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Chapter 12: Atoms

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Chapter 12: Atoms & the Periodic Table Atoms Elements Atomic Structure The Periodic Table Spectroscope Identification Quantum Hypothesis Electron Waves – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 12: Atoms


1
Chapter 12 Atoms the Periodic Table
  • Atoms
  • Elements
  • Atomic Structure
  • The Periodic Table
  • Spectroscope Identification
  • Quantum Hypothesis
  • Electron Waves
  • Shell Model

2
  • Matter

The stuff things are made of. Has Mass and
takes up space. (Air, water, rocks, metals
etc..)
The amount of stuff (in gs) (Bowling Ball gt
Balloon)
Weight on earth. Pull of Gravity on
matter.
3
Atoms Elements
  • Matter made up of only one type of atom.

4
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5
Atomic Symbols
Nitrogen
Hydrogen
Bromine
Aluminum
Nickel
Each element is assigned a unique symbol 1-2
letters 1st is capitalized
6
Atomic Symbols
  • Each element is assigned a unique symbol.
  • aluminum Al potassium K
  • barium Ba nickel Ni
  • carbon C nitrogen N
  • chlorine Cl oxygen O
  • hydrogen H radon Rn
  • helium He titanium Ti
  • gold Au uranium U
  • Each is 1-2 letters and the first is capitalized.
  • Symbol may not match the name - The original name
    is often of latin or greek origin.

7
Atomic Symbols
Sodium (Natrium)
Potassium (Kalium)
Silver (Argentum)
Lead (Plumbum)
Iron (Ferrum)
Gold (Aurum)
The original name is often of Latin or Greek
origin
8
Atomic Symbols
  • Some of the elements whose symbols are derived
    from other languages
  • Copper (Cuprum) Cu
  • Gold (Aurum) Au
  • Iron (Ferrum) Fe
  • Lead (Plumbum) Pb
  • Mercury (Hydrargyrum) Hg
  • Potassium (Kalium) K
  • Silver (Argentum) Ag
  • Sodium (Natrium) Na
  • Tin (Stannum) Sn
  • Tungsten (Wolfrum) W

9
Atomic Symbols
Carbon
Calcium
Cobalt
Copper (Cu)
Chlorine
Chromium
Elements with same starting letter, get second
letter added to the symbol
10
Atomic Symbols
  • For elements having the same starting letter, a
    second letter is added to the symbol. This letter
    is one of the following letters in the elements
    name and is always in lower case.
  • Carbon C Californium Cf
  • Calcium Ca Cadmium Cd
  • Cerium Ce Cesium Cs
  • Chlorine Cl Chromium Cr
  • Cobalt Co Curium Cm

11
A model of matter
  • Atom - The smallest unit of an element that is
    still that element.

ie. Aluminum (Al)
Molecule -The smallest unit of a pure substance
that is still that substance. May contain gt 1
atom or element.
ie. Water (H2O)
12
Structure of the atom
Nucleus Small, dense, charge in the
center of an atom.

contains protons





neutrons
13
Structure of the atom
  • Nucleus ()

Electrons - charged particles that surround
the nucleus.
Electrons moved around nucleus in orbitals.
14
Structure of the atom
  • The nucleus is a small part of an atom.

If the nucleus was the size of a marble, the atom
would fill a football stadium.
The nucleus would weigh over 10,000 tons.
15
Atomic Symbols
A Atomic mass (amu) protons neutrons
-
-
X
A
-
-
Z


Z Atomic number protons electrons

-



-
16
Atomic Symbols
A Atomic mass p n
C Charge or - values
X
A
C
Z

Z Atomic p e
Number of atoms in a formula.
17
Atomic Symbols
A Atomic mass protons neutrons
-
6
6
-
X
12
-
-
6


Z Atomic number protons electrons

-



-
18
Atomic Symbols
A Atomic mass protons neutrons
-
-
C
12
-
-
6


Z Atomic number protons electrons

-



-
19
Atomic Symbols
A Atomic mass p n 23
C Charge 1
11
12
23
1
Na
11
1 atom in formula.
Z Atomic p 11
Sodium
20
Why is the atomic weight on the tables not a
whole ?
47
Atomic number Name of the element Elemental
Symbol
Silver
Ag
107.87
Atomic mass (weight)
Atomic weight The average, relative mass of an
atom in an element.
21
Isotopes of Hydrogen
  • Isotopes Atoms of the same element but
    having different masses.

