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Please take out a notebook. You need three sections Journals Literary Terms Notes on texts – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Please take out a notebook. You need three sections

Please take out a notebook. You need three
  • Journals
  • Literary Terms
  • Notes on texts

In this Power Point, when I talk about
  • STYLE terms will be yellow
  • THEME will be red

  • Point of View (handout)
  • Tone (handout)
  • Imagery
  • Surrealism
  • Stream of Consciousness
  • ___________
  • THEME (not style)

Two areas of study STYLE and THEME
  • STYLE refers to Formal aspects of the story how
    the story is told.
  • Deals with Point of View, Plot Structure, Tone,
    Imagery, etc. (Modernism experiments with style.)
  • THEME refers to ideas or truths about life.
    (These are also specifically Modern.)

Memento Mori STYLE
  • Plot Major gaps reflecting subjective view of
    time (also a theme here)
  • Each 3rd person chapter happens multiple times
    (indicated by maybe)
  • The plot could be cyclical--the end leads back to
    the beginning and could be interchanged
  • Point of View experimental
  • use of two P.O.V.s
  • Third Person Limited and Second Person

Memento Mori
  • Themes

SELF /Consciousness (this is subject below are
questions to build THEME)
  • How do we define ourselves I think, therefore I
    am? (Descartes) Are you what you believe you
    are? (a good person what about how you
  • Are you the sum of your memories? (What about
    what you have forgotten or altered?)
  • Are you the sum of your actions?
  • Are you what mommy thinks you are? (What about
    when she or your wife is gone?)

Life/ existence
  • Can we define our own lives and give them
    meaning rather than look for meaning from God,
    social institutions, mommy, etc. (You get yours
    from mommy)
  • Is there an objective moral guideline for that
    purpose? (Does God judge it? Can to get the
    most stuff be a valid purpose then?)

The Nature of Time
  • Though we measure it with minutes and seconds and
    such, it is subjective. Consider
  • Time flies when you are having fun
  • Time is dragging by right now
  • And yet a minute is always sixty seconds
  • Gaps in plot
  • Use of Maybe
  • Earls comments about time

  • From friends and family
  • Society its rewards (jobs, status) and
    punishments (prison)
  • God His love and his rules (Via the first two

  • Without the rewards or punishments of society,
    are people inherently evil?
  • Can you do bad things but not be a bad person?
  • Is there such a thing as evil or do circumstances
    just cause/allow bad things to happen? (Which
    brings us to)

stream of consciousness
  • a narrative mode that seeks to portray an
    individual's point of view by giving the written
    equivalent of the character's thought processes
  • a loose interior monologue, characterized by
    associative leaps in syntax and punctuation that
    can make the prose difficult to follow.
  • often depicted as overheard in the mind (or
    addressed to oneself)
  • or in connection to his or her actions.

(No Transcript)
After I Was Thrown in the Water and Before I
  • Dave Eggers

More Keys to understanding
  • The Language how does it change?
  • The images/ details
  • The tone changes from ___________ to __________

denotation a literal meaning of the word
connotation an association (emotional or
otherwise) which the word evokes
  • For example, both "woman" and "chick" have the
    denotation "adult female" in North American
    society, but "chick" has somewhat negative
    connotations, while "woman" is neutral.

For another example of connotations, consider the
  • negative
  • There are over 2,000 vagrants in the city.
  • neutral
  • There are over 2,000 people with no fixed address
    in the city.
  • positive
  • There are over 2,000 homeless in the city.

  • I see in the windows. I see what happens. I see
    the calm held-together moments and also the
    treachery and I run and run. You tell me it
    matters, what they all say. I have listened and
    long ago I stopped. Just tell me it matters and I
    will listen to you and I will want to be
    convinced. You tell me that what is said is
    making a difference that those words are
    worthwhile words and mean something. I see what
    happens. I live with people who are German. They
    collect steins. They are good people. Their son
    is dead. I see what happens.

