and
    nonfat components of your body.Body Mass Index
    is known as BMI and examines weight in proportion
    to height in an index (kg/m 2 ).
  • Fat Mass is adipose tissue (fat)
  • Girth Measurements are techniques whereby you
    measure the width or girth of various body parts
    (e.g., upper arm, hip, waist, and wrist) and plug
    the circumferences into a formula, and your body
    composition is estimated.
  • Ideal Body Weight means how much you would weigh
    if you had an appropriate percent of body fat.

44
Key Vocabulary Continued
  • Lean Body Mass consists of parts of the body
    such as connective tissue, muscle, bone, and
    organs.
  • Obesity is a condition in which a person has high
    percentage of body fat.
  • Overweight - People considered to be overweight
    exceed their desirable bodyweight by 10
    according to height and weight charts.Skinfold
    Calipers are used to measure skinfolds at various
    sites because at least 1/2 of the body's tissues
    are subcutaneous, we can assume that a certain
    width of skinfold tissue equates to an overall
    percent body fat value.
  • Underwater or Hydrostatic Weighing is the gold
    standard by which all other techniques are
    compared, is a technique that requires subjects
    to exhale as forcefully as possible to minimize
    air bubbles, and then submerge themselves on an
    underwater scale. Waist Circumference is a more
    current technique where by the circumference of
    the waist, at the widest point from the side
    view, is used to estimate health risk.
  • Waist-to-Hip Ratio is a ratio obtained by
    dividing the circumference of the waist (at the
    umbilicus) by the circumference of the hips (at
    the widest point from the side view).
View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Body Composition and Weight Management

Description:

Body Composition and Weight Management – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:56
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 45
Provided by: tim
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Body Composition and Weight Management


1
Body Composition andWeight Management
2
Unit 5 Body Composition and Weight
ManagementOBJECTIVES FOR THIS UNIT   Students
will
  • 1) Understand the various components of body
    composition.2) Discuss how percent body fat is
    related to overall health.3) Describe healthy
    and unhealthy levels of body fat in high school
    students.4) Describe some methods of assessing
    body fatness, and discuss some "pros" and
    "cons" of each method.5) Understand some health
    hazards of being overweight, and be introduced to
    eating disorders.

3
Assignment List (Optional) Textbook Reading For
Unit 5 Chapter 13 (pages 220-241) At the end of
this lesson you will have completed the following
assignments 05.02 Activity Log 7 05.2.1
Exercising with Weight Added05.3.1 - Determining
Your Healthy Body Weight 05.4.1 Unit 5
quiz 05.4.2 Activity Log 8
4
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults between 1985 and
2009
  • Obesity is having a very high amount of body fat
    in relation to lean body mass, or Body Mass Index
    (BMI) of 30 or higher.
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of an adults
    weight in relation to his or her height,
    specifically the adults weight in kilograms
    divided by the square of his or her height in
    meters.

5
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults between 1985 and
2009
  • The data shown in these maps were collected
    through CDCs Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance
    System (BRFSS). Each year, state health
    departments use standard procedures to collect
    data through a series of monthly telephone
    interviews with U.S. adults.
  • Prevalence estimates generated for the maps may
    vary slightly from those generated for the states
    by BRFSS (http//aps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss) as
    slightly different analytic methods are used.

6
US Body Composition Rates
  • The below slides indicate the rise of obesity
    within the United States from 1985 to 2009. Each
    US state indicates a BMI level of 30 or greater,
    or individuals who are at least 30 lbs.
    overweight in that particular state. BMI levels
    range from
  • (0-No Data to greater than 30) in certain
    states.
  • Obesity is having a BMI of 30 or higher.