1 1
2 1
3 1
H
H
H
-
-
-



Protium 99.99
Tritium Trace
Deuterium 0.01
22
Isotopes of Hydrogen
Isotopes Atoms of the same element but
having different masses.
1 1
2 1
3 1
H
H
H
-
-
-



Average Atomic weight of Hydrogen 1.00794 amu
23
Isotopes of Carbon
12
13
14
C
C
C
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-



-









-
-






-
-
-
-
-
-
-
98.89
1.11
Trace
Average Atomic weight of C 12.011 amu
24
Radioactive Isotopes
H-3
C-14
Nucleus is unstable So falls apart
(decays) Giving radioactive particles
25
Average Atomic Mass
75.8
24.2
35 (75.8) 100
37 (24.2) 100
35.45 amu
26
The atomic symbol isotopes
Complete the table
Protons Neutrons Electrons



1
2
3
31 15
P
15
15
16
138 56
Ba
56
56
82
238 92
U
92
92
46
27
Atomic Structure
Complete the table
Symbol Atomic Mass Protons Neutrons Electrons



1
2
3
4
5
6
Be
4
4
9
4
5
17
20
17
17
37
Cl
14
14
28
14
Si
14
28
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29
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30
Modern periodic table
Mendeleev, 1871 Properties of the elements vary
in a periodic manner.
I A II A III A IV A V A
VI A VIIA VIIIA
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • The periodic table
  • helps us understand
  • behavior,
  • reactions
  • properties
  • of the elements.