  • The squirrels have things to say they talk
    before and after we jump. Sometimes while we're
    jumping they talk.
  • I don't know why the squirrels watch us, or why
    they talk to us. They do not try to jump the gap.
    The running
  • and jumping feels so good even when we don't win
    or fall into the gap it feels so good when we run
    and jump-and when we are done the squirrels are
    talking to us, to each other in their small
    jittery voices

  • Some of them laugh. Franklin is angry. He walks
    slowly to where they're sitting they do not
    move. He grabs one in his jaws and crushes all
    its bones. Their voices are always talking but we
    forget they are so small, their head and bones so

  • When and why does the verb tense change? When and
    why does the dog use big words?
  • The verb tense and diction changes from present
    to past tense when Stephen is reflecting on
    events or ideas. He has had time to
    intellectualize organize, analyze, and judge
    the events.
  • The Dog names seem weird what do you make of
  • P.O.V. From where is the dog speaking?
  • He is dead. Remember? (BTW, that is a full
    sentence, with you, understood. Second Person

  • Franklin was angry and took five or six of them
    in his mouth, crushing them, tossing them one
    after the other. The other dogs watched none of
    them knew if squirrel killing made them happy or

  • Stream of Consciousness
  • Repetition of words (grabbing)
  • Big words for reflection (ravishing)
  • Tense present tense/ past tense when he dies
  • Plot goes beyond Story

How We Are Hungry
  • The characters and narrators in How We Are
    Hungry, in which longer stories are interspersed
    with some of Eggers's Guardian pieces, find
    themselves on the edgeon the verge of
    breakdowns, breakups and other crises
  • His narrative responds in kind, patrolling what
    lies on and beyond the far edges of speech and
    thought. In the work of lesser writersincluding
    some of those for whom Eggers has become a
    talismansuch narration can shrink into an
    aesthetic of studied faux-inarticulacy ... it is
    a mark of what Eggers can achieve at his best
    that his feeling for speech and its limitations
    rarely hits false notes.

Authors have themes to which they return
  • A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius (2000)
    and the freewheeling Velocity made a virtue of
    sheer sprawl this collection of stories points
    to another quality, present in those books but
    perhaps less well noted Eggers's way with
    significant omissions and ellipses .

Authors have themes to which they return
  • As Anne Henry has pointed out, 'the gaps and
    lacunae so often discussed in twentieth-century
    criticism are not always empty or silent, but
    filled with pieces of type, marks which have
    voices of their own', and Eggers's significant
    gaps and lapses similarly have their silent

THEME Language fails us
  • Overtly stated
  • about human conversation
  • Suggested by
  • Steven is his name?
  • Descriptions of the dog
  • Language fundiction, squirrel talk
  • Action versus Talk (Thought/Intellect)
  • About the squirrels
  • The Title

Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been
Where Are You Going
  • Joyce Carol Oates
  • Inspired by Bob Dylan Song
  • Written in the sixties. In 1966 which is
    relevant because

  • Its All Over Now Baby Blue Bob Dylan
  • You must leave now, take what you need, you think
    will last. But whatever you wish to keep, you
    better grab it fast. Yonder stands your orphan
    with his gun, Crying like a fire in the sun. Look
    out the saints are comin' through And it's all
    over now, Baby Blue. The highway is for
    gamblers, better use your sense. Take what you
    have gathered from coincidence. The empty-handed
    painter from your streets Is drawing crazy
    patterns on your sheets. This sky, too, is
    folding under you And it's all over now, Baby
  • The carpet, too, is moving under you And it's all
    over now, Baby Blue. Leave your stepping stones
    behind, something calls for you. Forget the dead
    you've left, they will not follow you. The
    vagabond who's rapping at your door Is standing
    in the clothes that you once wore.

  • All your seasick sailors, they are rowing
    home. All your reindeer armies, are all going
    home. The lover who just walked out your door Has
    taken all his blankets from the floor. The
    carpet, too, is moving under you And it's all
    over now, Baby Blue. Leave your stepping stones
    behind, something calls for you. Forget the dead
    you've left, they will not follow you. The
    vagabond who's rapping at your door Is standing
    in the clothes that you once wore. Strike another
    match, go start anew And it's all over now, Baby

  • A word or group of words in a literary work
    which appeal to one or more of the senses sight,
    taste, touch, hearing, and smell.
  • The use of images serves to intensify the impact
    of the work.

