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Effective Training: Systems, Strategies, and Practices, 4th Edition

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Effective Training: Systems, Strategies, and Practices, 4th Edition Chapter Six P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker 6-* WE LOVE MGMT 453! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Effective Training: Systems, Strategies, and Practices, 4th Edition


1
Effective Training Systems, Strategies, and
Practices, 4th Edition
  • Chapter Six
  • P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker

2
Typical Lecture Presentation Errors and Ways to
Avoid Them
Errors Ways to Avoid
Talking with back to Dont talk and write at
the same time.   Have trainees while writing
visual aids prepared ahead of time.    
Using highly technical If technical words or
jargon must be used, provide words, unfamiliar
definitions. Simplify the language
and sentences so jargon, or complex meaning is
clear. Pilot test at least part of the sentences.
lecture with an audience similar to the
trainees.
Providing examples The lecturer need not provide
all the examples. or asides without
Ask trainees to provide some of the
examples much relevance to or illustrations. In
preparing the lecture, go to the
trainees. the trainees supervisors to get
relevant examples.
3
Typical Lecture Presentation Errors and Ways to
Avoid Them
Errors Ways to Avoid
Reading rather than Prepare an outline of points
to be covered rather lecturing. than a word-
for-word script. Be familiar with each point
on the outline so that you are able to talk
about it without reference to notes.
Speaking in Listen to TV and radio
commentators, paying close Monotone attention
to when and how they change their tone and
the pitch of their voice. Practice
fluctuating the tone and
pitch of your
voice on tape and in everyday
conversation. Use pauses in your
lecture so you can think about how you want to
say something.
4
Typical Lecture Presentation Errors and Ways to
Avoid Them Part 3 of 4
Errors Ways to Avoid
Making distracting gestures Videotape a lecture you are giving and observe your gestures. If they are distracting or irritating to you, the trainees probably feel the same way. Some gestures are useful and keep trainee attention. Dont stand stiff as a board either. The gestures you use are habits and can be practiced out or in.
Leaving projector on with no image or an irrelevant image Get in the habit of glancing at the projection as you are talking about the material it displays.   When you are at the end of the material, you will see that it is time to turn the projector off or change the image.

5
Typical Lecture Presentation Errors and Ways to
Avoid Them Part 4 of 4
Errors Ways to Avoid
  • Losing your place in Not being able to find your
    place happens most
  • the lecture frequently because your notes are
    too detailed. To deal with this see ways to
    avoid reading above. Another technique is
    to check off topics you have completed.

6
Basic Lecture/Discussion Components and Effects
on Learning-Part 1 of 4
Learning Process
Lecture/Discussion Components Affected
1. Orientation Presenting information so that trainees understand the direction in which the lecture is headed and how it is organized.
Attention
2. Enthusiasm Presenting information in a manner that conveys the topics importance and inherent value.
Attention
3. Variety Use of voice, gestures, various components listed in this table and audiovisual aids. For printed lectures this is minimized.
Attention Retention Symbolic coding
7
Basic Lecture/Discussion Components and Effects
on Learning Part 2 of 4
Learning Process
Lecture/Discussion Components Affected
4. Logical organization Presenting information in a logical order and providing logical transitions between topic areas.

Retention Cognitive organization
5. Explanations Describing facts, concepts and principles in a clear and easily understood manner.
Retention Symbolic coding Cognitive organization
6. Directions Providing instructions in a manner that allows trainees to understand what they are to do and how to do it.
Retention Cognitive organization Symbolic rehearsal
8
Basic Lecture/Discussion Components and Effects
on Learning Part 3 of 4
Learning Process
Lecture/Discussion Components Affected
7. Illustrations Providing clear, interesting and relevant examples of how information can or has been applied (both correctly and incorrectly).
Attention Retention All areas
8. Compare and contrast Articulating the similarities and differences, advantages and disadvantages, etc. of relevant topic areas.
Attention Retention Cognitive organization
9
Basic Lecture/Discussion Components and Effects
on Learning Part 4 of 4
Learning Process
Lecture/Discussion Components Affected
9. Questions and discussion Seeking information from the trainees regarding their comprehension, their content related ideas and stimulating the trainees thought processes (e.g., Socratic questioning). This is not possible in printed lectures.
Attention Retention All areas
10. Summarize Highlighting important concepts covered in a manner that links the topics/ideas together.
Retention Cognitive organization
10
Basic Demonstration Components and Their Effects
on Learning
DEMONSTRATION COMPONENTS AREAS OF LEANING AFFECTED
PRESENT Tell Demonstrate Explain
Attention Retention Symbolic coding Cognitive organization
 TRY OUT Trainees talk through the task Trainees do task and describes what they are doing and why Trainer provides positive/negative feedback Trainees practice
Retention Symbolic rehearsal Behavioral Reproduction
11
Tips for Developing and Presenting Role Plays1
of 3
Developing Create your characters carefully to
prove your point. Provide two characters who are
going to clash in exactly the way you want. For
example, use one player to force another either
to use the skills taught or to illustrate what
happens when those skills are not used. Do not
write a script (unless you are teaching rote
responses), but provide detailed background on
characters habits, attitudes, goals,
personalities, and mood, and on the business
restrictions that motivate or restrain them.
Use role playing to illustrate one key
problem. Do not try for more than one topic or
you will diffuse the effect and distract the
learners with too much information.
Presenting Take the time to introduce the
situation. Give trainees enough background to
understand whats at stake then assign the
roles.
12
Tips for Developing and Presenting Role Plays2of
3
  • Both the role-play and the discussions can get
    off topic. To prevent digression, make sure
    participants understand your instructions. For
    example, tell them, The customer service
    representative must (1) use the customers name
    three times (2) organize, clarify, and confirm
    the nature of the customers problem (3)
    empathize with the customer and (4) offer to do
    something for the customer. if you plan to use
    observers to provide feedback, have each of them
    use an observation sheet to look for key
    behaviors and to respond to key aspects of the
    performance.
  • If the role-play gets off topic, stop the
    performance and ask, What are the problems here?
    Why isnt the conversation moving in the right
    direction? Be assertive to ensure that the
    participants stay in character and on topic.

