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Foundations of civilization

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Title: Foundations of civilization


1
Foundations of civilization
2
The Neolithic Revolution
  • I. Neolithic Revolution Growth of Agriculture
  • A. Agricultural Revolution changes in human
    life as a result of the beginning of farming
    most likely caused by a climate change
  • 1. slash and burn farming trees and grass
    cut down and burned to clear land
  • 2. domestication of animals tamed,
  • used for work, steady source of
    food
  • 3. led to people living in one place
  • 4. crops based on soil and climate

3
B. Growth of Villages
  • 1. 4 Great River Valley Civilizations Nile,
    Indus, Huang He, Tigris-Euphrates
  • 2. rivers flooded leaving behind silt
    fertilized soil
  • 3. rivers also used for irrigation,
    transportation, fishing, attracting animals
  • 4. Economic Changes
  • a. due to food surpluses not everyone had to
    farm some became artisans and traded their
    products
  • b. invention of the wheel and sail allowed
    for trade over long distances
  • 5. Social Changes
  • a. social classes develop
  • b. religion becomes more important

4
C. How Civilization Develops 5 Characteristics
SWACC
  • 1. Specialization (Specialized Workers)
  • a. specialization development of skills in
    a certain area
  • b. artisans skilled workers who make goods
    by hand
  • 2. Written Records
  • a. scribes professional record keepers
  • b. cuneiform first form of writing
  • invented by the Sumerians

5
C. How Civilization Develops 5 Characteristics
SWACC (continued)
  • 3. Advanced Technology new tools and
    techniques
  • a. Bronze Age Sumerians began using
    bronze instead of copper or stone
  • b. irrigation systems
  • 4. Complex Institutions long lasting pattern of
    organization government, religion, economy
  • 5. Cities centers for trade

6
Early River Civilizations
  • Mesopotamia Tigris Euphrates Rivers
  • Egypt Nile River
  • Indus Indus River
  • China Huang He River (Yellow River)

7
II.Ancient Mesopotamia modern day Iraq
  • A. The Fertile Crescent
  • 1. Arc of fertile land stretching from the
    Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea
  • 2. Mesopotamia land between the rivers
    valley between Tigris-Euphrates rivers rivers
    flooded unpredictably left silt and supported
    agriculture
  • 3. Crossroads of the World land route
  • from Asia, Africa and Europe
  • 4. No natural barriers
  • frequently conquered
  • 5. Rivers also supported trade
  • and transportation

8
Ancient Mesopotamia continued
  • B. Sumerians oldest known civilization
  • 1. Several city-states large, independent
    cities banded together for protection
  • 2. Each city-state worshipped their many gods
    polytheistic
  • 3. Only priests could please gods most lived in
    fear of gods
  • 4. Built ziggurats tall, pyramid shaped temples

9
Ancient Mesopotamia continued
  • 5. Wars between city-states led to growth of
    military leaders
  • 6. Social Classes also begin ruling class,
    middle class, farmers/slaves
  • 7. Invented writing to keep religious records
    cuneiform written by scribes
  • 8. Also first known civilization to use the wheel
  • 9. Used 12 month calendar, math for surveying,
    irrigation systems
  • 10. Conquered by 2500 B.C., by 1750 B.C. totally
    gone

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11
Hammurabi
  • C. Hammurabi Babylonian king, established
    empire in Mesopotamia _at_1790 B.C.
  • 1. Known for Hammurabis Code 1st written set
    of laws
  • 2. 282 laws regarding family, trade, real estate
    used to
  • unify empire
  • 3. basic principal eye for an eye
  • 4. established civil law private rights
  • 5. established the state/government as authority
    to
  • enforce the law

12
  • D. Smaller City-States
  • 1. Phoenicians traders Carriers of
    civilization shipbuilders seafarers
  • a. their great legacy The Phoenician
    alphabet to record transactions
  • 1. improved alphabet by using 22 symbols for
    sounds (phonics)
  • 2. influenced Greek and Roman alphabets
  • b. modern day Lebanon
  • c. what did people want from them?
  • 1. cedar wood
  • 2. dyed red-purple cloth
  • 3. oil
  • 4. wine
  • 5. weapons

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14
  • 2. Hebrews
  • a. Belief in one Supreme God monotheistic
  • b. Early history recorded in Old Testament
  • c. Migrated to Egypt, became slaves led to
    freedom by Moses believe God gave them
    Palestine (Canaan)
  • d. Established nation of Israel in Jordan
    River Valley
  • e. Flourished under King David Solomon
  • f. Practice religion and influence two later
    religions Christianity and Islam

15
  • 3.Hebrew Religion
  • a. Monotheistic one God (Yahweh)
  • b. Early Hebrews feared a fierce and vengeful
    God later believed he was wise and forgiving
  • c. Laws based on ethics people should lead
    moral lives
  • d. Torah first five books of the Bible
    includes history laws
  • e. Ten Commandments set of laws revealed to
    Moses by God Hebrews made a covenant with God
    if they follow laws, He will protect them
  • f. Less severe than Hammurabis Code but no one
    is above Gods law
  • g. Prophets messengers sent by God