  • The following example of imagery in T. S. Eliot's
    "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,
  • " When the evening is spread out against the sky
  • Like a patient etherized upon a table.
  • Uses images of pain and sickness to describe the
    evening, which as an image itself represents
    society and the psychology of Prufrock, himself

STYLEIMAGES in the story
  • Music is a constant image in the story and has
  • This is true of America at the time pop music
    defined this young generation and led them

Morality Tale
  • The theme of youthful, romantic fantasy. The
    illusory dreams of adolescence blind them to the
    harsh, dangerous world of maturity. We see Connie
    separating from the world of living under her
    mother's wing and breaking through to the other
    side of sexual maturity, adulthood and
    independence. Sexual desire can be deadly serious
    stuff. It takes this experience for Connie learn
    that. Until Friend pulls up the driveway, she has
    been flirting with sexuality. Now she will
    confront its harsher face.

  • The victimization of women is explored, and how
    men act as predators in our society. The story
    intensifies the fear and suspense associated with
    this power differential by putting Connie in an
    untenable, vulnerable situation from which she
    has no choice but to leave the house with Arnold
    Friend. So this story heightens our awareness of
    this problem. The story asks us is Connie really
    independent? Has she left the mother's nest only
    to live under the protection of the domineering

Psychological Lens, sort of
  • The story represents a case study in
    manipulative psychology. Friend coerces Connie
    through intimidation and identification. He's
    tracked his prey, understood it, disoriented it,
    and is now prepared to go in for the kill. A true
    crime serial killer named Charles Schmid, the
    Pied Piper of Tucson served as the inspiration
    for Oates's tale. She makes Arnold Friend into a
    smooth talking, play acting, and ultimately
    menacing suitor. When interpreted from this
    angle, the story becomes a cautionary lesson
    "don't let this happen to you!"

  • Dream allegory of death and the maiden. An
    allegory is a narrative with at least two layers
    of meaning the literal and the symbolic. The
    story, when read as allegory, becomes a kind of
    coming of age dreamscape where evil (or death)
    arrives to corrupt what is innocent. Death
    escorts the woman away from her childhood self.
    You might interpret this death literally or

  • Three mystical number
  • Flies
  • The Highway
  • Mirrored sunglasses
  • Possibly cloven or goat-like feet
  • Take out the r A n old Fiend

  • movement in visual art and literature,
    flourishing in Europe between World Wars I and
    II. Surrealism grew principally out of the
    earlier Dada movement, which before World War I
    produced works of anti-art that deliberately
    defied reason but Surrealisms emphasis was not
    on negation but on positive expression. The
    movement represented a reaction against what its
    members saw as the destruction wrought by the
    rationalism that had guided European culture
    and politics in the past and that had culminated
    in the horrors of World War I.

  • According to the major spokesman of the movement,
    the poet and critic André Breton, who published
    The Surrealist Manifesto in 1924,
  • Surrealism was a means of reuniting conscious
    and unconscious realms of experience so
    completely that the world of dream and fantasy
    would be joined to the everyday rational world in
    an absolute reality, a surreality.
  • Drawing heavily on theories adapted from Sigmund
    Freud, Breton saw the unconscious as the
    wellspring of the imagination. He defined genius
    in terms of accessibility to this normally
    untapped realm, which, he believed, could be
    attained by poets and painters alike.

Modernism THEMES
  • Modern theme the individual separate from the
    family and community? (Alienation)

THEME Loss of Innocence/ Risk
  • There is danger inherent in the desire to grow
  • Story can be read as an allegory
  • American Society at this time was losing its
    innocenceThere is also the Modern element of
    questioning our forward movement or progress
    while leaving behind traditional values.
  • The last image

  • We do not truly know ourselves until confronted
    with violence or death.
  • Dramatic device for literature because (see

The ending
  • Connie felt the linoleum under her feet it was
    cool. She brushed her hair back out of her eyes.
    Arnold Friend let go of the post tentatively and
    opened his arms for her, his elbows pointing in
    toward each other and his wrists limp, to show
    that this was an embarrassed embrace and a little
    mocking, he didn't want to make her

  • She put out her hand against the screen. She
    watched herself push the door slowly open as if
    she were back safe somewhere in the other
    doorway, watching this body and this head of long
    hair moving out into the sunlight where Arnold
    Friend waited.
  • .

