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Human Resource Development

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Title: Human Resource Development


1
Human Resource Development Needs Assessment
2
3 Levels of HRD
  • Training
  • KSAOs for current job
  • Education
  • Preparation for next job
  • months -gt year
  • Development
  • Prepare for wide variety of jobs
  • very long term

3
Type of HRD
Differences in Needs Assessment
Differences in Instructional Design
Different Metrics forEvaluation
4
Training
  • What does it produce?

Performance Indicators
Training
  • What are specific performance indicators you can
    look for in your learner population to measure
    their improved task performance after their
    learning?

5
Required Performance
Actual Performance
Performance Gap
-
  • Job study
  • Task analysis
  • Talk to manager
  • Outputs
  • Job description
  • Time studies
  • Performance records
  • Sales
  • Errors
  • Accidents
  • Survey
  • Interview
  • Observation

6
Recommended Data SourcesGaps in performance
  • Organizational goals, objectives, budget
  • Labor inventory
  • Organizational climate indicators
  • Labor-management
  • Grievances
  • Turnover
  • Absenteeism
  • Suggestions
  • Productivity
  • Accidents
  • Sick days
  • Attitude surveys
  • Analysis of efficiency indexes
  • Costs of labor
  • Quality of product
  • Waste
  • Changes in system or subsystem
  • Management requests of interrogation
  • MBO or work planning/review systems

7
Causes of Performance Problems
  • Knowledge skill
  • Capacity
  • Standards
  • Measurement
  • Feedback
  • Conditions
  • Incentives motivation

8
Correcting a Performance Gap (1 of 2)
Performance Gap Identified
Cost/Benefit of fixing is positive
Are performance consequences incongruent with
desired performance?
Is feedback a problem?
Are there barriers to performance?
NO
NO
NO
YES
YES
YES
These need to be addressed before training will
result in improved performance
See next Slide
9
Is training the best solution?
  • If employees lack the knowledge and skill to
    perform and the other factors are satisfactory,
    training is needed.
  • If employees have the knowledge and skill to
    perform but input, output, consequences, or
    feedback are inadequate, training may not be the
    best solution.

10
Solutions for Performance Problems
  • Knowledge skill
  • provide classroom, self-paced instruction
  • provide practice, job aids, coaching
  • Capacity
  • change personnel
  • Standards
  • develop/publicize
  • Measurement
  • develop/revise
  • Feedback
  • provide, improve use
  • Conditions
  • reorganize, upgrade, redesign, reduce
    interference
  • Incentives
  • provide/strengthen positive consequences
  • remove/weaken
  • negative consequences for good performance
  • positive consequences for poor performance

11
When is Training the Solution?
  • Knowledge skill
  • provide classroom, self-paced instruction
  • provide practice, job aids, coaching
  • Capacity
  • change personnel
  • Standards
  • develop/publicize
  • Measurement
  • develop/revise
  • Feedback
  • provide, improve use
  • Conditions
  • reorganize, upgrade, redesign, reduce
    interference
  • Incentives
  • provide/strengthen positive consequences
  • remove/weaken
  • negative consequences for good performance
  • positive consequences for poor performance

12
The Biggest Mistake Related to Training ...
  • Expecting Training to Solve
  • All Kinds of Problems

13
An IllustrationPerformance Problem
Lack of Motivation Poor Attitude
Lack ofKnowledge Skill
Cause?
Training
Rewards Discipline
Solution?
14
An IllustrationPerformance Problem
Lack of Motivation Poor Attitude
Lack ofKnowledge Skill
Cause?
NO!
Training
Rewards Discipline
Solution?
15
Correcting a Performance Gap (2 of 2)
If PG is not caused by motivation or
environmental factors Look at KSAs
If employees have gaps in needed KSAs, Possible
solutions are
Job aids Practice opportunities with
coaching Redesign the job Training Transfer Termin
ation
16
When should we provide training?
  • New equipment, software
  • New tasks (job changed)
  • New regulations
  • Performance deficiency (gap)

When should we conduct a needs assessment?
  • Performance deficiency (gap)

17
The Needs Assessment Process
Outcomes
Reasons or Pressure Points
  • What Trainees Need to Learn
  • Who Receives Training
  • Type of Training
  • Frequency of Training
  • Buy Versus Build Training Decision
  • Training Versus Other HR Options Such as
    Selection or Job Redesign

What is the Context?
  • Legislation
  • Lack of Basic Skills
  • Poor Performance
  • New Technology
  • Customer Requests
  • New Products
  • Higher Performance Standards
  • New Jobs

Organization Analysis
In What Do They Need Training?
Task Analysis
Person Analysis
Who Needs the Training?
18
Needs Assessment
Organization
Task
Person
19
The Needs Analysis Process
Person Analysis
  • Person Characteristics
  • Input
  • Output
  • Consequences
  • Feedback
  • Organizational Analysis
  • Strategic Direction
  • Support of Managers Peers for Training
  • Training Resources