The following map images are from the CDC, public
domain
7
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1985
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4
person)
No Data lt10 1014
8
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1991
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4
person)
No Data lt10 1014 1519
9
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1997
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4
person)
No Data lt10 1014 1519
20
10
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2000
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4
person)
No Data lt10 1014 1519
20
11
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2003
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4
person)
No Data lt10 1014 1519
2024 25
12
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2006
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4
person)
No Data lt10 1014 1519
2024 2529 30
13
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2009
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs. overweight for 5 4
person)
No Data lt10 1014 1519
2024 2529 30
14
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1990,
1999, 2009
(BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 54
person)
1999
1990
2009
No Data lt10 1014 1519
2024 2529 30
15
Statistics
America 60.1 of adults are overweight or
obese 23.4 are obese In Utah 58.4 of adults
are overweight or obese 21 percent are obese
103 increase nationally in past 14 years 112
increase in Utah in past 14 years
16
Excess Body Weight and Reduction of Lifespan
Years of diminished lifespan ie, a person with a
BMI of 34 is likely to live five years less than
a person with a BMI of 25
Body Mass Index
Image from Wikimedia Commons Peter Forster,
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
17
Obesity and Diabetes
  • Using the most accurate data available, it is
    estimated that 36 of all children born in the
    year 2000 will become diabetic sometime in their
    lives among Hispanics, 50 will become diabetic.

Image from Wikimedia Commons, Robert Lawton,
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5
Generic
18
Estimated lifetime risk of developing diabetes
for individuals born in the United States in 2000
Narayan et al, JAMA, 2003
19
Image from CDC, public domain
20
Diabetes and Reduction in Lifespan
-14.3 yrs
-11.6 yrs
JAMA 20032901884-1890
21
Body Composition Weight Management
  • Body Composition is the makeup of body tissues,
    including muscle, bone, body fat, and all other
    body tissues.
  • Lean Body Mass is muscle tissue and other
    non-fat tissue such as bones, skin, body organs,
    ligaments and tendons. This is normally about
    75-85 of our weight.
  • Fat Mass is the amount of fat in our body. This
    is normally about 15-25 of our weight.

22
The Term Obesity
  • Obesity is the condition of being very over-fat
    or having a high percentage of body fat (Approx.
    35 for women, 30 for men.)

23
What should my body fat be?
  • For men, essential body fat makes up about 3 of
    total body weight. For women, the percentage is
    higher - about 12 - because it includes amounts
    in the breasts, pelvis, hips and thighs believed
    necessary for normal female reproductive
    function.
  • Men should have a body fat of 10-20 to be in a
    healthy range. Men can have less than 10 and
    still be healthy.
  • Women should have a body fat percentage of
    15-25. Girls who are below this range may begin
    to have health issues and may stop menstruation.

24
Ideal Body Weight
  • Ideal body weight is how much you should weigh if
    you had an appropriate amount of body fat.

Runner image from Ookaboo, Wikimedia Commons,
Lepax, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike
2.0 Generic Parade image from Wikimedia
Commons, NARA, public domain
25
Body Fat in Women
  • Women tend to have more body fat than menabout
    5 more. By nature, a woman's body is developed
    to protect her and a potential fetus. As a
    result, women have more enzymes for storing fat
    and fewer enzymes for burning fat. Additionally,
    the estrogen women have activates fat-storing
    enzymes and causes them to multiply.
  • The minimum percent body fat considered safe for
    good health is  12-14 for females. The average
    adult body fat is closer to 22-25 for women.

Image from Wikimedia Commons, Renoir, public
domain
26
Factors that Influence Body Fatness
  • Heredity
  • Metabolism
  • Diet/High sugar intake
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Early fatness Last month of fetal development,
    or 1st year of life.
  • TV / Lifestyle-About 38.2 percent of Utah public
    high school students watch three or more hours of
    television per day on an average school day.

27
How do I Find my Body Fat Percentage?
  • There are several methods one can use to
    determine body fat percentage
  • Underwater/Hydrostatic Weighing
  • BOD POD
  • Electrical Impedance
  • Skin Calipers
  • Girth Measure/Body Circumference
  • Waist to Hip Ratio
  • Body Fat Scale
  • BMI

28
Underwater/Hydrostatic Weighing
  • Underwater weight is the best and most accurate
    measurement for body fat.
  • Advantages Underwater weighing is the most
    widely used test of body density and in the past
    was the criterion measure for other indirect
    measures.
  • Disadvantages The equipment required to do
    underwater weighing is expensive. The tanks are
    mostly located at university or other research
    institutions, and there is generally not easy
    access for the general population.

