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The Reproductive System 16b.

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Title: The Reproductive System 16b.


1
The Reproductive System16b.
2
Female Reproductive System
  • Ovaries
  • Exocrine function produce an ova
  • Endocrine function estrogen progesterone
  • Hormones prepare egg for fertilization, regulate
    menstrual cycle, maintain pregnancy
  • Duct System
  • Uterine tubes (fallopian tubes)
  • Uterus
  • Vagina
  • External genitalia

3
Ovaries
  • Composed of ovarian follicles (sac-like
    structures)
  • Structure of an ovarian follicle
  • One Oocyte (immature egg)
  • Many Follicular cells surround the oocyte

Figure 16.7
4
Female Reproductive System
Figure 16.8a
5
Ovaries
Figure 16.7
6
Ovarian Follicle Stages
  • Primary follicle contains an immature oocyte
  • Graafian (vesicular) follicle growing follicle
    with a maturing oocyte
  • Ovulation when the egg is mature the follicle
    ruptures
  • Occurs about every 28 days
  • The ruptured follicle is transformed into a
    corpus luteum which degenerates

7
Support for Ovaries
  • Suspensory ligaments secure ovary to lateral
    walls of the pelvis
  • Ovarian ligaments attach to uterus
  • Broad ligament a fold of the peritoneum,
    encloses suspensory ligament

8
Female Reproductive System
Figure 16.8b
9
Duct System
  • Uterine tubes (fallopian tubes)
  • Uterus
  • Vagina

10
Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes
  • 4 long
  • Receive the ovulated oocyte
  • Viable for 24 hours
  • Provide a site for fertilization
  • Attaches to the uterus (transport mature ovum
    from ovary to uterus)
  • Does not physically attach to the ovary
  • Distal end infundibulum with finger-like
    projections fimbriae
  • Supported and enclosed by the broad ligament

11
Uterine Tube Function
  • Because uterine tubes open to peritoneal cavity,
    you can get infections
  • Gonorrhea, PID
  • Fimbriae finger-like projections at the distal
    end that receive the oocyte
  • Cilia inside the uterine tube slowly move the
    oocyte toward the uterus (takes 34 days)
  • Fertilization occurs inside the uterine tube
    since oocyte lives about 24 hours

12
Uterus
  • Located between the urinary bladder and rectum
  • Size of a pear
  • Hollow muscular organ
  • Functions of the uterus
  • Receives a fertilized egg
  • Retains the fertilized egg
  • Nourishes the fertilized egg

13
Support for the Uterus
  • Broad ligament attached to the pelvis
  • Round ligament anchored anteriorly
  • Uterosacral ligaments anchored posteriorly

14
Support for the Uterus
Figure 16.8b
15
Regions of the Uterus
  • Body main portion
  • Fundus area where uterine tube enters
  • Cervix narrow outlet that protrudes into the
    vagina (neck of uterus)
  • Cells from this region are removed during a PAP
    smear

16
Walls of the Uterus
  • Endometrium
  • Inner layer
  • Allows for implantation of a fertilized egg
  • Sloughs off if no pregnancy occurs (menses)
  • Myometrium middle layer of smooth muscle
  • Active during labor
  • Perimetrium (visceral peritoneum) outermost
    serous layer of uterus

17
Female Reproductive System
Figure 16.8b
18
Vagina
  • Extends from cervix to exterior of body
  • 3-4 long muscular tube
  • Behind bladder and in front of rectum
  • Serves as the birth canal
  • Receives the penis during sexual intercourse
  • Hymen fold of mucosa partially closes the
    vagina until it is ruptured

19
External Genitalia (Vulva)
  • Mons pubis
  • Labia
  • Clitoris
  • Urethral orifice
  • Vaginal orifices
  • Greater vestibular glands

Figure 16.9
20
External Genitalia
Figure 16.9
21
External Genitalia
  • Mons Pubis
  • Fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis
  • Covered with pubic hair after puberty
  • Labia skin folds
  • Labia majora hair-covered skin folds
  • Labia minora delicate, hair-free folds of skin

22
External Genitalia
Figure 16.9
23
External Genitalia
  • Vestibule
  • Enclosed by labia majora
  • Contains opening of the urethra and vagina and
    the greater vestibular glands
  • Greater vestibular glands (Bartholins glands)
  • One is found on each side of the vagina
  • Secretes lubricant during intercourse

24
Clitoris Perineum
  • Clitoris
  • Contains erectile tissue
  • Corresponds to the male penis
  • The clitoris is similar to the penis in that it
    is
  • Hooded by a prepuce
  • Composed of sensitive erectile tissue
  • Becomes swollen with blood during sexual
    excitement
  • Perineum
  • Diamond-shaped region between the anterior ends
    of the
  • labial folds, anus posteriorly, and ischial
    tuberosities laterally

25
Oogenesis
  • Production of ova
  • The total supply of eggs are present at birth
  • Ability to release eggs begins at puberty
  • Reproductive ability ends at menopause
  • Oocytes are matured in developing ovarian
    follicles

26
Oogenesis
  • Oogonia female stem cells found in a developing
    fetus
  • Oogonia undergo mitosis to produce primary
    oocytes
  • Primary oocytes (2 million) are surrounded by
    cells that form primary follicles in the ovary
  • Oogonia no longer exist by the time of birth

27
Oogenesis
  • Primary oocytes are inactive until puberty
  • 400,000 left at puberty
  • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from anterior
    pituitary causes some primary follicles to mature
  • Cyclic monthly changes constitute the ovarian
    cycle

28
Oogenesis and the Ovarian Cycle
  • Meiosis starts inside maturing follicle
  • Produces a secondary oocyte and the first polar
    body
  • Follicle development to the stage of a vesicular
    follicle takes about 14 days
  • Ovulation of a secondary oocyte occurs with the
    release of luteinizing hormone (LH)
  • Secondary oocyte is released and surrounded by a
    corona radiata

29
Oogenesis and the Ovarian Cycle
  • Meiosis is completed after ovulation only if
    sperm penetrates
  • Ovum is produced
  • Two additional polar bodies are produced
  • Once ovum is formed, the 23 chromosomes can be
    combined with those of the sperm to form the
    fertilized egg (zygote)
  • If the secondary oocyte is not penetrated by a
    sperm, it dies and does not complete meiosis to
    form an ovum

30
  • Use 500 ova over a lifetime
  • Ovum large, nonmotile, lots of nutrients

31
Ovulation
Figure 16.11
32
Oocyte with sperm
33
Male and Female Differences
  • Meiosis
  • Malesproduces four functional sperm
  • Femalesproduces one functional ovum and three
    polar bodies
  • Sex cell size and structure
  • Sperm are tiny, motile, and equipped with
    nutrients in seminal fluid
  • Egg is large, non-motile, and has nutrient
    reserves to nourish the embryo until implantation

34
Oogenesis
Figure 16.10
35
Oogenesis
Figure 16.10, step 4
36
Oogenesis
Figure 16.10, step 8
37
Oogenesis
Figure 16.10, step 9
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