Do We Want To Devote Time and Money For Training?
  • Task Analysis or Develop a Competency Model
  • Work Activity (Task)
  • KSAs
  • Working Conditions

20
Needs Assessment
Organization
Task
Person
21
Organizational Needs Assessment
  • Companys Strategic Direction
  • Support of Managers Peers
  • Resources
  • budget
  • time
  • training

Organization
22
Questions to Ask in an Organizational Analysis
  • Customer relationships
  • Suppliers, customers, partners
  • Strategic needs
  • Organizational resources
  • Managers peers
  • Work environment
  • Experts
  • Perceptions

23
Questions to Ask in an Organizational Analysis
  • How might the training content affect our
    employees relationship with our customers?
  • What might suppliers, customers, or partners need
    to know about the training program?
  • How does this program align with the strategic
    needs of the business?
  • Should organizational resources be devoted to
    this program?
  • What do we need from managers and peers for this
    training to succeed?
  • What features of the work environment might
    interfere with training?
  • Do we have experts who can help us develop the
    program content and ensure that we understand the
    needs of the business as we develop the program?
  • Will employees perceive the training program as
    an opportunity? reward? punishment? waste of time?

24
  • What to ask about
  • Who to ask
  • Mission goals objectives
  • Social influences
  • Reward systems
  • Job design
  • Job performance
  • Methods practice
  • Top management
  • Department managers
  • Supervisors
  • Job incumbents

25
Needs Assessment
Organization
Task
Person
26
Task Needs Assessment
  • Job Analysis
  • Job Description
  • TDRs
  • Job Specifications
  • KSAOs

Task
27
Steps in a Task Analysis
  • Select the job(s) to be analyzed.
  • Develop a preliminary list of tasks performed by
    the job.
  • Validate or confirm the preliminary list of
    tasks.
  • Identify the knowledge, skills, or abilities
    necessary to successfully perform each task.

28
Key Points to Remember When Conducing a Task
Analysis
  • Actual and should
  • Job -gt Duties tasks
  • Multiple methods
  • Subject matter experts
  • Company goals and objectives

29
Key Points to Remember When Conducing a Task
Analysis
  • Task analysis should identify both what employees
    are actually doing and what they should be doing
    on the job
  • Task analysis begins by breaking the job into
    duties and tasks
  • Use more than two methods for collecting task
    information to increase the validity of the
    analysis
  • For task analysis to be useful, information needs
    to be collected from subject matter experts
    (SMEs) job incumbents, managers, employees
    familiar with the job
  • In deciding how to evaluate tasks, the focus
    should be on tasks necessary to accomplish the
    companys goals and objectives
  • These may not be the tasks that are the most
    difficult or take the most time

30
Needs Assessment
Organization
Task
Person
31
Person Needs Assessment
  • Determine source of performance deficiency
  • Identify who needs training
  • Determine readiness

Person
32
When is Training the Best Solution?
  • Cost of Deficiency
  • Performance
  • Knowledge/Behavior
  • Expectations, Obstacles
  • Rewards
  • Feedback
  • Alternatives
  • Strategy

33
Readiness for Training
  • Personal Characteristics the Work Environment

34
  • When we are concerned with employee readiness for
    training, what key ingredient to successful
    training are we ultimately working to create?

Motivation
35
Readiness for training refers to whether
  • Employees have the personal characteristics
    necessary to learn program content and apply it
    on the job.
  • The work environment will facilitate learning and
    not interfere with performance.

36
  • Person Characteristics
  • Basic Skills
  • Self-Efficiency
  • Awareness of Timing Needs, Career Interests,
    Goals

Process for analyzing the factors that influence
employee performance and learning
  • Input
  • Understand What, How, When to Perform
  • Situational Constraints
  • Social Support
  • Opportunity to Perform

  • Output
  • Expectations for Learning and Performance

  • Consequences
  • Norms
  • Benefits
  • Rewards


Motivation to Learn
  • Feedback
  • Frequency
  • Specificity
  • Detail

Learning Performance
37
Factors that Influence Performance
Learning--Personal Characteristics
  • Maturity
  • Experience
  • Prerequisite abilities skills
  • Cognitive ability
  • verbal comprehension
  • quantitative ability
  • reasoning ability
  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Computer

38
Factors that Influence Performance
Learning--Personal Characteristics-2
  • Prerequisite abilities skills
  • E.g., psychomotor skills, knowledge
  • Need for remedial work?
  • Attitudes motivation
  • Acceptance of assessment
  • Locus of control
  • Self-efficacy

39
Self-Efficacy
  • Self-efficacy is the employees belief that she
    can successfully perform her job or learn the
    content of the training program.
  • The job environment can be threatening to many
    employees who may not have been successful in the
    past.
  • The training environment can also be threatening
    to people.