III B IVB V B VIB VIIB VIII B
IB IIB
Gd
Tb
Sm
Eu
Nd
Pm
Ce
Pr
Yb
Lu
Er
Tm
Dy
Ho
Cm
Bk
Pu
Am
U
Np
Th
Pa
No
Lr
Fm
Md
Cf
Es
31
A row or period
Periods are assigned numbers
He
H
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Ne
F
O
N
C
Li
Be
B
Ar
Cl
S
P
Na
Mg
Al
Si
Kr
Br
Se
K
Ca
Zn
Cu
Ti
Sc
Ni
Co
Fe
Mn
Cr
V
Ga
Ge
As
Xe
I
Rb
Sr
Cd
Ag
Zr
Y
Pd
Rh
Ru
Tc
Mo
Nb
In
Sb
Sn
Te
Rn
Cs
Tl
Hg
Au
Hf
Ls
Ba
Pt
Ir
Os
Re
W
Ta
Po
Bi
Pb
At
Fr
Ac
Ra
Gd
Tb
Sm
Eu
Nd
Pm
Ce
Pr
Yb
Lu
Er
Tm
Dy
Ho
Cm
Bk
Pu
Am
U
Np
Th
Pa
No
Lr
Fm
Md
Cf
Es
32
Common group names
Noble gases
Alkali Metals
Halogens
Alkaline Earth Metals
VIIIA
I A
Chalcogens
H
He
II A
III A IV A V A VI A VIIA
Transition Metals
Li
Be
B
Ne
F
O
N
C
Na
Mg
Al
Ar
Cl
S
P
Si
III B IVB V B VIB VIIB VIII B
IB IIB
K
Ca
Zn
Cu
Ti
Sc
Ni
Co
Fe
Mn
Cr
V
Ga
Kr
Br
Se
As
Ge
Lanthanides
Rb
Sr
Cd
Ag
Zr
Y
Pd
Rh
Ru
Tc
Mo
Nb
In
Xe
I
Te
Sb
Sn
Cs
Tl
Hg
Au
Hf
La
Ba
Pt
Ir
Os
Re
W
Ta
Rn
At
Po
Bi
Pb
Fr
Ac
Ra
Actinides
33
Why do we have thoserows on the bottom?
This arrangement takes too much space and is hard
to read.
34
Names Symbols
Know the names symbols
He
H
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Ne
F
O
N
C
Li
Be
B
Ar
Cl
S
P
Na
Mg
Al
Si
Kr
Br
Se
K
Ca
Zn
Cu
Ti
Sc
Ni
Co
Fe
Mn
Cr
V
Ga
Ge
As
Xe
I
Rb
Sr
Cd
Ag
Zr
Y
Pd
Rh
Ru
Tc
Mo
Nb
In
Sb
Sn
Te
Rn
Cs
Tl
Hg
Au
Hf
Ls
Ba
Pt
Ir
Os
Re
W
Ta
Po
Bi
Pb
At
Fr
Ac
Ra
Gd
Tb
Sm
Eu
Nd
Pm
Ce
Pr
Yb
Lu
Er
Tm
Dy
Ho
Cm
Bk
Pu
Am
U
Np
Th
Pa
No
Lr
Fm
Md
Cf
Es
35
Metals
Lustrous, malleable and ductile. Conductors (heat
electricity) Solids at room temp (except
Hg) Lose electrons to non-metals.
He
H
B
Ne
F
O
N
C
Li
Be
Si
Ar
Cl
S
P
Na
Mg
Al
As
Kr
Br
Se
K
Ca
Zn
Cu
Ti
Sc
Ni
Co
Fe
Mn
Cr
V
Ga
Ge
Te
Xe
Rb
Sr
Cd
Ag
Zr
Y
Pd
Rh
Ru
Tc
Mo
Nb
In
Sb
Sn
I
At
Rn
Cs
Tl
Hg
Au
Hf
Ls
Ba
Pt
Ir
Os
Re
W
Ta
Po
Bi
Pb
Fr
Ac
Ra
Gd
Tb
Sm
Eu
Nd
Pm
Ce
Pr
Yb
Lu
Er
Tm
Dy
Ho
Cm
Bk
Pu
Am
U
Np
Th
Pa
No
Lr
Fm
Md
Cf
Es
36
Non-metals
He
H
Ne
F
O
N
C
Li
Be
Ar
Cl
S
P
Na
Mg
Al
Kr
Br
Se
K
Ca
Zn
Cu
Ti
Sc
Ni
Co
Fe
Mn
Cr
V
Ga
Ge
  • Gas, liquid, solid (dull, brittle)
  • Poor conductors Insulators
  • Many are diatomic molecules.
  • Gain es from metals
  • Share es with other non-metals

Xe
I
Rb
Sr
Cd
Ag
Zr
Y
Pd
Rh
Ru
Tc
Mo
Nb
In
Sb
Sn
Rn
Cs
Tl
Hg
Au
Hf
Ls
Ba
Pt
Ir
Os
Re
W
Ta
Po
Bi
Pb
Fr
Ac
Ra
Gd
Tb
Sm
Eu
Nd
Pm
Ce
Pr
Yb
Lu
Er
Tm
Dy
Ho
Cm
Bk
Pu
Am
U
Np
Th
Pa
No
Lr
Fm
Md
Cf
Es
37
Metaloids
He
H
Ne
F
O
N
C
Li
Be
B
Ar
Cl
S
P
Na
Mg
Al
Si
Kr
Br
Se
K
Ca
Zn
Cu
Ti
Sc
Ni
Co
Fe
Mn
Cr
V
Ga
Ge
As
Xe
Rb
Sr
Cd
Ag
Zr
Y
Pd
Rh
Ru
Tc
Mo
Nb
In
Sb
Sn
Te
I
  • Intermediate properties
  • Semi conductors