29
The BOD POD
  • The BOD POD Body Composition Tracking System uses
    patented Air Displacement Plethysmography for
    determining percent fat and fat-free mass in
    adults and children. The simple, five-minute test
    consists of measuring the subject's mass (weight)
    using a very accurate electronic scale, and
    volume, which is determined by sitting inside the
    BOD POD chamber. From these two measurements, the
    subject's body composition is calculated.

30
Electrical Impedance
  • What is the Bioelectrical Impedance Method?
  • Muscles, blood vessels and bones are body
  • tissues having a high water content that conduct
    electricity easily. Body fat is tissue that has
    little electric conductivity. The Analyzer sends
    an extremely weak electrical current of 50 kHz
    and 500µA through your body to determine the
    amount of fat tissue. This weak electrical
    current is not felt while operating the Body Fat
    Analyzer. The Bioelectrical Impedance Method
    safely combines the electric resistance with the
    distance of the electricity conducted.

31
Skin Calipers
  • Calipers work by pulling subcutaneous fat (fat
    directly under the skin) away from the muscle
    with the tongs situated at their ends. Several
    predetermined sites are measured by a gauge that
    records the thickness of the pinch created by the
    tongs. An equation can be used to determine
    body-fat percentage, or the skin-fold
    thicknesses, on their own, can be used to gauge
    progress.
  • Men Chest, Abdomen, Thigh
  • Women Triceps, Waist, Thigh

32
Girth and Body Circumference
  • Girth measurements are circumference measurements
    taken at a specific body site and recorded. They
    are converted to a constant and then entered into
    a formula to predict percent body fat. The sites
    measured differ depending on a person's age and
    gender.
  • For ages 18 to 26 Men measure the right biceps,
    right forearm, and abdomen.
  • Women measure the abdomen, right thigh and right
    forearm.

Image from Wikimedia Commons, Ron Mahon, Creative
Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported
33
Waist Circumference
  • Measuring waist circumference helps screen for
    possible health risks that come with overweight
    and obesity. If most of your fat is around your
    waist rather than at your hips, youre at a
    higher risk for heart disease and type 2
    diabetes. This risk goes up with a waist size
    that is greater than 35 inches for women or
    greater than 40 inches for men.

Image from Wikimedia Commons, Aspen04, Public
domain
34
Waist to Hip Ratio
  • Waist to Hip Ratio is one way to determine your
    health risk. In addition to measuring your
    waist, measure your hips at the widest part.
    Divide your waist measurement by your hip
    measurement.
  • For women a ratio of 0.80 is safe.
  • For men a ratio of 0.90 is safe.
  • For both men and women, a 1.0 or higher is
    considered at risk, or in the danger zone for
    undesirable health consequences, such as heart
    disease.

35
Body Fat Scale
  • Professional body fat monitors measure weight,
    body fat percentage, hydration level, lean body
    mass, BMI (body mass index) and more. A
    convenient printer, available with most
    professional body composition analyzers, makes it
    simple to update patient or client records with
    current data.

36
BMI Body Mass Index
  • Obesity and overweight are commonly defined in
    terms of the body mass index (BMI). BMI is
    calculated using a persons height and weight.
  • BMI weight (lbs) x 703/height squared (in2)
  • (In Adults)
  • BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 is considered to be ideal,
    and anything above this is defined as overweight.
    A BMI greater than or equal to 30 is defined as
    obese.
  • Visit the website below to calculate your BMI
  • http//www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/

37
Health Hazards and Obesity
  • Breathing Difficulties
  • Diabetes
  • Cancer (many types)
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Heart Disease/Stroke
  • Kidney Disorders
  • Shorter Life Span
  • Pregnancy Problems in women
  • Arthritis
  • Hypertension
  • High Cholesterol
  • Sleep Apnea
  • Respiratory Problems
  • Surgical Risk
  • Prone to infections
  • Social Discrimination

38
Healthy Weight Loss
  • One should try to lose weight by doing it in a
    healthy way. Exercise and a healthy diet are the
    best way to reduce body fat.
  • Include a weight training program to help
    stimulate the metabolism.

