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Topic: The Cold War (1945-1991)


Unit 5 Topic: The Cold War (1945-1991) The United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) emerged as the two strongest powers in international affairs. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Topic: The Cold War (1945-1991)

Unit 5
  • Topic The Cold War (1945-1991)
  • The United States and the Union of Soviet
    Socialist Republics (USSR) emerged as the two
    strongest powers in international affairs.
    Ideologically opposed, they challenged one
    another in a series of confrontations known as
    the Cold War. The costs of this prolonged
    contest weakened the USSR so that it collapsed
    due to internal upheavals as well as American
    pressure. The Cold War had social and political
    implications in the United States.

Chapter 4 Korea and Vietnam Conflicts
  • Content Statement The Cold War and conflicts in
    Korea and Vietnam influenced domestic and
    international politics.
  • Expectations for Learning Analyze how the Cold
    War and conflicts in Korea and Vietnam influenced
    domestic and international politics between the
    end of World War II and 1991.

Section 1 Cold War Dominates International
Politics for 45 Years
  • Content Elaboration The Cold War dominated
    international politics and impacted domestic
    politics in the United States for almost 45
    years. The intense rivalry between the U.S. and
    the Soviet Union led to the creation of
    alliances, an arms race, conflicts in Korea and
    Vietnam and brought the world close to nuclear
    war with the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Cold War
    affected international politics in the Middle
    East and Latin America.

Review Items
  • NATO/Warsaw Pact alliances
  • Arms Race
  • Korean War A conflict that lasted from 1950 to
    1953 between North Korea, aided by China, and
    South Korea, aided by United Nations forces
    consisting primarily of U.S. troops
  • Vietnam a conflict, starting in 1954 and ending
    in 1975, between South Vietnam (later aided by
    the U.S., South Korea, Australia, the
    Philippines, Thailand, and New Zealand) and the
    Vietcong and North Vietnam
  • More on these 2 wars later in tis chapter!

  • Election of 1960
  • A. 1st time campaign a lot on TV
  • B. Candidates
  • 1. Democrats
  • a. JFK--Sen. from Mass and
  • LBJ--Sen. from Texas
  • 2. Republicans
  • a. Richard Nixon--Sen. from Cal and
  • Henry Cabot Lodge--Sen. from Mass.
  • C. Great Debates (Pic. on page 776)
  • 1. 4 televised debates
  • 2. Answer report questions--2 1/2 min.
  • 3. 70 million watched
  • 4. JFK--younger, poised, clever answers
  • D. The winner..........
  • 1. JFK wins in a close race 303-219
  • 2. Many states were very close

JFK, cont.
  • Background
  • 1. Youngest elected president--43 years old
  • (TR was younger, but not elected)
  • 2. First Catholic
  • 3. Naval officer during WWII
  • 4. Senator for Massachusetts
  • 5. New Frontier
  • a. make America better
  • b. energetic and young
  • c. athletic--sailed and played football
  • Quote from inaugural address Ask not what your
    country can do for you--ask what you can do for
    your country.

JFK, cont.
  • Bay of Pigs
  • A. Cuba
  • 1. Leader was Fidel Castro
  • a. At first, we supported him for
    overthrowing previous dictator
  • b. He then announced he was a communist
  • 2. Eisenhower stopped all trade with Cuba
  • 3. Bay of Pigs invasion
  • a. Anti-Castro Cubans wanted to overthrow
  • b. JFK approved of this, but said the U.S.
  • would not help

JFK, cont.
  • c. April 1961--American supported Cubans
  • invaded the Bay of Pigs in Cuba
  • d. They thought the Cuban people would
  • support them
  • e. They were wrong
  • f. The invasion was a disaster
  • g. Many were taken prisoner or killed
  • h. JFK took full responsibility for it
  • i. Prisoners released for 50 million in food
  • and drugs and 3 million cash


JFK, cont.
  • The Berlin Wall built to separate East Berlin
    from West Berlin
  • A. Nikita Khrushchev (the Soviet leader at this
    time) and Kennedy met in June 1961
  • 1. Khrushchev felt JFK was too
    inexperienced and weak
  • 2. Khrushchev told JFK to get out of West
  • Berlin
  • 3. JFK refused
  • 4. Khrushchev threatened war
  • 5. JFK got the army ready
  • B. The S.U. responded by building the Berlin
  • 1. Separated East and West Berlin
  • 2. To keep people from crossing

