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Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Title: Human Anatomy and Physiology Author: lradolins Last modified by: Radolinski, Lorene Created Date: 9/2/2008 8:19:19 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Anatomy and Physiology


1
Human Anatomy and Physiology
  • Chapter 1

2
I.Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
  • ____________________ the
    study of the structure and shape of the body and
    its parts and their relationships to one
    another..large body structures---gross anatomy
  • v.__________________anatomy(too small to be seen
    w/o a microscope)

Anatomy
Microscopic
3
Physiology
Cardiac physiology
Neuron-physiology
  • _______________________study of how body and its
    parts work or function in nature.many
    subdivisions,like_______________________ and
    ______________________________
  • Relationships between Anatomy and Physiology
  • ---The 2 are always relatedStructures determine
    what functions can take place

4
II. Levels of Structural Organization
chemical
molecules
  • At the ______________________level atoms combine
    to make ____________________.
  • At the __________________ level,__________are
    composed of molecules.
  • At the _______________________, it is made of the
    same type of cells,functioning together.

cellular
cells
Tissue level
5
  • At the ____________________level,different
    tissues work together for a common function.
  • At the organ system level different organs work
    together closely.
  • the highest level is the organism

organ
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A.Organ System Overview
  • ___________________________________external
    covering of the bodywaterproofs,cushions and
    protectsexcretes salts and urea in perspiration
    and helps regulate body ________________.Temp,pre
    ssure and pain receptors in the skin alert us at
    the body surface .

Integumentary system
temperature
9
Skeletal System
  • __________________________________consists of
    bones,cartilage,ligaments and joints.-supports
    body and provides framework for skeletal
    muscle-also protects.___________________-----form
    ation of blood cells takes place in bone marrow
    also storehouse for minerals

Hematopoiesis
10
Muscular system
  • _______________________________Contract or
    shorten to produce movement of body -skeletal
    muscles-or w/in organs-cardiac or smooth muscles
  • _______________________________has brain,spinal
    cord ,nerves and sensory receptors as control
    system

Nervous system
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  • _______________ controls body through hormonal
    control.Endocrine release hormones-chemicals-into
    the blood and they go to a target organ.These
    glands inc. the pituitary,thyroid,parathyroid,adre
    nals,thymus,pancreas,pineal,ovaries,and
    testesWhat is controlled includes
    growth,reproduction and food used by cells.

Endocrine System
12
Cardiovascular System
  • ____________includes the heart and blood vessels
    and blood,transporting oxygen and
    nutrients,hormones,etc.wbcs-protect
  • Lymphatic System- inc. lymphatic vessels,lymph
    nodes organs ,such as the spleen and tonsils.The
    vessels return fluid leaked from the blood back
    to bloodthe nodes help clean the blood and are
    involved in immunity.

13
  • ________________-Basically a tube running through
    the body from mouth to anus-inc.
    mouth,esophagus,stomach,sm. and lg. intestine,and
    rectumBreak down food and deliver the products
    to blood so it will go to cells---undigested
    returns to be eliminated as feces

Digestive System
14
  • Urinary System-removes nitrogen containing wastes
    from blood and excretes as urine---maintains
    bodys water and salt balanceinc.
    kidneys,ureters,bladder,urethra
  • Reproductive System-to produce offspring-----teste
    s male/ovaries-female

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Respiratory system-exchanges gases,keeping
blood,hence body supplied w/O2-lungs,tracheaMedia
stinum-separates thoracic cavity
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III. Maintaining Life
  • LIFE FUNCTIONS_
  • Maintaining Boundaries-keep inside separate from
    outside
  • Cells have membranes
  • Body is surrounded by _________________ as will
    as does the internal organs.