  • "My sweet little blue-eyed girl," he said in a
    half-sung sigh that had nothing to do with her
    brown eyes but was taken up just the same by the
    vast sunlit reaches of the land behind him and on
    all sides of himso much land that Connie had
    never seen before and did not recognize except to
    know that she was going to it

Surrealism ..\..\Honors Modern Fiction\SURREALISM.
  • The dreamlike MOOD and DIALOGUE at the house
  • The wolf in sheeps clothing
  • The last image SYMBOLIC of her entering the
    adult world (loss of innocence)

A Good Man is Hard to Find
A Good Man is Hard to Find
  • Flannery OConner
  • Southern Gothic/ the Grotesque (Faulkner)
  • Catholic
  • She connects her religious concerns with being
    southern, for, she says, "while the South is
    hardly Christ-centered, it is most certainly

STYLE GENRE-- Southern Gothic
  • subgenre of the Gothic writing style, unique to
    American Literature.
  • Like its parent genre, it relies on supernatural,
    ironic, or unusual events to guide the plot.
  • The Grotesque

Southern Gothic
  • Unlike its predecessor, it uses these tools not
    for the sake of suspense, but to explore social
    issues and reveal the cultural character of the
    American South

  • Foreshadowing is a literary device in which an
    author drops subtle hints about plot developments
    to come later in the story.
  • An example of foreshadowing might be when a
    character displays a gun or knife early in the
    story. Merely the appearance of a deadly weapon,
    even though it is used for an innocuous purpose
    such as being cleaned or whittling wood
    suggests terrible consequences later on.

In her words Flannery OConner
  • the creative action of the Christian's life is to
    prepare his death in Christ.
  • "I'm a born Catholic and death has always been
    brother to my imagination. I can't imagine a
    story that doesn't properly end in it or in its

  • Evil
  • (Catholic concept) Redemption never too late.
  • The sins of the South

Modernism Themes
  • Old World values (Grandma) versus Modern world
    view (the family)
  • Cultural Relativity definitions of Good and
  • The concept of Evilthis is not modern

  • The grandmother offered to hold the baby and the
    children's mother passed him over the front seat
    to her. She set him on her knee and bounced him
    and told him about the things they were passing.
    She rolled her eyes and screwed up her mouth and
    stuck her leathery thin face into his smooth
    bland one. Occasionally he gave her a faraway
    smile. They passed a large cotton field with five
    or fix graves fenced in the middle of it, like a
    small island. "Look at the graveyard!" the
    grandmother said, pointing it out. "That was the
    old family burying ground. That belonged to the

Empathy/ Gods Children
  • "Tennessee is just a hillbilly dumping ground,"
    John Wesley said, "and Georgia is a lousy state
  • "You said it," June Star said.
  • "In my time," said the grandmother, folding her
    thin veined fingers, "children were more
    respectful of their native states and their
    parents and everything else. People did right
    then. Oh look at the cute little pickaninny!" she
    said and pointed to a Negro child standing in the
    door of a shack. "Wouldn't that make a picture,
    now?" she asked and they all turned and looked at
    the little Negro out of the back window. He waved
  • "He didn't have any britches on," June Star said.
  • "He probably didn't have any," the grandmother
    explained. "Little riggers in the country don't
    have things like we do. If I could paint, I'd
    paint that picture," she said.
  • The children exchanged comic books.