Berlin Wall 500
  • Berlin Wall Wind of Change

Nikita Khrushchev
Berlin Wall
JFK, cont.
  • Arms race
  • A. continues during JFK
  • B. JFK builds more and more nukes
  • 1. mutual assured destruction
  • 2. US is now far ahead of SU

JFK, cont.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis
  • A. October 1962--one of the most serious
  • of the Cold War--the Cuban Missile Crisis
  • B. Almost led to a nuclear war between the U.S.
  • and the S.U.
  • C. We found out Cuba had missile bases
  • 1. This threatened U.S. security
  • 2. Kennedy told American people of the sit.
  • 3. He ordered the navy to stop Soviet ships
  • from carrying missiles to Cuba
  • 4. Next day Soviet ships close to Cuba
  • a. Radio and TV kept Americans informed
  • b. War looked inevitable
  • 5. October 24, 1962
  • a. Soviet ships suddenly turn around
  • b. They returned to S.U.

JFK, cont.
  • D. October 26, 1962-Agreement between U.S. and
  • 1. Missile bases removed if U.S. agreed not to
  • attack Cuba
  • 2. Kennedy called Khrushchev a peacemaker
  • to make him save face
  • 3. Soviets saw Khrushchev as weak
  • 4. Khrushchev was removed one year later
  • 5. Kennedy praised for being tough vs.
  • the communists and Khrushchev

Cuban Missile Crisis 529
  • Cuban Missile Crisis video

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JFK, cont.
  • Assassination
  • A. Kennedy wanted to be re-elected
  • B. He went to campaign in Texas to get support
  • from the Democratic Party there
  • C. Nov. 22, 1963
  • 1. JFK rode through Dallas
  • 2. 3 people with him
  • a. his wife--Jackie Onassis Kennedy
  • b. governor of Texas--John Connally
  • c. Connallys wife
  • 3. VP Lyndon Johnson was in another car
  • 4. Gov. Connally and JFK were both shot
  • 5. No one knew where the shots came from
  • 6. The car sped away to a hospital
  • D. Connally was seriously injured
  • E. JFK was dead
  • 1. Johnson took over as President immediately

JFK, cont.
  • F. Lee Harvey Oswald
  • 1. He was arrested and accused of killing JFK
  • 2. He denied the charge
  • 3. Two days later, on live TV, Jack Ruby shot
  • and killed Oswald
  • 4. Questions
  • a. Why did Oswald kill Kennedy?
  • b. Did he act alone?
  • c. Why did Ruby kill Oswald?
  • Warren Commission One year later, they
    concluded Oswald acted alone. This group was led
    by Chief Justice Earl Warren. Many still
    question the conclusion of the Warren Commission.

Lee Harvey Oswald and Jack Ruby
Walter Cronkite announces death of JFK
  • Cronkite Video

OGT Multiple Choice
  • In dealing with the Cuban missile crisis, Kennedy
  • A. an invasion of Cuba to seize the missiles
  • B. a naval blockade on all military equipment
    being shipped to Cuba
  • C. an embargo on grain to the USSR
  • D. a general air strike on targets in Cuba

OGT Multiple Choice
  • Who was the leader of Cuba during the time of the
    Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis?
  • A. Nikita Khrushchev
  • B. Joseph Stalin
  • C. Fidel Castro
  • D. Ho Chi Minh

OGT Multiple Choice
  • Kennedys assassination was investigated by the
  • A. Southern Christian Leadership Conference
  • B. Warren Commission
  • C. RAND Corporation
  • D. Joint Chiefs of Staff

OGT Multiple Choice
  • The Bay of Pigs invasion was defeated mainly
  • A. Castro hid and no one could find him
  • B. the Soviet Union threatened nuclear
  • C. Kennedy refused to support the invasion
  • D. the Cuban people did not join in on the
    revolt as was expected