13
Tips for Developing and Presenting Role Plays3
of 3
  • After the performance, always discuss what
    happened. This is how learning takes place. Ask
    questions of each player, and have the group
    advise the players.
  • Encourage discussion. Challenge them with
    alternatives What would have happened if?

14
Things to Consider for Implementing Behavior
Modeling Part 1 of 4
  •   Use care in selecting the trainer/program
    administrator who will set up and conduct the
    sessions. He or she must be skilled and
    experienced with this technique.
  • Consider carefully whether this technique will
    meet your needs within constraints of time and
    money. Unless you can accomplish the following,
    you probably should not use this technique.
  • Identify specific skill deficiencies,
  • present a positive model of the appropriate
    behavior,
  • provide time for each trainee to practice
    the behavior under the watchful eye of the
  • the trainer, and
  • arrange for reinforcement form the manager
    of each trainee back on the job
  •   Identify real skill deficiencies in advance of
    training and involve the potential trainees and
    their bosses in this process. This activity will
    gain the key peoples attention and their
    ownership of the objectives of the training
    sessions .

15
Things to Consider for Implementing Behavior
Modeling Part 2 of 4
  •   Break the skills into small behaviors. Build a
    module around each small behavior and progress
    one step at a time, starting with a simple
    behavioral element, to gain confidence.
  • Do not emphasize more than seven learning
    points during any one training module.
  • Ensure that the trainees can easily identify
    with the models used to demonstrate the correct
    way of handling a certain situation. And that the
    model has sufficient status to be credible.
  • Use a video model performing the correct
    behavior ensures that all groups of trainees will
    see a positive example. A video might reduce
    costs because it is reusable. However, this
    advantage may be negated because it is difficult
    to find a model and a situation that is highly
    relevant and identifiable across diverse groups
    of trainees.