Integumentary system
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  • B.Movement. promoted by muscular system-
    walking,etc.using fingers.and bones provide
    support
  • Movement also happens as__________________________
    ______are propelled through the organs

Substances such as blood,foodstuffs,and urine
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  • C.____________________-or Irritability is the
    ablity to sense changes (stimuli) in environment)
    and react
  • Nerve cells highly irritable
  • Other parts of your body respond to stimuli

responsiveness
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  • D.Digestion-breaking down food into simple
    molecules to be absorbed into the blood,which
    goes to your body cells

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  • E.___________-refers to all chemical reactions
    that occur w/in body cells---makes nutrients and
    oxygen available to the blood and on the
    cardiovascular system to distribute needed
    substances throughout the body---regulated
    greatly by hormones_________

metabolism
Depends on digestive and respiratory systems
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indigestable
  • F.Excretion-process of removing wastes from
    body-removes nonuseful substances produced during
    digestion and metabolism-feces from
    _____________digestion leftovers________________
  • G._______________-Production of offspring
  • H.__________is an increase in sizecells must be
    created faster than destroyed

reproduction
growth
Urine gets rid of N-containing metabolic wastes
29
SURVIVAL NEEDS
Maintain life
  • The goal of most body systems is to
    __________________.These fragile
    ____________________ include the following
  • 1-_______________---body takes in as food and
    chemical reactions release energy from it using
    O2.Carbs are the main energy source..Proteins
    provide nutrients and fats build cell structures
    ,a last source for energy and cushion organs .

nutrients
Survival needs
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O2
  • 2-________________ is necessary to derive most
    energy----It is required in Cellular
    respiration..it is in 20 of the air we
    breathe..It is also circulated to blood and cells
    by respiratory and cardiovascular systems
  • 3--Water-is 60-80 body weight-most important
    molecule in the body and is the solvents for
    secretions and excretions.comes mostly from
    ingested foods and liquids and lost by
    evaporation from lungs and skin and excretions

31
Temperature
  • 4--_____________________must remain at around 37
    degrees C (98 F).If it is too slow,metabolism
    stops and too high,proteins break down..death
    occurs at either extreme.
  • 5--Atmospheric Pressure-- is the force on the
    surface of the body by the weight of
    air---atmospheric pressure----Too high altitudes
    may have gas exchange too low for metabolism

32
IV. HOMEOSTASISbodys ability to maintain stable
internal conditions(even though outside world
changes)
  • The body is DYNAMIC within narrow limits
  • All organ systems involved---- examplesNutrient
    blood levels,heart activity and blood
    pressure,,waste eliminated and body temp.

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  • Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
  • ------3 components --what is regulated is called
    the variable
  • 1-_______________________sensor that monitors and
    changes in environment---_________2-______________
    _________-Flows to here along afferent
    pathway-determines appropriate response or
    reaction.
  • 3-Effector-provides output to stimulus---along
    efferent pathway----results feed back to
    influence stimulus----turning off----NEGATIVE or
    turn on---positive feed back Most body
    mechanism are negative feed back.

called stimuli
receptor
Control center
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A disturbance of internal balance is
called___________________-Source of
disease,disorder,death
Homeostatic Imbalance
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Directional terms- allow medical personal to
describe exactly where one structure is in
relationship to another.They include the
following
  • Superior-(cranial or cephalad)toward head or
    upper part
  • Inferior- away from head or lower part
  • Ventral-(anterior)front of body----front of
  • Dorsal-(posterior)backof body-back of
  • Medial- toward or at body midlineinner side
  • __________________________________________
  • Lateral- away from midlineon the outer side
  • proximal-close to origin of body part or where it
    is attached
  • distal-farther from origin
  • superficial(external)---toward or at body surface
  • Deep(internal) away from body surface-more
    internal