OGT Extended Response
  • You have just learned about the events of the
    Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • How did this event show that the U.S. was taking
    a strong stance against Communism?
  • What do you feel would have been the result if
    the Soviet ships did not turn around?
  • (2 pts for each)

Section 2 The Space Race
  • Content Elaboration The Cold War affected
    domestic politics. It led to the Second Red
    Scare and the rise of McCarthyism. A space race
    impelled the U.S. to increase spending on science

Space Race
  • A. US/SU have space race
  • B. Another part of Cold War
  • C. Sputnik launched by SU
  • 1. 1st man-made satellite
  • 2. Oct. 4, 1957
  • 3. 3 months in orbit
  • D. Sputnik II
  • 1. carried dog to outer space
  • 2. Nov. 1957

Sputnik and Sputnik II
Space Race, cont.
  • E. US reaction
  • 1. Vanguard rocket
  • a. Dec 6, 1957
  • b. disaster
  • c. millions watched on TV
  • 2. Explorer II
  • a. Feb. 1958
  • b. first American satellite
  • c. succeeded

Space Race, cont.
  • 3 US afraid
  • 4. We feel our schools are no good
  • 4. National Defense Education Act of 1958
  • a. 1 billion for more scientists
  • 5. NASA formed the federal agency that
    institutes and administers the civilian programs
    of the U.S. government that deal with
    aeronautical research and the development of
    launch vehicles and spacecraft
  • a. National Aeronautics and Space Adm.
  • --. 4 billion to start

Space Race, cont.
  • F. Putting men into space
  • 1. 1st done by SU
  • a. April 12, 1961
  • b. Yari Gagarin1st person in space
  • c. circled globe 1 time
  • 2. US
  • a. 1st done May 5, 1961
  • b. Alan Shepard
  • c. lasted 15 minutes
  • d. Feb. 20, 1962, John Glenn becomes 1st person
    to orbit the Earth

Space Race, cont.
  • G. U.S. Moon Landing
  • 1. JFK challenges nation in 1961
  • a. put man on moon by 1970
  • 2. Apollo 11
  • a. space flight to the moon
  • b. July 1969
  • c. Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael
  • d. Armstrong Thats one small step for man,
    one giant leap for mankind.

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OGT Multiple Choice
  • Apollo 11 was the lunar landing that fulfilled
    JFKs promise. Who were the astronauts who were
    involved in Apollo 11?
  • A. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin
  • B. John Glenn and Ed White
  • C. Neil Armstrong and John Glenn
  • D. Virgil Grissom and Robert Chaffee

OGT Multiple Choice
  • The first man in space was
  • A. Yuri Gagarin
  • B. Neil Armstrong
  • C. John Glenn
  • D. Alan Shephard

OGT Multiple Choice
  • (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The first country
    to put a man in space was
  • A. China
  • B. France
  • C. Soviet Union
  • D. United States

OGT Multiple Choice
  • As a result of the Soviet launching of Sputnik
    the federal government
  • A. passed the National Defense Education Act to
    produce more scientists and science teachers
  • B. appointed Robert Goddard to head the United
    States space program
  • C. created NASA to coordinate United States
    space efforts
  • D. both a and c

OGT Extended Response
  • Explain the major domestic developments that
    occurred in the United States because of the
    space race.
  • A. Which two countries were involved in the
    space race? (2 pts)
  • B. What was the name of the Russians first
    man-made satellite? (1 pts)
  • C. What was the Unites States reaction to
    launch of that satellite? (1 pts)

Section 3 The Korean War
  • Content Elaboration The Korean War also fed into
    the communist hysteria of the late 1940s and
    1950s. The United States was able to secure
    support from the United Nations fo the defense of
    South Korea while the Soviet Union was boycotting
    the Security Council.

Korean WarPart of Containment Theory
  • I. War in Korea
  • A. After WWII, Korea was split up into 2
  • 1. North--controlled by Soviet Union
  • a. communist
  • b. had no free elections
  • 2. South--controlled by the U.S.
  • a. could elect own government
  • B. U.S. and Soviets left Korea in 1949
  • C. North Korea invade South Korea in 1950
  • 1. UN said this was wrong
  • 2. Truman sent American troops to help
  • South Korea

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Korean War, cont.
  • The Korean War Lasted Three Years
  • A. The U.S. was the main country that helped SK.
  • B. Truman called it a police action instead of
  • C. Goal--drive North Koreans back out of S.

