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Properties of Atoms and the Periodic Table

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Title: Properties of Atoms and the Periodic Table


1
Properties of Atoms and the Periodic Table
2
Atoms
  • Unit of all matter, building blocks of elements
  • Smallest piece of matter that has the properties
    of the element
  • Make up elements, which combine to make up
    compounds

3
Elements
  • Elements are abbreviated in scientific shorthand
    first letter or two of elements name

4
Latin Names
  • Element Symbol Latin name
  • Copper Cu cuprum
  • Gold Au aurum
  • Lead Pb plumbum
  • Mercury Hg hydrargyrum
  • Potassium K kalium
  • Silver Ag argentum
  • Sodium Na natrium
  • Tin Sn stannum

5
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6
Example
7
Compounds
  • Def two or more elements combined, pure
    substance.

8
Example
9
Example 2
10
Example 3
11
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12
Structure of the Atom
  • Nucleus
  • Protons
  • Neutrons
  • Electrons

13
Atomic Structure
14
Protons
  • Much larger and heavier than electrons
  • Protons have a positive charge ()
  • Located in the nucleus of the atom 

15
Neutrons
  • Large and heavy like protons
  • Neutrons have no electrical charge
  • Located in the nucleus of the atom 

16
Electrons
  • Tiny, very light particles
  • Have a negative electrical charge (-)
  • Move around the outside of the nucleus

17
Subatomic Particles
Particle Symbol Charge Relative Mass
Electron e- 1- 0 Proton p
1 Neutron n 0 1
18
Atomic Structure
19
Atom Models
  • Scientist use scaled-up models to represent
    atoms.
  • Early models of atoms used a solid sphere
  • Current electron cloud model shows electrons
    traveling in specific energy levels around a
    nucleus of protons and neutrons.

20
Early Model
21
Electron Cloud ModelExample 1
22
Electron Cloud Model Example 2
23
Masses of Atoms
  • (1) Atomic Mass
  • (2) Isotopes
  • (3) Ions

24
Atomic Mass
  • Definition Composed mostly of the protons and
    neutrons in the nucleus.
  • Unit of measurement for atomic particles is
    atomic mass unit (amu), which is 1/12 the mass of
    a carbon atom.
  • Atomic Number this is also the number of protons
    in an atom
  • Mass Number The sum of the number of protons and
    neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

25
Atomic Numberon the Periodic Table
11 Na
Atomic Number
Symbol
26
Proton Numberidentifies an Element
11 Na
11 protons
Sodium
27
Reading Elements onthe Periodic Table
Mass number number of protons number of
neutrons
28
Quick Check
  • A. Nitrogen
  • 1) 5 protons 2) 7 protons 3) 14
    protons
  • B. Sulfur
  • 1) 32 protons 2) 16 protons 3) 6
    protons
  • C. Barium
  • 1) 137 protons 2) 81 protons 3) 56
    protons

29
Calculating Subatomic Particles
  • 16 31 65
  • O P Zn
  • 8 15 30
  • 8 p 15 p 30 p
  • 8 n 16 n 35 n
  • 8 e- 15 e- 30 e-

30
Isotopes
  • Definition Atoms of the same element with
    different numbers of neutrons

31
Isotopes
32
Isotopes
  • Different isotopes have different properties
  • The number of protons for a given atom never
    changes.
  • The number of neutrons can change. 
  • Two atoms with different numbers of neutrons are
    called isotopes

33
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34
Isotopes of Chlorine
  • 35Cl 37Cl
  • 17 17
  • chlorine - 35 chlorine - 37

35
Quick Check
  • Naturally occurring carbon consists of three
    isotopes, 12C, 13C, and 14C. State the number of
    protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of these
    carbon atoms.
  • 12C 13C 14C
  • 6 6
    6
  • p _______ _______
    _______
  • n _______ _______
    _______
  • e _______ _______
    _______

36
Answer Key
  • 12C 13C 14C
  • 6 6
    6
  • p 6 6 6
  • n 6 7 8
  • e 6 6 6

37
Quick Check
  • An atom of zinc has a mass number of 65.
  • A. Number of protons in the zinc atom
  • 1) 30 2) 35 3) 65
  • B. Number of neutrons in the zinc atom
  • 1) 30 2) 35 3) 65
  • C. What is the mass number of a zinc isotope
  • with 37 neutrons?
  • 1) 37 2) 65 3) 67

38
Ions
  • An atom that carries an electrical charge is
    called an ion
  • If the atom loses electrons, the atom becomes
    positively charged (because the number of
    positively charged protons will be more the
    number of electrons). Also called Cation
  • If the atom gains electrons, the atom becomes
    negatively charged. Called Anion

39
Ions (continued)
  • The number of protons does not change in an ion
  • The number of neutrons does not change in an ions
  • So, both the atomic number and the atomic mass
    remain the same.