16
On to Ancient Egypt
  • III. Ancient Egypt
  • A. Geography The Nile River Valley
  • 1. Nile is longest river in the world longer
    than length of U.S.
  • 2. Source of Life in Egypt
  • 3. Flooded every July following rainy season of
    central Africa
  • 4. Flood waters carried silt fertilized soil

17
  • B. Natural Barriers
  • 1. Lybian and Nubian Deserts on each side of Nile
    River
  • 2. Mediterranean and Red Seas served as barriers
  • 3. Cataracts on Nile River rapids and
    waterfalls
  • 4. Protected Egypt from invaders
  • 5. little contact with other cultures

18
  • C. Pharoahs kings of ancient Egypt
  • 1. Dynasty rule passes down
    through family
  • a. absolute power
  • b. considered a god on earth
  • c. theocracy type of
    government ruled by
    religious leaders / divine beings
  • 2 2. Pyramids
    resting place for kings (pharaohs)
    after death
  • 3. Mummification process of embalming and
    drying a corpse
  • a. to prevent decay
  • b. purpose soul could return to body later in
    the afterlife

19
Egyptian blessing ?
  • D. Egyptian Civilization and Society
  • 1. Based on nature polytheistic many gods
  • 2. Amon Re sun god
  • 3. Life after death those judged worthy go to
    the Happy Field of Food/Beautiful Other World

20
  • E. Egyptian Writing
  • 1. Developed to keep religious records
  • 2. Hieroglyphics earliest form of Egyptian
    writing began on wood and stone later used
    papyrus to make paper
  • 3. Rosetta Stone found in 1799 translated
    in 1822 led to translating other writings and
    more knowledge of Egyptian government

21
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  • E. Education
  • 1. Schools established to train priests
  • 2. Students taught reading, writing, math,
    religious rituals
  • 3. Students became scribes or learned a trade
  • 4. Scribes kept religious government records
  • 5. Becoming a scribe allowed someone a way to
    move up in class

23
  • F. Scientific and Mathematical Accomplishments
  • 1. Surveying land to find property lines after
    floods
  • 2. Measured area of squares and circles
  • 3. Figured volume of cylinders and spheres
  • 4. Calendar 12 months, Flood Season, Plant
    Season, Harvest Season adopted by Greeks and
    Romans into modern calendar
  • 5. Erected stone monuments
  • 6. Studied human anatomy performed
  • surgery methods later used by
  • Greeks Romans

24
And nowAncient India
  • IV. India
  • A. Geography The Indian
  • Subcontinent large land mass attached to a
    continent
  • 1. Large peninsula water on three sides
    Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal
  • 2. Mountains Himalayas in the north Hindu Kush
    in NW
  • 3. Indus River foundation of civilization
  • 4. Barriers caused people of India to be isolated
    from rest of the world

25
Ancient India
  • 5. Early peoples developed trade via oceans
    Khyber Pass in Hindu Kush Mountains
  • 6. Monsoons seasonal winds and rain caused
    flooding of Indus River
  • 7. Floods were unpredictable
  • 8. Three Regions Northern
  • Plains, Deccan Plateau,
  • Coastal Plains

26
B. Early Civilization
  • 1. Indus River civilization grew about same time
    as Egyptian Sumerian
  • 2. Larger city-states than Egypt or Sumeria
    little is known about them
  • a. cannot decipher writing
  • b. cities cannot be excavated because of
    location on Indus River
  • 3. Ruled by priest-king polytheistic
  • 4. Thrived on agriculture first to grow cotton
  • 5. Harappan and Aryan peoples lived here

27
  • C. Caste System
  • 1. Social Classes based on birth, children belong
    in same caste as parents
  • 2. Cannot mix and marry, cannot move up
  • 3. untouchables lowest class, outcasts from
    society
  • 4. Women
  • i. lived with obeyed husband
  • ii. widows unlucky and isolated
  • iii. Wealthy men had more than one wife first
    wife had most control wanted sons to carry on
    family line and perform sacrifices

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29
  • D. Dynasties
  • 1. The Maurya Empire
  • a. Chandragupta Maurya unified North India
  • i. to support war efforts he levied
    taxes on citizens
  • ii. to hold empire together he
  • 1. divided empire into
    provinces provinces
  • into districts
  • 2. created bureaucratic
    government
  • 3. assessed taxes
    enforced laws

30
Mauryan Dynasty continued
  • b. greatest leader was Asoka converted to
    Buddhism moral leader
  • i. treated subjects fairly, humanely, with
    religious tolerance
  • ii. empire declines after his death

31
  • 2. The Gupta Empire
  • a. 500 years after the Maurya
  • b. United much of India
  • c. Ruled from A.D. 320 until A.D. 550
  • d. Accomplishments/advances in
    science, math medicine