Korean War, cont.
  • MacArthurs Counterattack
  • A. General Douglas MacArthur was in charge of
    our troops during the Korean War
  • B. N. Korea had driven us almost out of Korea
  • C. MacArthur then counterattacks the rear of the
  • N. Korean army
  • D. We begin to win, and N. Korea was near defeat

General Douglas MacArthur
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Korean War, cont.
  • China Enters the War
  • A. China said that if the U.S. invaded N. Korea,
    they would join the war on the side of N. Korea
  • B. MacArthur did not believe they would
  • C. We invaded N. Korea
  • D. MacArthur was wrong--China entered the war
  • 1. 300,000 Chinese attacked the U.S. in 1950
  • E. The U.S. were pushed back into S. Korea

Korean War, cont.
  • Truman Fires MacArthur
  • A. General MacArthur asks Truman for permission
    to bomb China
  • B. Truman feared this would bring the Soviet
    Union into the war--he said no
  • C. MacArthur then asks Congress for permission
  • D. This angers Truman, so he fires MacArthur in

Korean War, cont.
  • End of the war
  • A. Peace talks began in July of 1951
  • B. Disagreement
  • 1. The UN wanted prisoners to be able to
    choose which Korea they wanted to live in
  • 2. The Communists wanted all prisoners to
  • return to their homeland
  • C. Negotiations lasted two years
  • D. Agreement reached July of 1953.
  • 1. Prisoners could go where they choose
  • 2. Two different countries formed
  • a. North Korea
  • b. South Korea

Korean War, cont.
  • Aftermath of the Korean War
  • A. A 2 1/2 mile neutral zone formed between N.
    and S. Korea
  • B. U.S. troops stayed in S. Korea to protect
  • C. U.S. gave money to S. Korea

Korean War, cont.
  • D. Ike promised to end Korea police action
  • E. Panmunjom--peace negotiations
  • 1. neither side gained much
  • 2. border put back near 38th parallel
  • 3. 35,000 U.S. killed
  • 4. threat of nuclear war ends

OGT Multiple Choice
  • The result of the Korean War was
  • A. The North Koreans took control of South Korea
    and made it communist
  • B. The South Koreans took control of North Korea
    and made it free
  • C. China took control of both Koreas
  • D. basically a tie, with neither side gaining
    much land

OGT Multiple Choice
  • The armistice that ended the Korean War resulted
  • A. all of Korea becoming Communist
  • B. Korea being divided near the 38th parallel
  • C. all of Korea becoming free and democratic
  • D. the Chinese gaining control of Korea

OGT Multiple Choice
  • After World War II, Korea was divided into two.
    Which of the following is true about Korea after
    World War II?
  • A. North Korea was communist and controlled by
    the Soviet Union and South Korea was free and
    controlled by the United States.
  • B. South Korea was communist and controlled by
    the Soviet Union and North Korea was free and
    controlled by the United States.
  • C. North Korea was communist and controlled by
    the United States and South Korea was free and
    controlled by the Soviet Union.
  • D. South Korea was communist and controlled by
    the United States and North Korea was free and
    controlled by the Soviet Union.

OGT Multiple Choice
  • (Practice Test Booklet 2005) From 1950 to 1953,
    the United States fought a police action in
    Asia to prevent communism from spreading to
  • A. South Korea
  • B. South Vietnam
  • C. Japan
  • D. China

OGT Multiple Choice
  • Who was the man in charge of our troops during
    the Korean War?
  • A. Dwight Eisenhower
  • B. George Patton
  • C. Douglas MacArthur
  • D. Norman Schwartzkopf

OGT Short Answer
  • The Korean War was undeclared war between the
    United States and North Korea. How did this war
    prove that the foreign policy of the United
    States was changing? (2 points)

Section 4 The Vietnam War
  • Content Elaboration The Vietnam War divided the
    country and sparked massive protests. Spending
    for the war came at the expenxse of the domestic
    programs launched by President Johnson. This led
    to urban unrest in the 1960s. The Vietnam War
    was a dominant issue in the presidential
    campaigns of 1968 and 1972. The difficulties and
    eventual withdrawal from Vietnam led to concerted
    efforts on part of the U.S. to find allies in
    future conflicts.