E.A.T. -- How racism is passed on
  • This story tickled John Wesley's funny bone and
    he giggled and giggled but June Star didn't think
    it was any good. She said she wouldn't marry a
    man that just brought her a watermelon on
    Saturday. The grandmother said she would have
    done well to marry Mr. Teagarden because he was a
    gentleman and had bought Coca-Cola stock when it
    first came out and that he had died only a few
    years ago, a very wealthy man

institutional racism
  • The term "institutional racism" describes
    societal patterns that have the net effect of
    imposing oppressive or otherwise negative
    conditions against identifiable groups on the
    basis of race or ethnicity.
  •  generally long-term and grounded more in inertia
    than in intent.
  • United States, institutional racism results from
    the social caste system that sustained, and was
    sustained by, slavery and racial segregation.
    Although the laws that enforced this caste system
    are no longer in place, its basic structure still
    stands to this day.

Examples FROM http//
  • Opposing public school funding is not necessarily
    an act of individual racism one can certainly
    oppose public school funding for valid,
    non-racist reasons. But to the extent that
    opposing public school funding has a
    disproportionate and detrimental effect on
    minority youth, it furthers the agenda of
    institutional racism.
  • Most other positions contrary to the civil rights
    agenda--opposition to affirmative action, support
    for racial profiling, and so forth--also have the
    (often unintended) effect of sustaining
    institutional racism.

  • Black Americans were nearly four times as likely
    as whites to be arrested on charges of marijuana
    possession in 2010, even though the two groups
    used the drug at similar rates, according to new
    federal data.

The Tower A good man
  • "His wife brought the orders, carrying the five
    plates all at once without a tray, two in each
    hand and one balanced on her arm. "It isn't a
    soul in this green world of God's that you can
    trust," she said. "And I don't count nobody out
    of that, not nobody," she repeated, looking at
    Red Sammy.
  • "Did you read about that criminal, The Misfit,
    that's escaped?" asked the grandmother.
  • "I wouldn't be a bit surprised if he didn't
    attack this place right here," said the woman.
    "If he hears about it being here, I wouldn't be
    none surprised to see him. If he hears it's two
    cent in the cash register, I wouldn't be a tall
    surprised if he . . ."
  • "That'll do," Red Sam said. "Go bring these
    people their Co'-Colas," and the woman went off
    to get the rest of the order.
  • "A good man is hard to find," Red Sammy said.
    "Everything is getting terrible. I remember the
    day you could go off and leave your screen door
    unlatched. Not no more."

  • The Misfit sneered slightly. "Nobody had nothing
    I wanted," he said. "It was a head-doctor at the
    penitentiary said what I had done was kill my
    daddy but I known that for a lie. My daddy died
    in nineteen ought nineteen of the epidemic flu
    and I never had a thing to do with it. He was
    buried in the Mount Hopewell Baptist churchyard
    and you can go there and see for yourself."

  • "Jesus was the only One that ever raised the
    dead," The Misfit continued, "and He shouldn't
    have done it. He thrown everything off balance.
    If He did what He said, then it's nothing for you
    to do but thow away everything and follow Him,
    and if He didn't, then it's nothing for you to do
    but enjoy the few minutes you got left the best
    way you can by killing somebody or burning down
    his house or doing some other meanness to him. No
    pleasure but meanness," he said and his voice had
    become almost a snarl.

Issues with faith
  • "Maybe He didn't raise the dead," the old lady
    mumbled, not knowing what she was saying and
    feeling so dizzy that she sank down in the ditch
    with her legs twisted under her.
  • "I wasn't there so I can't say He didn't," The
    Misfit said. "I wisht I had of been there," he
    said, hitting the ground with his fist. "It ain't
    right I wasn't there because if I had of been
    there I would of known. Listen lady," he said in
    a high voice, "if I had of been there I would of
    known and I wouldn't be like I am now." His voice
    seemed about to crack and the grandmother's head
    cleared for an instant.

Justice and Religion
  • "Jesus thrown everything off balance. It was the
    same case with Him as with me except He hadn't
    committed any crime and they could prove I had
    committed one because they had the papers on me.
    Of course," he said, "they never shown me my
    papers. That's why I sign myself now. I said long
    ago, you get you a signature and sign everything
    you do and keep a copy of it. Then you'll know
    what you done and you can hold up the crime to
    the punishment and see do they match and in the
    end you'll have something to prove you ain't been
    treated right. I call myself The Misfit," he
    said, "because I can't make what all I done wrong
    fit what all I gone through in punishment."