INTERMEDIATE-between more medial and more lateral
42
Regional Terms-Visible body landmarks----see
figure 1.5 p.16----label in notes
  • ANTERIOR____
  • Abdominal ---anterior trunk below ribs
  • Acromial----(Point) of shoulder
  • Antebrachial-forearm
  • Antecubital-ant. Surface of elbow
  • Axillary-armpit
  • Brachial-arm
  • Buccal-cheek
  • Carpal-wrist
  • Cervical --neck region
  • Coxal-hip
  • Crural-leg
  • Deltoid-curve of shoulder formed by lg deltoid
    muscle
  • Digitalfingers,toes

43
  • Femoral---thigh
  • Fibular---lateral part of leg
  • Frontal forehead
  • ________________________________________
  • Inguinal-groin
  • Nasal
  • Oral
  • Orbital-eye
  • Patellar-knee
  • Pelvic-area overlying pelvis anteriorly
  • Pubic-genital
  • Sternal- breastbone
  • Tarsal-ankle
  • Thoracic-chest
  • Umbilical-naval

Mental-chin
44
POSTERIOR____
  • Calcaneal-heel
  • Cephalic-head
  • Femoral-thigh
  • Gluteal-buttock
  • Lumbar---back area between ribs and hips
  • Occipital-back of head
  • Olecranal-post. Surface of elbow
  • Popliteal-post. Knee area
  • Sacral-area between hips
  • Scapular---shoulder blades
  • ___________
  • ____________
  • ______________

Sural-post. Calfvertebral-spinalplantar-sole
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.
Cephalic
Cephalic
Frontal
Orbital
Occipital (back of head)
Upper limb
Nasal
Acromial
Buccal
Deltoid
Cervical
Oral
Brachial (arm)
Mental
Antecubital
Cervical
Olecranal
Back (dorsal)
Thoracic
Scapular
Antebrachial (forearm)
Sternal
Axillary
Vertebral
Carpal (wrist)
Abdominal
Lumbar
Umbilical
Pelvic
Sacral
Manus (hand)
Inguinal (groin)
Digital
Gluteal
Lower limb
Coxal (hip)
Femoral (thigh)
Pubic (genital)
Patellar
Popliteal
Crural (leg)
Sural (calf)
KEY
Fibular
Thorax
Pedal (foot)
Tarsal (ankle)
Abdomen
Calcaneal
Back (Dorsum)
Digital
Plantar
(a) Anterior/Ventral
(b) Posterior/Dorsal
48
BODY PLANES AND SECTIONS
  • In anatomy ,students make sections-or cuts---it
    is made along an imaginary line or
    __________.......being 3-D,we consider 3 types of
    planes
  • Sagittal section is lengthwise or
    longitudinally----If the right and left parts are
    equal it is median or midgasittal
  • Frontal section is lengthwise into ant. And post
    parts----also called coronal
  • a Tranverse Section is cut along a horizontal
    plane,making superior and inferior parts----also
    called cross-section

plane
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Orientation and Directional Terms
Table 1.1
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Orientation and Directional Terms
Table 1.1 (cont)
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BODY CAVITIES
  • Dorsal cavity has 2 subdivisions
  • cranial-in skull and
  • spinal cavity-extends from cranial to end of
    vertebral column

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  • Ventral body Cavity-
  • Much largercontains all in chest and abdomen
  • Thoracic cavity(lungs,heart.-separated by
    diaphragm------MEDIASTINUM-serarates right and
    left cavities
  • Abdominopelvic cavity---stomach,liver,intestines--
    (superior)
  • ---
  • inferior-Pelvic cavity---reproductive organs

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Other Body Cavities
  • _______________
  • _________________
  • __________________
  • __________________

ORAL AND DIGESTIVE Nasal Orbital MIDDLE EAR
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  • List the 9 separate regions separated by 4 planes
  • ____________________
  • _____________________
  • ________________________
  • _____________________
  • ________________________
  • ___________________________
  • _____________________________
  • _____________________________
  • _________________________________

Umbilical region
Right and left iliac or inguinal region
Epigastric region
Right and left lumbar regions
Hypogastric(pubic )region
Right and left hypochondriac regions
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