Vietnam War
  • The Vietnam War is another part of the
  • This War stretches across the 40s, 50s, 60s,
    and 70s--only part of which the United States is
    a participant.

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UH-1D helicopters airlift members of the 2nd
Battalion, 14th Infantry Regiment from the Filhol
Rubber Plantation area to a new staging area,
during Operation "Wahiawa," a search and destroy
mission conducted by the 25th Infantry Division,
northeast of Cu Chi, Vietnam.
  • 1940s Background War in Indochina
  • A. Indochina
  • 1. Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia
  • B. Vietnam liberated from Japan in 1945
  • 1. Ho Chi MinhCommunist leader of North
  • 2. Democratic Republic of Vietnam
  • C. French
  • 1. sent 15,000 troops to Vietnam
  • 2. wanted to control Vietnam
  • D. United States
  • 1. containment
  • 2. gave millions to French
  • 3. fight war on communism

Ho Chi Minh
  • E. China
  • 1. helped Ho Chi Minh
  • F. Dienbienphu
  • 1. Vietnamamese surround French
  • 2. large French defeat
  • G. May 8, 1954
  • 1. Meeting in Geneva, Switzerland
  • 2. France, GB, SU, China, and US
  • 3. Vietnam split into two
  • a. North--Communist (Ho Chi Minh)
  • b. South--free (Bao-Dai)

Run Through the Jungle by CCR (330) YouTube
  • http//

  • 1950s Problems in Vietnam
  • A. Deal from Geneva, 1954
  • 1. Vietnam united and free elections by July
  • B. South Vietnam--Ngo Dinh Diem
  • 1. did not want this
  • 2. U.S. agreed with him
  • 3. South Vietnam refuses elections
  • 4. Viet Minh Communists attack S. Vietnam
  • C. U.S.
  • 1. gave South Vietnam millions
  • 2. now sent advisors to help

Geneva Conference
  • D. National Liberation Front (NLF)
  • 1. want to overthrow Diem
  • 2. reunite Vietnam
  • 3. Diem calls them the Viet Cong
  • a. means Vietnamese Communists
  • E. JFK
  • 1. sends more advisors--16,000 of them
  • F. Diem overthrown
  • 1. Nov. 2, 1963
  • 2. Diem murdered
  • 3. Things look bad for South Vietnam
  • JFK does not live to make next move.

  • G. Viet Cong--another pro communist group.
  • 1. They began to invade South Vietnam
  • 2. U.S gives support weapons to S. Vietnam
  • H. South Vietnam could not handle the Viet
    Cong,so the U.S. changed from ADVISOR to

  • 1960s The Vietnam War
  • A. History
  • 1. Eisenhower military weapons and
    economic help to South Vietnam
  • 2. Kennedy sent military advisors to SV
  • 3. Johnson Sent only non-combat troops
  • B. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  • 1. August 1964--two U.S. ships attacked off
  • coast of North Vietnam
  • 2. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution--the right to
    take all necessary steps to protect American
    forces in Vietnam
  • 3. Johnson used it to increase troops
  • 4. By 1966, there were 400,000 troops there
  • 5. U.S. starts aerial bombs
  • 6. Congress never declared war

  • C. Viet Cong reeked havoc in south
  • 1. they were easily defeated
  • 2. however, they were replenished by North
  • Vietnamese
  • D. 1968--Obvious the war would last long and we
  • might not win
  • 1. Johnson stops bombing North Vietnam
  • 2. Sets up meeting
  • a. North Vietnam
  • b. South Vietnam
  • c. the United States
  • 3. Meeting held in Paris, France in 1968
  • 4. Meeting did little to end the war

  • The Tet Offensive
  • A. Tet is the Vietnamese New Year
  • 1. They launched surprise attack
  • 2. they did not win the battle militarily
  • 3. this surprise attack made Americans
    further question why we were in Vietnam