40
Ion Illustration
This atom has lost an electron. Now it has one
more proton than electron. One more proton means
one more positive charge. This makes the total
charge of the atom POSITIVE.
This atom has gained an electron. Now it has one
less proton than electron. One less proton means
one less positive charge. This makes the total
charge of the atom NEGATIVE.
41
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42
The Periodic Table
  • Elements are organized to their properties in a
    chart called the Periodic Table.
  • Elements are arranged in order of increasing
    atomic number.
  • Periods Horizontal Rows
  • Groups Vertical Columns

43
Groups
  • Groups share similar properties
  • Elements of the same group have the same number
    of electrons in their outermost shell (energy
    level).
  • Energy Shells has a maximum number of electrons.
    Level 1 2 e-. Level 2 8 e-.
  • Each row in the table ends when an outer energy
    level is filled.

44
Valence and Shells
45
Periods
  • Horizontal rows of elements that contain
    increasing number of protons and electrons.
  • Elements are classified as metals, non-metals, or
    metalloids.
  • Elements are synthesized in laboratories all over
    the world.
  • Notes H and He are the building blocks of other
    naturally occurring elements

46
Trends in the Periodic Table
  • Metals
  • Alkali Metals
  • Alkali Earth Metals
  • Transition Metals
  • Other (Rare) metals
  • Metalloids
  • Semi-conductors
  • Non-metals
  • Halogens
  • Other Non-metals
  • Noble Gas

47
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48
Properties of Metals
  • Conduct heat and electricity
  • Luster reflect light well
  • Malleable can be hammered or rolled into sheets
  • Ductile can be drawn into wire
  • Ionic Bonding when combined with non-metals
  • Metallic Bonding ions are sliding layers and
    electrons are weakly held

49
Alkali Metals
  • Group 1 Soft, white, low-density, low-melting,
    highly reactive metallic elements
  • Highly reactive with oxygen and water
  • Uses
  • Human Health sodium, potassium
  • Photocells
  • Francium a radioactive element which breaks
    down giving off particles and energy

50
Alkali Earth Metals
  • Group 2 Not found naturally in elemental form
    two electrons in outer energy level. Much less
    reactive than Alkali Metals
  • Uses
  • Strontium and magnesium found in fireworks
  • Magnesium in vehicles, ladders and bats
  • Calcium in statues and countertops
  • Barium in disease diagnoses
  • Radium formerly used in cancer treatment

51
Transition Metals
  • Group 3-12 They are characterized by multiple
    valences, colored compounds, and the ability to
    form stable complex ions.
  • Often occur in nature as uncombined elements
  • Uses
  • Chromium colored compounds, found in rubies and
    emeralds
  • Iron widely used, main ingredient in steel

52
Transition Metals (Continued)
  • Uses
  • Cobalt and nickel used in some steels
  • Nickel used to coat other metals
  • Copper used in electric wiring
  • Silver used in photographic film, jewelry
  • Gold used in jewelry
  • Zinc and cadmium used to coat and plate other
    metals
  • Mercury only room temperature liquid metal

53
Other / Rare Metals
  • Any metal that is difficult to extract from ore
    and is rare and expensive commercially

54
Properties of Metalloid
  • Between Metal and Non-metal
  • Greek metallon "metal and eidos "sort".
  • Form ionic and covalent bonds
  • Have some metallic and some non-metallic
    properties
  • Partial conduction give them semiconductor
    characteristics.

55
Semi-conductor
  • Silicon in particular, which conducts electricity
    under certain conditions
  • Computer chips and other electronic devices.

56
Properties of Non-Metals
  • Usually gases or brittle solids at room
    temperature
  • Not malleable or ductile
  • Poor conductors of heat and electricity
  • Usually not lustrous (shiny)
  • Form ionic bond when combined with metals
  • Form covalent bond with another non-metal

57
Hydrogen
  • Most common element in the universe
  • Diatomic molecule - H2
  • Highly reactive element found mostly on Earth as
    part of water compound

58
Halogen
  • Group 17 Pure halogens exist as diatomic
    molecules, and they are highly reactive with
    Alkali Metal to form salt.
  • Examples bromine, iodine, fluorine, chlorine.
  • Uses
  • Chlorine disinfectant and bleach
  • Bromine dyes in cosmetics
  • Iodine hormone regulation, disinfectant

59
Noble Gas
  • Group 18 They are monatomic (isolated) and
    chemically stable (inert). Also called inert gas.
  • Uses
  • Helium used in blimps and balloons
  • Neon, argon, and krypton used in lights

60
Atomic Radii
61
Atomic Radii
  • Atomic Radii increase as you go down the group
    with increasing atomic number.
  • Atomic Radii decrease as you go across the period
    with increasing atomic number. As proton number
    increases from left to right, the attraction to
    the nucleus becomes greater.
  • Francium (Fr) is therefore the element with the
    largest atomic radius.
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