16
Things to Consider for Implementing Behavior
Modeling Part 3 of 4
Ask trainees to verbalize the behavioral cues
demonstrated by the model and then to visualize
their pending performance before they actually
practice the desired behavior. Verbalization my
help improve generalization and use of the
behaviors in new situations.   Establish a
supportive climate that encourages
experimentation must be established for the
practice sessions. Emphasis on positive
reinforcement rather than criticism increases
self-confidence and learning.   Provide a
wallet-sized card that outlines the key learning
points and critical steps, after each session, as
some experts suggest. Reminder acts as a security
blanket from the trainees to reassure them that
they will know the crucial features as they
attempt to apply the training back to their
jobs.   Conduct a review session after several
modules to reinforce the learning points and to
demonstrate the progress attained by the
trainees
17
Things to Consider for Implementing Behavior
Modeling Part 4 of 4
  Manage the consequences of attempting the
newly trained behaviors in the actual job
situation. Work with the trainees manager to
ensure that attainable goals for are set for
their subordinates, obstacles that may prevent
trainees form attempting the new behaviors are
removed, and incentives for attempting the new
behaviors are provided.
18
JIT Instruction/Learning Sequence Part 1 of 3
BASICS OF INSTRUCTION AREAS OF LEARNING AFFECTED 1
PREPARE Break down the job. Prepare an instruction plan. Put the learner at ease.
Attention and motivation
 PRESENT Tell. Show. Demonstrate. Explain.
 Retention Symbolic Coding   Cognitive Organization
19
JIT Instruction/Learning Sequence Part 2 of 3
BASICS OF INSTRUCTION AREAS OF LEARNING AFFECTED 1
 TRY OUT Have the learner talk through the job. Have the learner instruct the supervisor on how the job is done. Let the learner do the job. Provide feedback, both positive and negative. Let the learner practice
Retention Symbolic Rehearsal Behavioral Reproduction
20
JIT Instruction/Learning Sequence Part 3 of 3
BASICS OF INSTRUCTION AREAS OF LEARNING AFFECTED1
FOLLOW UP Check progress frequently at first. Tell the learner whom to go to for help. Gradually taper off progress checks.
Behavioral Reproduction
21
Job Breakdown Sheet for OJT Part 1 of 4
Dept Metal Decorating Prepared by J. Smith
Job Feeder Pressman Date June 8
Tools/Equipment Main Steps Key
Points Material Safety Factors Part I (Start
of shift) 1. Check level of Ask pressman
which All solutions kept in Do not spill on  
fountain solution      solution to
use.     metal containers     walkway   and
refill if     Scratch mark     in storeroom  
necessary     shows minimum      and
maximum      capacities
22
Job Breakdown Sheet for OJT Part 2 of 4
Tools/Equipment Main Steps Key
Points Material Safety Factors Part I (Start
of shift) 2. Check level of Check card for type
of Same as 1 Very volatile and    varnish in
wet     material being     flammable   varnish
machine     used and deter-   and refill if
    mine amount of   necessary     thinner
necessary      to obtain proper     
viscosity 3. Wash sponges, Use same thinner
as Same as 1 Do not wash in   bucket, and gum
    in 2      enclosed area  
containers      because of fumes
23
Job Breakdown Sheet for OJT Part 3 of 4
Tools/Equipment Main Steps Key
Points Material Safety Factors Part II (Start
a new bundle in press) 1. Request lift driver
Do not wait until   to bring over new
    bundle on press is   bundle      almost
finished 2. Check new bundle Pull the job
ticket Leather-palmed gloves Always wear
gloves   to be sure it is the     and check
order when
handling   correct one and is     number
examine
sheets to prevent   in good condition      top
sheets and
cuts      sides and      corners
of bundle
24
Job Breakdown Sheet for OJT Part 4 of 4
Tools/Equipment Main Steps Key
Points Material Safety Factors Part
III (Whenever press is stopped) 1. Lower
elevator Lower only until top Leather-palmed
Wear gloves   with bundle on it     of bundle
is at a gloves    and cover with
    convenient height   master sheet
2. Unless otherwise Be sure entire plate
Use sponges and Be sure press is clear  
instructed by     is wet dry spots      clear
water   before wetting plate pressman, wet
can oxidize and    plate on front unit
  damage plate            
25
Steps to Follow for Better OJT Part 1 of 4
1. Establish policy. Prepare a written
description that puts the organization on the
record as committed to supporting a structured
OJT approach. Make sure that the purpose of
structured OJT is spelled out and is related to
the companys other HRD efforts.
2. Establish accountability. Make clear who
is primarily responsible for OJT. Write it into
their job descriptions then ensure that part
of their performance evaluation is based on how
well they carry out this responsibility.
3. Review precedents. Make a few calls to
find out what other organizations in your
industry are doing about structured OJT. Do they
provide training on the subject? If so, to
whom? For how long? What is the course content?
What cost savings can be traced to it? Use this
information in efforts to design your program.

26
Steps to Follow for Better OJT Part 2 of 4
  • 3. Review precedents continued.
  • It will also be useful in case your attempts
    to improve structured OJT in your organization
    come under attack. Nothing quiets critics faster
    than pointing out our competitors-or excellent
    firms in the industry-are doing it!
  • 4. Design routinely give training on the
    principles of structured OJT.
  • Supervisors and experienced workers are the
    most likely ones to conduct structured OJT in the
    workplace. In most organizations, they do not
    know how to do it. Teach them how and then sit
    back and take credit for the fantastic results!

27
Steps to Follow for Better OJT Part 3 of 4
5. Provide specialized support for line managers
who use structured OJT. In most organizations,
certain jobs are common entry points for
employees. Design off-the-shelf lesson
plans, job aids,( checklists, procedures manuals,
and training manuals), individualized
learning contracts, and individualized
training progress report forms for those jobs.
They will save time and effort while
improving the quality of structured OJT. Making
that kind of support available enhances
OJT by providing users with the tools to do
it-and makes the HRD department a real
partner with line management in improving
structured OJT.


6. Avoid turf battles. Begin efforts to
improve OJT on a small scale, in work units
where supervisors or managers are
supportive. Use your successes there as a
springboard to other units and to additional
resources.
28
Steps to Follow for Better OJT Part 4 of 4
  • 7. Consider literacy skills.
  • Do not assume that employeesor, for that
    matter, supervisorsare highly literate. Indeed,
    take advantage of efforts to improve OJT to
    assess performance problems that can be traced to
    literacy issues.

29
Assessment of Need for Coaching
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