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  • 1970s The Politics of Protest
  • A. People wondered why we were in Vietnam
  • 1. reports of large U.S. victory
  • 2. same day, reports of U.S. loss
  • 3. T.V. brought home the horrors of war
  • 4. people didnt know who to believe
  • 5. anti-war movement became more vocal
  • 6. U.S. government spent too much on war and not
    enough on domestic problems protest

Award winning PhotographOfficer shoots man (An
execution of a Vietcong prisoner) February 1, 1968
  • Leaving Vietnam
  • A. Jan. 27, 1973--cease-fire between N. Vietnam
    and United States.
  • 1. U.S. agreed to take all troops out of SV
  • 2. NV agreed to release all POWs
  • B. Vietnamization did not work
  • 1. South Vietnam was too weak
  • 2. they could not stand alone
  • 3. army fell apart
  • 4. Communist NV took over SV in April of 1975

  • Summary of the Vietnam War
  • A. longest war in U.S. history up to that point
  • B. 58,000 Americans killed 365,000 were wounded
  • C. Total cost was 150 billion
  • D. The war lessened U.S citizens respect for
    their government
  • E. The war caused confusion about the nations
    role in world affairs
  • F. War Powers Act passed--requires the President
  • to explain to Congress within 48 hours
  • whenever American troops were to be sent
  • into a foreign country

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OGT Multiple Choice
  • As a result of the 1954 Geneva conference,
  • A. was returned to French control.
  • B. was turned over to the control of Ho Chi
  • C. was divided into a northern Communist section
    and a southern free section.
  • D. was occupied by a United Nations peacekeeping

OGT Multiple Choice
  • These 2 countries were west of Vietnam and were a
    part of Indochina.
  • A. China and Hong Kong
  • B. Japan and Korea
  • C. Laos and Cambodia
  • D. Manchuria and Singapore

OGT Multiple Choice
  • As a result of their defeat in the battle of
    Dienbienphu, the
  • A. Russians withdrew from Austria
  • B. United States withdrew from Egypt
  • C. Japanese withdrew from Taiwan
  • D. French withdrew from Vietnam

OGT Multiple Choice
  • Which is true about the Tet Offensive?
  • A. The battle was not a surprise to the United
  • B. The attack was a military victory by the
  • C. The attack made Americans further question
    why we were in Vietnam.
  • D. The attack was not made on a Vietnamese

OGT Multiple Choice
  • He was a Vietnamese Communist who led the Viet
    Minh troops to victory. He was
  • A. Bao-Dai
  • B. Ho Chi Minh
  • C. Mao Zedong
  • D. Mossadegh

OGT Multiple Choice
  • The leader of South Vietnam who was overthrown in
    1963 was
  • A. Ngo Dinh Diem
  • B. Mao Tse-tung
  • C. Viet Minh
  • D. Ho Chi Minh

OGT Multiple Choice
  • There was a major shift in American public
    opinion against the Vietnam War as a result of
  • A. the Tonkin Gulf Resolution
  • B. sending U.S. advisors to help the South
    Vietnamese army
  • C. the 1968 Tet Offensive
  • D. the 1965 peace offensive

OGT Multiple Choice
  • (The incident that prompted Congress to pass the
    Tonkin Gulf Resolution was
  • A. the first American bombing raids against
    North Vietnam
  • B. the assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem
  • C. the invasion of South Vietnam by the North
  • D. an attack by North Vietnamese gunboats on two
    U.S. destroyers

OGT Multiple Choice
  • In regard to Vietnam in the 1950s, the United
  • A. supported the existing government
  • B. declared its neutrality
  • C. sent American forces to put down guerrilla
  • D. sent millions of dollars to aid France

OGT Short Answer
  • (2005 Practice Test) During times of war or
    perceived danger to the United States, groups of
    Americans have been singled out as potentially
    disloyal to the country. For example, during
    World War I, patriotic support for the war led to
    a distrust and persecution of German-Americans.
    In some places, German language instruction was
    forbidden, and German culture and heritage were
    subject to discrimination.
  • Identify a group of Americans that was targeted
    as potentially disloyal in the years between 1940
    and 1985. (1 point)
  • Explain why this group was targeted. (1 point)