Rn
Cs
Tl
Hg
Au
Hf
Ls
Ba
Pt
Ir
Os
Re
W
Ta
Po
Bi
Pb
At
Fr
Ac
Ra
Gd
Tb
Sm
Eu
Nd
Pm
Ce
Pr
Yb
Lu
Er
Tm
Dy
Ho
Cm
Bk
Pu
Am
U
Np
Th
Pa
No
Lr
Fm
Md
Cf
Es
3 - 11
38
Metals
Non-metals
Metaloids
He
H
Ne
F
O
N
C
B
Li
Be
Ar
Cl
S
P
Na
Mg
Al
Si
Kr
Br
Se
K
Ca
Zn
Cu
Ti
Sc
Ni
Co
Fe
Mn
Cr
V
Ga
Ge
As
Xe
I
Rb
Sr
Cd
Ag
Zr
Y
Pd
Rh
Ru
Tc
Mo
Nb
In
Sn
Sb
Te
Rn
Cs
Tl
Hg
Au
Hf
Ls
Ba
Pt
Ir
Os
Re
W
Ta
Po
Bi
Pb
At
Fr
Ac
Ra
Gd
Tb
Sm
Eu
Nd
Pm
Ce
Pr
Yb
Lu
Er
Tm
Dy
Ho
Cm
Bk
Pu
Am
U
Np
Th
Pa
No
Lr
Fm
Md
Cf
Es
39
Elemental states atroom temperature
He
H
Ne
F
O
N
C
Li
Be
B
Ar
Cl
S
P
Na
Mg
Al
Si
Kr
Br
Se
K
Ca
Zn
Cu
Ti
Sc
Ni
Co
Fe
Mn
Cr
V
Ga
Ge
As
Xe
I
Rb
Sr
Cd
Ag
Zr
Y
Pd
Rh
Ru
Tc
Mo
Nb
In
Sb
Sn
Te
Rn
Cs
Tl
Hg
Au
Hf
Ls
Ba
Pt
Ir
Os
Re
W
Ta
Po
Bi
Pb
At
Fr
Ac
Ra
Gd
Tb
Sm
Eu
Nd
Pm
Ce
Pr
Yb
Lu
Er
Tm
Dy
Ho
Cm
Bk
Pu
Am
U
Np
Th
Pa
No
Lr
Fm
Md
Cf
Es
3 - 13
  • Chemeketa Community College Chemistry for Allied
    Health

40
(No Transcript)
41
Models of Matter
42
Models of Matter
43
Models of Matter
44
Rutherfords Gold-Foil Experiment
  • 99 of particles aimed at gold went straight
    through.
  • A few were deflected.
  • A few bounced back
  • Conclusion
  • Atoms are mostly empty space.
  • Atoms have a small, dense nucleus with charge.

45
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46
Models of Matter
47
Electronic arrangement
A new layer is added for each row or period in
the table.
48
Electron arrangement
Electrons fill layers around nucleus Low ? High
32
18
8
2
Shells Energy levels
49
IA
IIA
2, 1
2, 2
50
IA
IIA
IIIA
2, 1
2, 2
2, 3
51
IIIA
IVA
VA
2, 3
2, 4
2, 5
52
IA
IIA
VIIIA
2, 1
2, 2
2, 8
2, 8, 8
2, 8, 1
2, 8, 2
53
1
Valence electrons Where most chemical Reactions
occur.
2
3
2, 3
2, 1
2, 2
2, 8, 3
2, 8, 1
2, 8, 2
54
1
8
Octet Rule
2
2, 1
2, 2
2, 8
2, 8, 8
2, 8, 1
2, 8, 2
55
The octet rule
  • Atoms are most stable if they have a filled or
    empty outer layer of electrons.
  • Except for H and He, a filled layer contains 8
    electrons - an octet.
  • Atoms gain, lose or share electrons to make a
    filled or empty outer layer.
  • Atoms gain, lose or share electrons based on
    what is easiest.

56
Periodic trends
  • Certain properties of the elements exhibit a
    gradual change as we go either across a period or
    down a group.
  • Knowing these trends can help in our
    understanding of chemical properties -
  • Well look briefly at
  • these trends for the
  • representative
  • elements.