39
Can you lose fat in just one area?
  • There is no such thing as spot reduction. You
    cant just lose fat on your hips, back, or
    stomach. As you exercise and eat right, fat will
    decrease all over your body, not just in one
    particular spot.

40
Fad Diets and Weight Loss Gimmicks Dont Work!!!
  • The world has an unhealthy obsession with 'fad'
    diets. This is due to the American culture's need
    for a magic bullet or solution that provides
    immediate gratification. Technically, a diet
    simply refers to what you eat each day. In the
    truest sense, we are all on a diet daily - the
    question is, is it healthy or not?
  • Another drawback of fad diets is that many of
    them don't work at all. Some, such as those based
    on diuretic herbs, simply cause a loss of water
    rather than fat. This water is simply regained
    back by the body and is then retained with a
    vengeance after you are off the diet. This is
    known as rebound weight gain.
  • Diets fail because they offer no long-term
    solution.

  • http//www.healthstatus.com/articles/Weight_Loss_F
    ads_that_Don_t_Work.html

41
Image SusanLesch, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
Unported
42
Set Goals, Eat Healthy and Exercise
  • No matter what the reason, successful weight loss
    and healthy weight management depend on sensible
    goals and expectations. If you set realistic
    goals for yourself, chances are you'll be more
    likely to meet them and have a better chance of
    keeping the weight off. In fact, losing even 5 to
    10 percent of your weight is the kind of goal
    that can help improve your health.
  • Most overweight people should lose weight
    gradually. For safe and healthy weight loss, try
    not to exceed a rate of
  • 2 pounds per week. Sometimes, people with
    serious health problems associated with obesity
    may have legitimate reasons for losing weight
    rapidly.

43
Key Vocabulary
  • Bioelectric Impedence Analysis (BIA) is a
    technique based upon the principle that
    electrical currents travel faster through water.
      Therefore, if a person receives a small
    electrical current in their arms or legs
    (cylinder-shaped areas of the body), individuals
    with more muscle will have faster conductance (or
    current travel) rates.  
  • Bod Pod is a very new device that uses air
    displacement to estimate percent body fat. Body
    Composition is defined as the various fat and
    nonfat components of your body.Body Mass Index
    is known as BMI and examines weight in proportion
    to height in an index (kg/m 2 ).
  • Fat Mass is adipose tissue (fat)
  • Girth Measurements are techniques whereby you
    measure the width or girth of various body parts
    (e.g., upper arm, hip, waist, and wrist) and plug
    the circumferences into a formula, and your body
    composition is estimated.
  • Ideal Body Weight means how much you would weigh
    if you had an appropriate percent of body fat.

44
Key Vocabulary Continued
  • Lean Body Mass consists of parts of the body
    such as connective tissue, muscle, bone, and
    organs.
  • Obesity is a condition in which a person has high
    percentage of body fat.
  • Overweight - People considered to be overweight
    exceed their desirable bodyweight by 10
    according to height and weight charts.Skinfold
    Calipers are used to measure skinfolds at various
    sites because at least 1/2 of the body's tissues
    are subcutaneous, we can assume that a certain
    width of skinfold tissue equates to an overall
    percent body fat value.
  • Underwater or Hydrostatic Weighing is the gold
    standard by which all other techniques are
    compared, is a technique that requires subjects
    to exhale as forcefully as possible to minimize
    air bubbles, and then submerge themselves on an
    underwater scale. Waist Circumference is a more
    current technique where by the circumference of
    the waist, at the widest point from the side
    view, is used to estimate health risk.
  • Waist-to-Hip Ratio is a ratio obtained by
    dividing the circumference of the waist (at the
    umbilicus) by the circumference of the hips (at
    the widest point from the side view).
About PowerShow.com