40
Employees self-efficacy level can be increased
by
  • Letting employees know that the purpose of the
    training is to try to improve performance rather
    than to identify areas in which employees are
    incompetent.
  • Providing as much information as possible about
    the training program and purpose of training
    prior to the actual training.

41
Employees self-efficacy level can be increased
by (continued)
  • Showing employees the training success of their
    peers who are now in similar jobs.
  • Providing employees with feedback that learning
    is under their control and they have the ability
    and the responsibility to overcome any learning
    difficulties they experience in the program.

42
Factors that Influence Performance
Learning--Inputs
  • Understand need to perform
  • Necessary resources
  • equipment
  • time
  • budget
  • Interference from other job demands
  • Opportunity to perform
  • Efforts influence training achievement

43
Factors that Influence Performance
Learning--Outputs
  • Expectations
  • Performance standards
  • Understand need to perform
  • Job performance valued

44
Factors that Influence Performance
Learning--Consequences
  • Outcomes related to job performance
  • Adequate rewards incentives
  • Group norms
  • Minimal negative consequences to performance
  • Job-related, personal career benefits
  • Related to needs goals

45
Factors that Influence Performance
Learning--Feedback
  • Frequent, specific feedback about how the job is
    performed

46
Needs Assessment
  • For your training module

47
What Support will you need from the organization?
  • Top Management Support
  • Training Climate
  • Constraints
  • Resource Analysis
  • Layout
  • Equipment
  • Finances

48
Which needs assessment technique are you going to
use for your project why?
  • Observation
  • Questionnaires
  • Key Consultation
  • Print Media
  • Interviews
  • Group Discussion
  • Tests
  • Records, Reports
  • Work Samples

49
What do you need to learn about your target
audience?
  • Characteristics of the group
  • Present level of performance
  • Basic skill levels
  • Cognitive ability
  • Reading ability
  • Self-efficacy
  • Computer competency
  • Physical capacity

50
What KSAOs are relevant to your topic?
  • Knowledge
  • Skills
  • Abilities
  • Other Characteristics
  • How important to job performance?
  • Criticality
  • Frequency of occurrence
  • How difficult to learn?
  • Where acquired?

51
Writing Good Questions
52
Writing good K A questions(Skills can not
usually be measured with questions)
  • Ask one thing, not multiple things
  • Give clear alternatives for M.C. questions
  • Clarify how to respond for Open ended
  • Make sure question provides value
  • Make sure you know what the right answer is

53
Good/Bad question?
  • Who do you go to when you have a conflict at
    work?
  • Superior/Supervisor
  • Subordinate
  • Colleague or friend
  • Customers/Stakeholders
  • Other
  • Doesnt measure KSAs.
  • a, b, c, d e have multiple answers

54
Good/Bad question?
  • How good are you at resolving conflict?
  • Very Good
  • OK
  • Not Good at all
  • Doesnt measure ability, only self perception of
    ability (almost always higher than reality)
  • Response alternatives are not anchored what does
    good mean? What is the difference between good
    and OK?
  • Not enough gradations in ability

55
Good/Bad Question?
3. Which of the following acts, makes it illegal
to treat employees and job applicants differently
based on (Please check all that apply)
Law/Act Group/Class Title VII ADEA ADA Equal Pay Act
Age
Appearance
Color
Gender
Marital Status
Mental Disability
National Origin
Physical Disability
Race
Religion
56
  • A good question, but scoring can be a problem.
  • Each law/act has 10 correct answers. Thus, a
    persons score for each law/act will be the
    number correct out of 10.

Law/Act Group/Class Title VII ADEA ADA Equal Pay Act
Age
Appearance
Color
Gender
Marital Status
Mental Disability
National Origin
Physical Disability
Race
Religion
57
Good/Bad Open Ended question?
  • List the specific KSAs you have developed for
    recruitment and selection. (For example
    interviewing, reading completed applications,
    etc.)
  • Many problems with this type of question
  • People may (and usually do) think they know more
    than they do.
  • People may not remember all that they know
  • People may use terms for what they know that the
    test scorer doesnt understand

58
Good/Bad Instructions?
Please choose only one answer, based on past
experience.
These instructions say that you should answer the
question based on experience rather than what the
correct answer is. Thus, you are measuring what
they say they have done, rather than what they
know to be correct.
59
Good Rules to Follow in Writing Questions to
Assess KSAs
  • Make sure you measure knowledge, skill or
    attitude, not what people think they know or can
    do.
  • Few skills can be measured with written
    questions.
  • Make sure you have the correct answer for your
    questions.
  • Make sure you know how to score the answers you
    will get.
  • Make sure your instructions are appropriate.
  • Proof your questions and answer alternatives
    carefully!!!
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