Valence Electrons Atomic size Electron
affinity Electronegativity
57
Group Numbers Valence Electrons
Periodic trends
1
8
Representative Elements
2
3
4
5
6
7
4 - 6
58
Periodic trends
1
8
Electron-Dot Symbols
2
3
4
5
6
7
59
Periodic trends
Electron-Dot Symbols
Show only Valence Electrons
60
Models of Matter
61
Orbitals


62
Orbitals
63
Orbitals
64
Orbitals
  • Each subshell contains orbitals which can hold a
    maximum of two electrons

p (3)
d (5)
s (1)
f (7)
65
Electron Configuration
1s22s1
66
Electron Configuration
1s22s22p4
67
Electron Configuration
1s22s22p63s23p64s23d10
Ar 4s23d10
Ar 3d104s2
68
Atomic Size
Periodic trends
  • Atoms get smaller as you go across a period.

Atoms get larger as you go down a group.
69
Periodic trends
Atomic Size
  • Atoms get larger as you go down a group.
  • A new shell is being added which is located
    further from the nucleus.
  • Atoms get smaller as you go across a period.
  • There are more protons being added to the
    nucleus as electrons are added to the outer
    shell.
  • This higher positive charge attracts the
    electrons more strongly, making the atom smaller.
    (Air traffic control analogy)

70
Lithium
71
Beryllium
72
Boron
73
Carbon
74
Nitrogen
75
Oxygen
76
Fluorine
77
Neon
78
Sodium
79
Atomic Size
Periodic trends
  • Atoms get smaller as you go across a period.

Atoms get larger as you go down a group.
80
Periodic trends
Electronegativity
Relative ability of atoms to attract electrons.
H
F
O
N
Li
Be
B
C
P
Cl
S
Si
Na
Mg
Al
Br
Se
As
Ge
K
Ca
Ga
I
Te
Sb
Sn
Rb
Sr
In
At
Po
Bi
Pb
Tl
Cs
Ba
4 - 50
  • Chemeketa Community College Chemistry for Allied
    Health

81
Periodic trends
Electronegativity
Relative ability of atoms to attract electrons.
82
Summary of trends.
Periodic trends
  • As atomic size decreases
  • Attraction of nucleus for electrons increases.
  • Electrons are harder to remove.
  • Adding more electrons is easier.
  • Summary
  • Metals are larger so tend to lose electrons.
  • Non-metals are smaller so tend to gain electrons.

83
Inner vs. valence electrons
Valence electrons Where most reactions occur.
Inner electrons Not much happens here under
normal conditions.
84
The Continuous Spectrum
  • When sunlight (white light) is passed thru a
    prism, a continuous rainbow of colors is
    observed.
  • There appears to be light of every color in
    sunlight.

85
Electromagetic Spectrum
The Continuous Spectrum
High Energy
Low Energy
Long Wavelength Low Frequency
Short Wavelength High Frequency
86
The Continuous Spectrum
  • Actually, most light waves cannot be seen by the
    human eye.
  • The visible spectrum (violet to red) is a very
    small percentage of the entire electro- magnetic
    spectrum.
  • Shorter wave length light is high energy.
  • (Gamma rays, X-rays, UV, etc..)
  • Larger wave length light is low energy.
  • (IR, Microwaves, Radio, etc..)

87
The Discrete Spectrum !
  • But when light from elements is passed thru a
    prism, a continuous spectrum is not observed.

From the red glow of hydrogen, 4 lines emerged.
88
The Discrete Spectrum !
H
Hg
Ne
89
Excitation of electrons
Add Energy to kick electrons to higher level
90
Excitation of electrons
Excited electrons fall back giving back the
energy it took to excite them
Some of these discrete Quantities (Quanta) of
Energy appear as colors
91
Excitation of electrons
92
Excitation of electrons

Energy
Principle quantum numbers designate shells
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