32
  • E. Indus Advances
  • 1. Art and literature based on Buddha
  • 2. Math
  • i. developed concept of 0 created symbol for
    it
  • ii. developed decimal system and numerals 1-9
  • iii. Hindu-Arabic numerals replace Roman numerals
  • 3. Medical
  • i. scalpel
  • ii. set broken bones
  • iii. plastic surgery (learned by Europeans 1,000
    years later)
  • 4. Architecture
  • a. stupas dome
    shaped shrines for
    Buddha monks

33
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34
And Finally, Ancient China.
  • V. China
  • A. Geography
  • 1. Very large area
  • 2. Fertile river valleys support agriculture
  • 3. Four regions surround China
  • a. Manchuria
  • b. Mongoliac. Sinkaingd. Tibet

35
  • 4. Yellow River (Huang He)
  • a. floods leave loess (huge amounts of silt)
    fertilized soil
  • b. flooding unpredictable
  • c. provides water for irrigation, fishing,
    transportation
  • d. rainfall varies, droughts floods are common
  • e. River of Sorrows

Just because theyre cute, thats why!
36
  • B. Early Civilizations
  • 1. Geographic barriers size limited contact
    with other people
  • 2. Thought they were unique center of the world
  • 3. Zhonggouo Middle Kingdom
  • 4. Conquerors adopted Chinese culture customs
  • 5. Writing
  • a. pictographs ideographs
  • b. oracle bones used for telling the
    future advice answers
  • c. Calligraphy fine handwriting

37
  • C. Dynasties series of rulers from a single
    family
  • 1. Shang 1600 B.C. 1122 B.C.
  • a. developed writing, lasted 3500 years
  • b. 50,000 characters, simplified to 10,000
  • c. Polytheistic Shang-Di main god 2
    forces Yin Earth, darkness, female
    forces Yang Heaven, light, male forces
    (balance rest/cannot exist w/o each
    other)
  • d. bronzemaking, yoke, harness,
    spoked wheel
  • e. pottery (porcelain), jade, ivory

38
  • 2. Zhou Dynasty 1027 B.C. 256 B.C.
  • a. conquered Shang said Mandate of Heaven
    gave them the authority to do so
  • b. Mandate of Heaven rulers had divine
    approval to be rulers i. dynasty
    was blessed if it ruled wisely ruler must
    provide good government ii. gods
    protected rulers Dynastic Cycle pattern of
    rise, decline, replacement of
    dynasties iii. Wicked or foolish kings
    could lose Mandate of Heaven

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41
  • ZHOU Dynasty continued
  • c. Developed bureaucracy organized government
  • d. Controlled lands through feudalism political
    system where nobles, or lords, are granted the
    use of lands belonging to the king i. nobles
    owe loyalty and military service to king
    protection to those on their estates
  • e. Improvements i. roads canals ii.
    coined money iii. blast furnaces
  • f. Decline fall nomads attacked the capital
    Zhou kings fled lords fought neighboring lords
    for power claiming to be kings in their own
    territory

42
  • 3. Qin Dynasty took over after Zhou
  • a. Shi Huangdi First Emperori. strengthen
    the trunk weaken the branches
  • ii. all noble families had to live
    in the capital (so he could watch
    over them)
  • iii. split China into 36 provinces
    ruled by Qin officials
  • b. Autocracy government with unlimited power
    uses power arbitrarily (randomly)
  • c. Shi Huangdi had the Great Wall of China built
    to prevent invasions (1400 miles)

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44
  • 4. Han Dynasty 202 B.C A.D. 220 Refer to
    chart in your notes ?

45
  • D. Confucianism based on family and education
  • 1. Based on teachings of Confucius Chinese
    philosopher (551 B.C. -479 B.C.)
  • 2. Ethical Code of Conduct, loyalty, courtesy,
    hard work, kindness
  • 3. Not a religion, but a philosophy
  • 5 relationships
  • filial piety
  • merit

46
  • E. Legalism
  • 1. Beliefs of Han Fei Tzu efficient government
    meant stable society
  • 2. government must force ethical conduct
  • 3. Unquestioned
    loyalty
    obedience to authority
  • 4. Ruler should
    reward
    obedience punish
    disobedience

?Sounds like a good time.
47
  • F. Daoism (Taoism)
  • 1. founder Laozi (Lao Tzu)
  • 2. natural order over social order
    (incorporates ALL living things)
  • 3. Dao the Way guides all living things
    only
  • humans fail to follow (way to go
    usinsert sarcasm)

48
  • G. Chinese Culture Spreads
  • 1. Silk Roads caravan routes across Asia
  • 2. Ideas, goods, culture spread from China to
    Asia Europe
  • 3. Nobody traveled the entire way Example
    Mediterranean merchants to Central Asian nomads
    to Chinese traders

49
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