Misfit Religion
  • If there is no justice in life (for the Misfit,
    his Dad, Jesus)
  • And there is no justice after life (no God or
    Heaven or hell)
  • What is the law of the world that is left?
  • Natural law which is
  • So why does he shoot Grandma?

Children/Epiphany/ Redemption
  • Grandmother makes no connection between her own
    and the African American boy in poverty
  • She finally makes a connection with the Misfit
  • She saw the man's face twisted close to her own
    as if he were going to cry and she murmured, "Why
    you're one of my babies.. Then he put his gun
    down on the ground and took off his glasses and
    began to clean them.You're one of my own
    children !" She reached out and touched him on
    the shoulder. The Misfit sprang back as if a
    snake had bitten him and shot her three times
    through the chest

  • Point of View
  • There was a secret-panel in this house," she
    said craftily, not telling the truth but wishing
    that she were, "and the story went that all the
    family silver was hidden in it when Sherman came
    through but it was never found . . ."
  • Bailey was looking straight ahead. His jaw was as
    rigid as a horseshoe. "No," he said.
  • The horrible thought she had had before the
    accident was that the house she had remembered so
    vividly was not in Georgia but in Tennessee.

  • The main idea or underlying meaning of a literary
    work. A theme may be stated or implied. Theme
    differs from the subject or topic of a literary
    work in that it involves a statement or opinion
    about the topic. Not every literary work has a
    theme. Themes may be major or minor. A major
    theme is an idea the author returns to time and
    again. It becomes one of the most important ideas
    in the story. Minor themes are ideas that may
    appear from time to time.

Theme vs. Subject
  • It is important to recognize the difference
    between the theme of a literary work and the
    subject of a literary work.
  • The subject is the topic on which an author has
    chosen to write.
  • The theme, however, makes some statement about or
    expresses some opinion on that topic.
  • For example, the subject of a story might be war
    while the theme might be the idea that war is

Four ways in which an author can express themes
are as follows
  • Themes are expressed and emphasized by the way
    the author makes us feel.. By sharing feelings of
    the main character you also share the ideas that
    go through his mind

Number TWO
  • Themes are presented in thoughts and
    conversations. Authors put words in their
    characters mouths only for good reasons. One of
    these is to develop a storys themes. The things
    a person says are much on their mind. Look for
    thoughts that are repeated throughout the story.

Number THREE
  • Themes are suggested through the characters. The
    main character usually illustrates the most
    important theme of the story. A good way to get
    at this theme is to ask yourself the question,
    what does the main character learn in the course
    of the story?

  • The actions or events in the story are used to
    suggest theme. People naturally express ideas and
    feelings through their actions. One thing authors
    think about is what an action will "say". In
    other words, how will the action express an idea
    or theme?

Fight Club
  • Chuck Palahniuk.

Fight Club -Style
  • Is this a reliable narrator/
  • What is his tone? How do you know?
  • What is his attitude toward you the reader?
    (Does he think you are smart the enemy the
    converted, etc.)

  • Freudian blaming parents
  • Self Destruction
  • Reality (What is it about? How can we
    experience it more intensely?)
  • Know thyself
  • Alienation from Culture, History

Violence (again)
  • How is violence used by the narrator (for what
  • How is it used by the author?
  • This story is NOT about fightingwhat is it
  • Violence as redemptive (see also)

Hegemonic masculinity
  • the normative ideal of masculinity to which men
    are supposed to aim. "Hegemonic Masculinity" is
    not necessarily the most prevalent masculinity,
    but rather the most socially endorsed.
  • Characteristics aggressiveness, strength, drive,
    ambition, lack of emotion, and self-reliance.

Modern Man
  • Emotional
  • Physically strong
  • Nurturing
  • Responsible for income
  • Restrained/makes sacrifices
  • Responsible for raising the children